217 relations: Acne, Adipose tissue, Adolf Butenandt, Adrenal gland, Adrenal steroid, Adverse effect, Agonist, Allopregnanolone, Allosteric modulator, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Androgen-dependent condition, Androisoxazole, Androstane, Androstanolone, Androstanolone benzoate, Androstanolone enanthate, Androstanolone propionate, Androstanolone valerate, Androsterone, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Aromatase, Aromatization, Axilla, Azine, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Bicyclic molecule, Binding selectivity, Bioassay, Biological activity, Biological half-life, Biosynthesis, Biotransformation, Birth defect, Body hair, Bolazine, Brain, Breast development, Buccal administration, Canada, Central nervous system, Chemical synthesis, Chest hair, Circulatory system, Clitoris, Cryptorchidism, ..., Depression (mood), Derivative (chemistry), Desoxymethyltestosterone, Development of the gonads, Dihydrotestosterone acetate, Dihydrotestosterone butyrate, Dihydrotestosterone formate, Dimer (chemistry), Dissociation rate, Dosage form, Double bond, Drostanolone, Dutasteride, EC50, Embryogenesis, Endocrine system, Endogeny (biology), Enzyme, Epiandrosterone, Epidermis, Epididymis, Epitiostanol, Erectile dysfunction, Erection, Ester, Estradiol, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor beta, Ether, Europe, Excretion, Facial hair, Feminization (biology), Fetus, Finasteride, First pass effect, Furan, Furazabol, GABAA receptor, Gel, Gender identity, Gene, Glucuronidation, Gynecomastia, Hair follicle, Hedonism, Hirsutism, Hoarse voice, Human hair growth, Human musculoskeletal system, Human serum albumin, Hydrogenation, Hydroxy group, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypogonadism, Hypospermia, Injection (medicine), Intersex, Intracrine, Intramuscular injection, Isoxazole, Ketone, Kidney, Labia, Labia majora, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Mebolazine, Medication, Medicine, Menstruation, Mepitiostane, Mesabolone, Mestanolone, Mesterolone, Metabolite, Metenolone, Methasterone, Methyl-1-testosterone, Methylepitiostanol, Methylstenbolone, Micropenis, MK-386, Mood disorder, Muscle, Mutation, Natural product, Neurosteroid, Nootropic, Oil, Oligospermia, Oral administration, Organic compound, Oxandrolone, Oxymetholone, Paracrine signalling, Pattern hair loss, Penis, People of the Dominican Republic, Phallus, Plasma protein binding, Potency (pharmacology), Pregnancy, Prodrug, Progesterone, Prostanozol, Prostate, Prostate cancer, Protein isoform, Pseudohermaphroditism, Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias, Puberty, Pubic hair, Pyrazole, Redox, Reversible reaction, Reward system, Scalp, Scrotum, Sebaceous gland, Secondary sex characteristic, Secretion, Self-harm, Seminal vesicle, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Sex organ, Sex steroid, Sexual differentiation, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual orientation, Skin, Spermatogenesis, SRD5A1, SRD5A2, SRD5A3, Stanozolol, Stenbolone, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Stress management, Sublingual administration, Sulfation, Sweat gland, Tablet (pharmacy), Terminal hair, Testicle, Testosterone, Tissue (biology), Tolerability, Topical medication, Transcortin, Transdermal, Undervirilization, United States, Urine, Vagina, 1-Testosterone, 17α-Alkylated anabolic steroid, 3α-Androstanediol, 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-Androstanediol, 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 5α-Reductase, 5α-Reductase deficiency, 5α-Reductase inhibitor. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal steroids are steroids that are derived from the adrenal glands.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
An androgen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on, or is sensitive to, the presence of androgenic activity in the body.
Androisoxazole (brand names Androxan, Neo-Ponden, Neo-Pondus), also known as 17α-methyl-5α-androstanoisoxazol-17β-ol, is an orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) that is marketed in Spain and Italy.
Androstane is a C19 steroid with a gonane core.
Androstanolone, or stanolone, also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sold under the brand name Andractim among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication and hormone which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men.
Androstanolone benzoate (brand names Ermalone-Amp, Hermalone, Sarcosan), also known as stanolone benzoate or dihydrotestosterone benzoate (DHTB), as well as 5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one 17β-benzoate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a dihydrotestosterone ester.
Androstanolone enanthate (brand name Anaboleen Depot), also known as stanolone enanthate or dihydrotestosterone heptanoate (DHTH), as well as 5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one 17β-heptanoate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a dihydrotestosterone ester.
Androstanolone propionate (brand name Pesomax), also known as stanolone propionate or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP), as well as 5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one 17β-propionate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a dihydrotestosterone ester that is marketed in Italy.
Androstanolone valerate (brand name Apeton), also known as stanolone valerate or dihydrotestosterone pentanoate, as well as 5α-androstan-17β-3-one 17β-valerate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a dihydrotestosterone ester.
Androsterone, or 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one, is an endogenous steroid hormone, neurosteroid, and putative pheromone.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.
Azines are a functional class of organic compounds with the connectivity RR'C.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
A bicyclic molecule (bi.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Bolazine, also known as 2α-methyl-5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one azine, is a synthetic androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was never marketed.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Breast development, also known as mammogenesis, is a complex biological process in primates that takes place throughout a female's life.
Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chest hair is hair that grows on the chest of a person in the region between the neck and the abdomen.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Desoxymethyltestosterone (DMT), known by the nicknames Madol and Pheraplex, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-methylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which was never marketed for medical use.
The development of the gonads is part of the prenatal development of the reproductive system and ultimately forms the testes in males and the ovaries in females.
Dihydrotestosterone acetate, also known as androstanolone acetate or stanolone acetate, as well as 5α-dihydrotestosterone 17β-acetate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a dihydrotestosterone ester that was never marketed.
Dihydrotestosterone butyrate, also known as androstanolone butyrate or stanolone butyrate, as well as 5α-dihydrotestosterone 17β-butanoate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a dihydrotestosterone ester that was never marketed.
Dihydrotestosterone formate, also known as androstanolone formate or stanolone formate, as well as 5α-dihydrotestosterone 17β-formate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a dihydrotestosterone ester that was never marketed.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
The dissociation rate in chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology is the rate or speed at which a ligand dissociates from a protein, for instance, a receptor.
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Drostanolone, or dromostanolone, is an anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was never marketed.
Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.
Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) refers to the concentration of a drug, antibody or toxicant which induces a response halfway between the baseline and maximum after a specified exposure time.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epiandrosterone, or isoandrosterone, also known as 3β-androsterone, 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one, or 5α-androstan-3β-ol-17-one, is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic activity.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
Epitiostanol, sold under the brand name Thiodrol, is an injected antiestrogen and anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was described in the literature in 1965 and has been marketed in Japan as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of breast cancer since 1977.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region.
In biology and medicine, feminization is the development in an organism of physical characteristics that are usually unique to the female of the species.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
Furazabol (brand names Frazalon, Miotalon, Qu Zhi Shu), also known as androfurazanol, is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid which has been marketed in Japan since 1969.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
The growth of human hair occurs everywhere on the body except for the soles of the feet, the lips, palms of the hands, some external genital areas, the navel, scar tissue, and, apart from eyelashes, the eyelids.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypospermia is a condition in which a man has an unusually low ejaculate (or semen) volume, less than 1.5 ml.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Isoxazole is an azole with an oxygen atom next to the nitrogen.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva.
The labia majora (singular: labium majus) are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Mebolazine (brand names Dostalon and Roxilon; also known as dimethazine, dymethazine, di(methasterone) azine, or 2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one azine) is a synthetic, orally active androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-alkylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which is no longer marketed.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Mepitiostane, sold under the brand name Thioderon, is an orally active antiestrogen and anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which is marketed in Japan as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
Mesabolone, also known as 1-testosterone 17β-methoxycyclopentyl ether, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) that was never marketed.
Mestanolone, also known as methylandrostanolone and sold under the brand names Androstalone and Ermalone among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is mostly no longer used.
Mesterolone, sold under the brand name Proviron among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used mainly in the treatment of low testosterone levels.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Metenolone, or methenolone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as metenolone acetate (brand name Primobolan, Nibal) and metenolone enanthate (brand name Primobolan Depot, Nibal Injection).
Methasterone, also known as methyldrostanolone and known by the nickname Superdrol, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed for medical use.
Methyl-1-testosterone (M1T; developmental code name SC-11195), also known as 17α-methyl-4,5α-dihydro-δ1-testosterone (17α-methyl-δ1-DHT) or 17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one, as well as methyldihydroboldenone, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) which was never marketed for medical use.
Methylepitiostanol, known by the nicknames Epistane, Hemapolin, Havoc, and Epi Plex, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was first described in the literature in 1974 but was never marketed for medical use.
Methylstenbolone, known by the nicknames M-Sten, Methyl-Sten, and Ultradrol, is a synthetic and orally active anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a 17α-methylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which was never introduced for medical use.
Micropenis is an unusually small penis.
MK-386, also known as 4,7β-dimethyl-4-aza-5α-cholestan-3-one, is a synthetic, steroidal 5α-reductase inhibitor which was first reported in 1994 and was never marketed.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Terms oligospermia and oligozoospermia refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.
Oxymetholone, sold under the brand names Anadrol and Anapolon among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used primarily in the treatment of anemia.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Pattern hair loss, known as male-pattern hair loss (MPHL) when it affects males and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) when it affects females, is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
Dominicans (Dominicanos) are people who are ethnically associated with the Dominican Republic.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Prostanozol, also known as demethylstanozolol tetrahydropyran ether, is an androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) and designer steroid which acts as a prodrug of the 17α-demethylated analogue of stanozolol (Winstrol).
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Pseudohermaphroditism, or pseudo-hermaphroditism, is an old clinical term for an organism that is born with primary sex characteristics of one sex but develops the secondary sex characteristics that are different from what would be expected on the basis of the gonadal tissue (ovary or testis).
Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias (PPSH) refers to a configuration of the external genitalia of an infant.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans.
Pyrazole is an organic compound with the formula C3H3N2H.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SRD5A1 gene.
3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene.
Steroid 5-alpha-reductase 3, also known as 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 3, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SRD5A3 gene.
Stanozolol, sold under many brand names, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which was derived from dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Stenbolone is an anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) group which was never marketed.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
Terminal hairs are thick, long, and dark, as compared with vellus hair.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tolerability refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
Undervirilization is a medical term describing the state of a male whose body, especially the genitalia, shows evidence of below-normal prenatal (less commonly pubertal) androgen effects.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
1-Testosterone (abbreviated and nicknamed as 1-Testo, 1-T), also known as δ1-dihydrotestosterone (δ1-DHT), as well as dihydroboldenone, is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which was never marketed.
A 17α-alkylated anabolic steroid is a synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) that features an alkyl group, specifically a methyl or ethyl group, at the C17α position.
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD), also known as aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C4 gene.
3β-Androstanediol, also known as 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol, and often shortened to 3β-diol, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone from 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the adrenal gland.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
5α-Reductase deficiency (5-ARD) is an autosomal recessive intersex condition caused by a mutation of the 5α reductase type II gene.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.
17-Hydroxyandrostan-3-one, 17-hydroxyandrostan-3-one, 5a-DHT, 5a-Dihydrotestosterone, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-Androstan-17β-ol-3-one, 5α-DHT, 5α-Dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, Androstan-17β-ol-3-one, Dihydrotestosteron.