33 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Adenosine triphosphate, Anti-mitochondrial antibody, Anti-nuclear antibody, Ataxia, Autoantibody, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune hepatitis, Azotobacter vinelandii, Cellular respiration, Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, Citric acid cycle, Coenzyme A, Crista, Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, Electron transport chain, Enterococcus faecalis, Enzyme, Epitope, Gene, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Glycolysis, Hypotonia, Lactic acidosis, List of enzymes, Oxidative phosphorylation, Primary biliary cholangitis, Pyruvate decarboxylation, Pyruvate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, Pyruvic acid, Thiamine pyrophosphate.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria, primarily the mitochondria in cells of the liver.
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmune hepatitis, formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed.
Azotobacter vinelandii is Gram-negative diazotroph that can fix nitrogen while grown aerobically.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (or CAT) is a bacterial enzyme that detoxifies the antibiotic chloramphenicol and is responsible for chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
A crista (plural cristae) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), also known as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DLD gene.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Enterococcus faecalis – formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system – is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Geobacillus stearothermophilus (basonym Bacillus stearothermophilus) is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium and a member of the division Firmicutes.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Hypotonia, commonly known as floppy baby syndrome, is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.
Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream.
This page lists enzymes by their classification in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology's Enzyme Commission numbering system.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver.
Pyruvate decarboxylation or pyruvate oxidation is the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA (activated acetate) by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase is the first component enzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (also known as pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency or PDCD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders associated with abnormal mitochondrial metabolism.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP or ThPP), or thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), or cocarboxylase is a thiamine (vitamin B1) derivative which is produced by the enzyme thiamine diphosphokinase.