251 relations: Abscess, Allosaurus, Anatomical terms of motion, Animatronics, Antorbital fenestra, Articular processes, Atlas (anatomy), Averostra, Axis (anatomy), Świętokrzyskie Mountains, Baryonyx, Basal (phylogenetics), Berm, Biological ornament, Bone tumor, Brown bear, Caecilia, Calcaneus, Callosity, Calsoyasuchus, Cameron, Arizona, Carnosauria, Cassowary, Ceratosauria, Ceratosauridae, Ceratosaurus, Charles Lewis Camp, Chlamydosaurus, Cladistics, Cladogram, Coelophysidae, Coelophysis, Coelophysis kayentakatae, Coelophysoidea, Coelurosauria, Combinatio nova, Common ostrich, Computer-generated imagery, Connecticut, Convergent evolution, Coprolite, Coracoid, Cranial kinesis, Crocodile, Crocodylomorpha, Crown (tooth), Cryolophosaurus, Dactyly, Darren Naish, Death pose, ..., Dental alveolus, Diastema, Dilophosauridae, Dinnebitodon, Dinosaur, Dinosaur State Park and Arboretum, Display (zoology), Down feather, Dracovenator, Early Jurassic, Eocaecilia, Eopneumatosuchus, Eubrontes, Evolutionary pressure, Facies, Femur, Flash flood, Flood, Fluctuating asymmetry, Foramen, Foramen magnum, Gavialidae, Genus, Glen Canyon Group, Glossary of leaf morphology, Grallator, Greater trochanter, Gregory S. Paul, Gums, Haramiyida, Höganäs Formation, Heterodontosauridae, Histology, Holotype, Humerus, Hybodontidae, Ichnotaxon, Iliac crest, Ilium (bone), Infratemporal fenestra, Interdental plate, Interstate 91, Intra-species recognition, Ischium, Jack Horner (paleontologist), James I. Kirkland, Jugal bone, Jurassic Park (film), Jurassic Park (novel), Juvenile (organism), Kangaroo, Kayenta Formation, Kayentachelys, Kayentasuchus, Kayentatherium, Kayentavenator, Kevin Padian, Komodo dragon, Lacrimal bone, Lake, Late Triassic, Ligament, Liliensternus, List of cloned animals in the Jurassic Park series, List of Connecticut state parks, List of U.S. state dinosaurs, List of U.S. state fossils, Lower Lufeng Series, Lungfish, Magnetostratigraphy, Making-of, Maltese cross, Mandible, Mandibular symphysis, Massospondylus, Maxilla, Meckelian groove, Megalosauroidea, Megalosaurus, Metacarpal bones, Metatarsal bones, Michael Crichton, Middle Jurassic, Moenave Formation, Monolophosaurus, Morganucodonta, Museum of Northern Arizona, Nasal bone, Native Americans in the United States, Navajo, Navajo County, Arizona, Navajo Nation, Navajo Sandstone, Neotheropoda, Neurocranium, Nomen nudum, Northern Arizona, Occipital condyles, Olecranon, Oligokyphus, Ontogeny, Opisthotonus, Orbit (anatomy), Orionides, Ossification, Osteichthyes, Osteochondrodysplasia, Osteology, Ostracod, Paleopathology, Peduncle (anatomy), Petrified wood, Phalanx bone, Plateosaurus, Pliensbachian, Poland, Polyphyodont, Prefrontal bone, Premaxilla, Prosalirus, Protosuchus, Pterosaur, Pubis (bone), Pus, Quadrate bone, Radiometric dating, Radius (bone), Ralph Molnar, Ratite, Relief, Rhamphinion, Rhynchocephalia, Robert J. Gay, Robert T. Bakker, Rocky Hill, Connecticut, Rosette (design), Royal Ontario Museum, Sacrum, Samuel Paul Welles, Sandstone, Sarahsaurus, Sauropodomorpha, Sauropus (ichnogenus), Scapula, Scelidosaurus, Scott D. Sampson, Scutellosaurus, Sediment, Sedimentology, Serration, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual maturity, Sexual selection, Shale, Sigmoid function, Siltstone, Sinemurian, Sinosaurus, Sister group, Skull, Sonorasaurus, Specific name (zoology), Spinosauridae, St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site, Stan Winston, Steven Spielberg, Stress fracture, Sulcus (morphology), Suprangular, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Synapsid, Talus bone, Taphonomy, Taxon, Tetanurae, Therapsid, Thermoregulation, Theropod paleopathology, Theropoda, Thin section, Thomas R. Holtz Jr., Tibia, Toe, Tooth enamel, Trace fossil, Trackway, Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, Tritylodontidae, Tuba City, Arizona, Tuberosity of the tibia, Turners Falls Formation, Ulna, University of California Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley, Velociraptor, Vertebrate, Vestigiality, Wann Langston Jr., Wastebasket taxon, Yunnan, Zupaysaurus. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Allosaurus is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to early TithonianTurner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). "Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A." Pp. 77–114 in Gillette, D.D. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.). The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard" alluding to its unique concave vertebrae (at the time of its discovery).
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.
Animatronics refers to the use of robotic devices to emulate a human or an animal, or bring lifelike characteristics to an otherwise inanimate object.
An antorbital fenestra (plural: fenestrae) is an opening in the skull that is in front of the eye sockets.
The articular processes or zygapophyses (Greek ζυγον.
In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine.
Averostra, or "bird snouts", is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs that have a promaxillary fenestra (fenestra promaxillaris), an extra opening in the front outer side of the maxilla, the bone that makes up the upper jaw.
In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis (from Latin axis, "axle") or epistropheus.
The Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Góry Świętokrzyskie,, Holy Cross Mountains) are a mountain range in central Poland, near the city of Kielce.
Baryonyx is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in the Barremian stage of the early Cretaceous Period, about 130–125 million years ago.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
A berm is a level space, shelf, or raised barrier (usually made of compacted soil) separating two areas.
A biological ornament is a characteristic of an animal that appears to serve a decorative function rather than a utilitarian function.
A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
Caecilia is a genus of amphibians in the family Caeciliidae.
In humans, the calcaneus (from the Latin calcaneus or calcaneum, meaning heel) or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitutes the heel.
A callosity is another name for callus, a piece of skin that has become thickened as a result of repeated contact and friction.
Calsoyasuchus (meaning " Calsoyas' crocodile") is a genus of goniopholidid mesoeucrocodylian that lived in the Early Jurassic.
Cameron (Naʼníʼá Hasání) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Coconino County, Arizona, United States.
Carnosauria is a large group of predatory dinosaurs that lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
Cassowaries, genus Casuarius, are ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) that are native to the tropical forests of New Guinea (Papua New Guinea and Indonesia), nearby islands, and northeastern Australia.
Ceratosaurs are members of a group of theropod dinosaurs defined as all theropods sharing a more recent common ancestry with Ceratosaurus than with birds.
Ceratosauridae is a family of theropod dinosaurs belonging to the infraorder Ceratosauria.
Ceratosaurus (from Greek κέρας/κέρατος, keras/keratos meaning "horn" and σαῦρος/sauros meaning "lizard") was a predatory theropod dinosaur in the Late Jurassic Period (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian).
Charles Lewis Camp (March 12, 1893 Jamestown, North Dakota – August 14, 1975 San Jose, California) was a palaeontologist and zoologist, working from the University of California, Berkeley.
The frilled-necked lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii), also known as the frilled lizard, frilled dragon or frilled agama, is a species of lizard which is found mainly in northern Australia and southern New Guinea.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Coelophysidae is a family of primitive carnivorous theropod dinosaurs.
Coelophysis is an extinct genus of coelophysid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 203 to 196 million years ago during the latter part of the Triassic Period in what is now the southwestern United States and also in South Africa and Zimbabwe.
Coelophysis kayentakatae is an extinct species of coelophysid dinosaur that lived approximately 196 million years ago during the early part of the Jurassic Period in what is now the southwestern United States.
Coelophysoids were common dinosaurs of the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic periods.
Coelurosauria (from Greek, meaning "hollow tailed lizards") is the clade containing all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs. Coelurosauria is a subgroup of theropod dinosaurs that includes compsognathids, tyrannosaurs, ornithomimosaurs, and maniraptorans; Maniraptora includes birds, the only dinosaur group alive today. Most feathered dinosaurs discovered so far have been coelurosaurs. Philip J. Currie considers it probable that all coelurosaurs were feathered. In the past, Coelurosauria was used to refer to all small theropods, this classification has since been abolished.
Combinatio nova, abbreviated comb.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
A coprolite is fossilized feces.
A coracoid is a paired bone which is part of the shoulder assembly in all vertebrates except therian mammals (therians.
Cranial kinesis is the term for significant movement of skull bones relative to each other in addition to movement at the joint between the upper and lower jaw.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives.
In dentistry, crown refers to the anatomical area of teeth, usually covered by enamel.
Cryolophosaurus (or; "CRY-oh-loaf-oh-SAWR-us") is a genus of large theropods known from only a single species Cryolophosaurus ellioti, known from the early Jurassic period of Antarctica.
In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of a tetrapod animal.
Darren Naish is a British vertebrate palaeontologist and science writer.
Dinosaur and bird fossils are frequently found in a characteristic posture consisting of head thrown back, tail extended, and mouth wide open.
Dental alveoli (singular alveolus) are sockets in the jaws in which the roots of teeth are held in the alveolar process with the periodontal ligament.
A diastema (plural diastemata) is a space or gap between two teeth.
Dilophosauridae is a family of medium to large sized theropod dinosaursHendrickx, C., Hartman, S.A., & Mateus, O. (2015).
Dinnebitodon is an extinct genus of advanced herbivorous cynodonts of the early Jurassic period.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Dinosaur State Park and Arboretum is a state-owned natural history preserve occupying in the town of Rocky Hill, Connecticut.
Display is a form of animal behaviour, connected to sexual selection and survival of the species in various ways.
The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers.
Dracovenator is an extinct genus of dilophosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 201 to 199 million years ago during the early part of the Jurassic Period in what is now South Africa.
The Early Jurassic epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the Lower Jurassic series) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic period.
Eocaecilia is an extinct genus of gymnophionan amphibian from the early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona, United States.
Eopneumatosuchus is an extinct genus of basal crocodyliform.
Eubrontes (Hitchcock, 1845) is the name of fossilised dinosaur footprints dating from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic.
Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.
In geology, a facies (pronounced variously as, or; plural also 'facies') is a body of rock with specified characteristics, which can be any observable attribute of rocks such as their overall appearance, composition, or condition of formation, and the changes that may occur in those attributes over a geographic area.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
As a form of biological asymmetry, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), along with anti-symmetry and direction asymmetry, refers to small, random deviations away from perfect bilateral symmetry.
In anatomy, a foramen (pl. foramina) is any opening.
The foramen magnum (great hole) is a large oval opening (foramen) in the occipital bone of the skull in humans and various other animals.
Gavialidae is a family of reptiles within the order Crocodilia.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The Glen Canyon Group is a geologic group of formations that is spread across the U.S. states of Nevada, Utah, northern Arizona, north west New Mexico and western Colorado.
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants.
Grallator is an ichnogenus (form taxon based on footprints) which covers a common type of small, three-toed print made by a variety of bipedal theropod dinosaurs.
The greater trochanter (great trochanter) of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system.
Gregory Scott Paul (born December 24, 1954) is an American freelance researcher, author and illustrator who works in paleontology, and more recently has examined sociology and theology.
The gums or gingiva (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.
Haramiyidans are a long lived lineage of mammaliaform cynodonts.
The Höganäs Formation is a Mesozoic geologic formation in Skåne, Sweden.
Heterodontosauridae is a family of early ornithischian dinosaurs that were likely among the most basal (primitive) members of the group.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
The humerus (plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
Hybodontidae is an extinct family of sharks, first appearing in the Mississippian period, and disappearing during the Miocene.
An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as "a taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism", that is, the non-human equivalent of an artifact.
The crest of the ilium (or iliac crest) is the superior border of the wing of ilium and the superolateral margin of the greater pelvis.
The ilium (plural ilia) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
An infratemporal fenestra, also called the lateral temporal fenestra is an opening in the skull behind the orbit in some animals.
The interdental plate refers to the bone-filled mesial-distal region between the teeth.
Interstate 91 (I-91) is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States.
Intra-species recognition is the recognition by a member of a species of a conspecific (another member of the same species).
The ischium forms the lower and back part of the hip bone (os coxae).
John R. "Jack" Horner (born June 15, 1946) is an American paleontologist most famous for discovering and naming Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that some dinosaurs cared for their young.
James Ian Kirkland (born August 24, 1954) is an American paleontologist and geologist.
The jugal is a skull bone found in most reptiles, amphibians and birds.
Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science-fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen.
Jurassic Park is a 1990 science fiction novel written by Michael Crichton, divided into seven sections (iterations).
A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size.
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").
Kayenta, Arizona is a settlement in the Navajo reservation. The Kayenta Formation is a geologic layer in the Glen Canyon Group that is spread across the Colorado Plateau province of the United States, including northern Arizona, northwest Colorado, Nevada, and Utah.
Kayentachelys ("Kayenta turtle") is an extinct genus of turtle known only from the "silty facies" of the Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation in northeastern Arizona on the lands of the Navajo Nation.
Kayentasuchus (meaning "Kayenta Formation crocodile") is a genus of sphenosuchian, a type of basal crocodylomorph, the clade that comprises the crocodilians and their closest kin.
Kayentatherium is an extinct genus of tritylodontid cynodonts that lived during the Early Jurassic.
Kayentavenator (meaning "Kayenta hunter") is a small carnivorous dinosaur genus which lived during the Early Jurassic Period; fossils were recovered from the Kayenta Formation of northeastern Arizona and were described in 2010.
Kevin Padian (born 1951) is a Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, Curator of Paleontology, University of California Museum of Paleontology and President of the National Center for Science Education.
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.
The lacrimal bone is the smallest and most fragile bone of the skull and face; it is roughly the size of the little fingernail.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
The Late Triassic is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic Period in the geologic timescale.
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.
Liliensternus is an extinct genus of basal Neotheropod dinosaur that lived approximately 210 million years ago during the latter part of the Triassic Period in what is now Germany.
This list of cloned animals in the Jurassic Park series enumerates all the cloned animals which have appeared in the ''Jurassic Park'' films or the two novels by Michael Crichton that the films are based on.
This is a list of state parks and reserves in the Connecticut state park system, shown in four tables.
This is a list of U.S. state dinosaurs in the United States, including the District of Columbia.
Most American states have made a state fossil designation, in many cases during the 1980s.
The Lower Lufeng Series (or Lower Lufeng Formation) is a Lower Jurassic sedimentary rock formation found in Yunnan, China.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.
In cinema, a making-of, also known as behind-the-scenes, the set or on the set is a documentary film that features the production of a film or television program.
The Maltese cross is the cross symbol associated with the Order of St. John since 1567, with the Knights Hospitaller and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and by extension with the island of Malta.
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.
In the facial skeleton of the skull the external surface of the mandible is marked in the median line by a faint ridge, indicating the mandibular symphysis, or symphysis menti, or line of junction where the two lateral halves of the mandible fused at an early period of life.
Massospondylus (from Greek, μάσσων (massōn, "longer") and σπόνδυλος (spondylos, "vertebra")) is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic Period (Hettangian to Pliensbachian ages, ca. 200–183 million years ago).
The maxilla (plural: maxillae) in animals is the upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.
The Meckelian groove (or Meckel's groove, Meckelian fossa, or Meckelian foramen, or Meckelian canal) is an opening in the medial (inner) surface of the mandible (lower jaw) which exposes the Meckelian cartilage.
Megalosauroidea (meaning 'great/big lizard forms') is a superfamily (or clade) of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous period.
Megalosaurus (meaning "Great Lizard", from Greek μέγας, megas, meaning 'big', 'tall' or 'great' and σαῦρος, sauros, meaning 'lizard') is a genus of large meat-eating theropod dinosaurs of the Middle Jurassic period (Bathonian stage, 166 million years ago) of Southern England.
In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm.
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.
John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.
The Middle Jurassic is the second epoch of the Jurassic Period.
The Moenave Formation is a Mesozoic geologic formation, in the Glen Canyon Group.
Monolophosaurus (meaning "single-crested lizard") is a genus of tetanuran theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in what is now Xinjiang, China.
Morganucodonta ("Glamorgan teeth") is an extinct order of basal mammaliaformes, the precursors to crown-group mammals (Mammalia).
The Museum of Northern Arizona is a museum in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States, that was established as a repository for Native American artifacts and natural history specimens from the Colorado Plateau.
The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
Navajo County is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Arizona.
The Navajo Nation (Naabeehó Bináhásdzo) is a Native American territory covering about, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, and northwestern New Mexico in the United States.
Navajo Sandstone is a geological formation in the Glen Canyon Group that is spread across the U.S. states of southern Nevada, northern Arizona, northwest Colorado, and Utah as part of the Colorado Plateau province of the United States.
Neotheropoda (meaning "new theropods") is a clade that includes coelophysoids and more advanced theropod dinosaurs, and the only group of theropods who survived the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event.
In human anatomy, the neurocranium, also known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull, which forms a protective case around the brain.
The phrase nomen nudum (plural nomina nuda) is a Latin term, meaning "naked name", used in taxonomy (especially in zoological and botanical nomenclature).
Northern Arizona is an unofficial, colloquially-defined region of the U.S. state of Arizona.
The occipital condyles are undersurface protuberances of the occipital bone in vertebrates, which function in articulation with the superior facets of the atlas vertebra.
The olecranon from the Greek olene meaning elbow and kranon meaning head is the large, thick, curved bony eminence of the ulna, a long bone in the forearm that projects behind the elbow.
Oligokyphus is an extinct genus of advanced herbivorous cynodonts of the late Triassic to early Jurassic periods.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
Opisthotonus or opisthotonos, from Greek roots, ὄπισθεν, opisthen meaning "behind" and τόνος tonos meaning "tension", is a state of severe hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual's head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete "bridging" or "arching" position.
In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.
Orionides is a clade of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs from the Middle Jurassic to the Present.
Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
Osteochondrodysplasia or skeletal dysplasia is a general term for a disorder of the development (dysplasia) of bone ("osteo") and cartilage ("chondro").
Osteology is the scientific study of bones, practiced by osteologists.
Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.
Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases.
A peduncle is an elongated stalk of tissue.
Petrified wood (from the Greek root petro meaning "rock" or "stone"; literally "wood turned into stone") is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation.
The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.
Plateosaurus (probably meaning "broad lizard", often mistranslated as "flat lizard") is a genus of plateosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Late Triassic period, around 214 to 204 million years ago, in what is now Central and Northern Europe.
The Pliensbachian is an age of the geologic timescale or stage in the stratigraphic column.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A polyphyodont is any animal whose teeth are continually replaced.
The prefrontal bone is a bone separating the lacrimal and frontal bones in many tetrapod skulls.
The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth.
Prosalirus bitis is the name given to a fossilized prehistoric frog found in Arizona in 1981 by Farish Jenkins.
Protosuchus is an extinct genus of carnivorous crocodylomorph from the Early Jurassic.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
The quadrate bone is part of a skull in most tetrapods, including amphibians, sauropsids (reptiles, birds), and early synapsids.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.
Ralph E. Molnar is a paleontologist who had been Curator of Mammals at the Queensland Museum and more recently associated with the Museum of Northern Arizona.
A ratite is any of a diverse group of flightless and mostly large and long-legged birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Rhamphinion (meaning "beak nape"; Greek rhamphos, "beak" is a common part of "rhamphorhynchoid" names, and the remains of this animal came from the rear of the skull, i.e. "nape" or inion) is a genus of pterosaurs from the Sinemurian-mid Pliensbachian-age Lower Jurassic Kayenta Formation of northeastern Arizona, United States.
Rhynchocephalia is an order of lizard-like reptiles that includes only one living species of tuatara, which in turn has two subspecies (Sphenodon punctatus punctatus and Sphenodon punctatus guntheri), which only inhabit parts of New Zealand.
Robert Joseph Gay is an American Paleontologist known for his work in the Chinle and Kayenta Formations in the southwest United States.
Robert Thomas Bakker (born March 24, 1945) is an American paleontologist who helped reshape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were endothermic (warm-blooded).
Rocky Hill is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States.
A rosette is a round, stylized flower design.
The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, Musée royal de l'Ontario) is a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
Samuel Paul Welles (November 9, 1907 – August 6, 1997) was an American palaeontologist.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sarahsaurus is a genus of basal sauropodomorph dinosaur which lived during the lower Jurassic period in what is now northeastern Arizona, United States.
Sauropodomorpha (from Greek, meaning "lizard-footed forms") is an extinct clade of long-necked, herbivorous, saurischian dinosaurs that includes the sauropods and their ancestral relatives.
Sauropus is a dinosaur imprint.
In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
Scelidosaurus (with the intended meaning of "limb lizard", from Greek skelis/σκελίς meaning 'rib of beef' and sauros/σαυρος meaning 'lizard')Liddell & Scott (1980).
Scott Donald Sampson (born April 22, 1961) is a Canadian paleontologist and science communicator.
Scutellosaurus is an extinct genus of thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur that lived approximately 196 million years ago during the early part of the Jurassic Period in what is now Arizona, USA.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.
Serration generally refers to a saw-like appearance or a row of sharp or tooth-like projections.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
A sigmoid function is a mathematical function having a characteristic "S"-shaped curve or sigmoid curve.
Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones.
In the geologic timescale, the Sinemurian is an age or stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series.
Sinosaurus (meaning "Chinese lizard") was a tetanuran theropod dinosaur which lived during the Early Jurassic Period.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Sonorasaurus is a genus of brachiosaurid dinosaur from the middle Cretaceous (Albian to Cenomanian stages, around 112 to 93 million years ago).
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species (a binomen).
Spinosauridae (meaning 'spined lizards') is a family of megalosauroidean theropod dinosaurs.
Stanley "Stan" Winston (April 7, 1946 – June 15, 2008) was an American television and film special make-up effects creator.
Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946) is an American filmmaker.
Stress fracture is a fatigue-induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress over time.
The term sulcus (pl. sulci) is a general descriptive term for a furrow or fissure.
The suprangular or surangular is a jaw bone found in most land vertebrates, except mammals.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.
The talus (Latin for ankle), talus bone, astragalus, or ankle bone is one of the group of foot bones known as the tarsus.
Taphonomy is the study of how organisms decay and become fossilized.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Tetanurae (/ˌtɛtəˈnjuːriː/ or "stiff tails") is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs, including tyrannosaurids, megalosaurids, ornithomimids, allosaurids, maniraptora, and Aves.
Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Theropod paleopathology is the study of injury and disease in theropod dinosaurs.
Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe.
Thomas Richard Holtz Jr., Ph.D. (born 1965 in Los Angeles) is an American vertebrate palaeontologist and senior lecturer at the University of Maryland's Department of Geology.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
A trace fossil, also ichnofossil (ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), is a geological record of biological activity.
A trackway is an ancient route of travel for people or animals.
The Triassic–Jurassic extinction event marks the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods,, and is one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic eon, profoundly affecting life on land and in the oceans.
Tritylodontidae ("three-knob teeth", named after the shape of animal's teeth) is an extinct family of small to medium-sized, highly specialized mammal-like cynodonts, bearing several mammalian traits like erect limbs, endothermy and details of the skeleton.
Tuba City (Tó Naneesdizí) is an unincorporated town in Coconino County, Arizona, on Navajo lands, in the United States.
The tuberosity of the tibia or tibial tuberosity or tibial tubercle is a large oblong elevation on the proximal, anterior aspect of the tibia, just below where the anterior surfaces of the lateral and medial tibial condyles end.
The Turners Falls Formation is a Mesozoic geologic formation in Massachusetts.
The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.
The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) is a paleontology museum located on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Velociraptor (meaning "swift seizer" in Latin) is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 75 to 71 million years ago during the later part of the Cretaceous Period.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.
Wann Langston Jr. (1921 – April 7, 2013) was an American paleontologist and professor at the University of Texas at Austin.
Wastebasket taxon (also called a wastebin taxon, dustbin taxon or catch-all taxon) is a term used by some taxonomists to refer to a taxon that has the sole purpose of classifying organisms that do not fit anywhere else.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zupaysaurus ("ZOO-pay-SAWR-us") is a genus of early theropod dinosaur living during the Rhaetian stage of the Late Triassic to Hettangian stage of the Early Jurassic of what is now Argentina.