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Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed. 

163 relations: Abelian group, Absolute zero, Acceleration, Action (physics), Affine space, Affine transformation, Algebra, Amount of substance, Amplitude, Angular momentum, Angular velocity, Area, Avogadro constant, Back-of-the-envelope calculation, Base unit (measurement), Basis (linear algebra), Boltzmann constant, Bond duration, Brady Haran, Buckingham π theorem, Celsius, Centimetre, Change of basis, Concentration, Concrete number, Conversion of units, Coulomb's constant, Coulomb's law, Covariance and contravariance of vectors, Cross product, Debt-to-GDP ratio, Density, Dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics, Dimensionless quantity, Displacement (vector), Distance, Division (mathematics), Electric charge, Electric current, Electric dipole moment, Electric field, Electric potential, Elementary charge, Energy, Engineering, Entropic force, Entropy (statistical thermodynamics), Equation, Euler number (physics), Exponential function, ... Expand index (113 more) »

Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.

Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

Acceleration

In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

Action (physics)

In physics, action is an attribute of the dynamics of a physical system from which the equations of motion of the system can be derived.

Affine space

In mathematics, an affine space is a geometric structure that generalizes the properties of Euclidean spaces in such a way that these are independent of the concepts of distance and measure of angles, keeping only the properties related to parallelism and ratio of lengths for parallel line segments.

Affine transformation

In geometry, an affine transformation, affine mapBerger, Marcel (1987), p. 38.

Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

Amount of substance

Amount of substance (symbol for the quantity is 'n') is a standard-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles.

Amplitude

The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).

Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

Angular velocity

In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.

Area

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.

Back-of-the-envelope calculation

A back-of-the-envelope calculation is a rough calculation, typically jotted down on any available scrap of paper such as an envelope.

Base unit (measurement)

A base unit (also referred to as a fundamental unit) is a unit adopted for measurement of a base quantity.

Basis (linear algebra)

In mathematics, a set of elements (vectors) in a vector space V is called a basis, or a set of, if the vectors are linearly independent and every vector in the vector space is a linear combination of this set.

Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

Bond duration

In finance, the duration of a financial asset that consists of fixed cash flows, for example a bond, is the weighted average of the times until those fixed cash flows are received.

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

Buckingham π theorem

In engineering, applied mathematics, and physics, the Buckingham theorem is a key theorem in dimensional analysis.

Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

Centimetre

A centimetre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; symbol cm) or centimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a metre, centi being the SI prefix for a factor of.

Change of basis

In linear algebra, a basis for a vector space of dimension n is a set of n vectors, called basis vectors, with the property that every vector in the space can be expressed as a unique linear combination of the basis vectors.

Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

Concrete number

A concrete number or numerus numeratus is a number associated with the things being counted, in contrast to an abstract number or numerus numerans which is a number as a single entity.

Conversion of units

Conversion of units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative conversion factors.

Coulomb's constant

Coulomb's constant, the electric force constant, or the electrostatic constant (denoted) is a proportionality constant in electrodynamics equations.

Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

Covariance and contravariance of vectors

In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis.

Cross product

In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.

Debt-to-GDP ratio

In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).

Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

Dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics

Dimensionless numbers in fluid mechanics are a set of dimensionless quantities that have an important role in the behaviour of fluids.

Dimensionless quantity

In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.

Displacement (vector)

A displacement is a vector whose length is the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point P. It quantifies both the distance and direction of an imaginary motion along a straight line from the initial position to the final position of the point.

Distance

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.

Division (mathematics)

Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

Electric dipole moment

The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.

Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

Entropic force

In physics, an entropic force acting in a system is a force resulting from the entire system's thermodynamical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying microscopic force.

Entropy (statistical thermodynamics)

In classical statistical mechanics, the entropy function earlier introduced by Rudolf Clausius is interpreted as statistical entropy using probability theory.

Equation

In mathematics, an equation is a statement of an equality containing one or more variables.

Euler number (physics)

The Euler number (Eu) is a dimensionless number used in fluid flow calculations.

Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

Exterior algebra

In mathematics, the exterior product or wedge product of vectors is an algebraic construction used in geometry to study areas, volumes, and their higher-dimensional analogs.

Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

Fermi problem

In physics or engineering education, a Fermi problem, Fermi quiz, Fermi question, Fermi estimate, or order estimation is an estimation problem designed to teach dimensional analysis or approximation, and such a problem is usually a back-of-the-envelope calculation.

Financial ratio

A financial ratio or accounting ratio is a relative magnitude of two selected numerical values taken from an enterprise's financial statements.

Flue gas

Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.

Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

Formal proof

A formal proof or derivation is a finite sequence of sentences (called well-formed formulas in the case of a formal language), each of which is an axiom, an assumption, or follows from the preceding sentences in the sequence by a rule of inference.

Frame of reference

In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

François Daviet de Foncenex

François Daviet de Foncenex (1734-1799) was a military officer and mathematician from Savoy in the 18th century.

Froude number

In continuum mechanics, the Froude number is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the flow inertia to the external field (the latter in many applications simply due to gravity).

Furnace

A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.

Gas constant

The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.

Gas laws

The gas laws were developed at the end of the 18th century, when scientists began to realize that relationships between pressure, volume and temperature of a sample of gas could be obtained which would hold to approximation for all gases.

Geometric algebra

The geometric algebra (GA) of a vector space is an algebra over a field, noted for its multiplication operation called the geometric product on a space of elements called multivectors, which is a superset of both the scalars F and the vector space V. Mathematically, a geometric algebra may be defined as the Clifford algebra of a vector space with a quadratic form.

Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

Group action

In mathematics, an action of a group is a formal way of interpreting the manner in which the elements of the group correspond to transformations of some space in a way that preserves the structure of that space.

Hagen–Poiseuille equation

In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.

Harmonic oscillator

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: where k is a positive constant.

Homogeneous polynomial

In mathematics, a homogeneous polynomial is a polynomial whose nonzero terms all have the same degree.

Inch

The inch (abbreviation: in or &Prime) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to yard but usually understood as of a foot.

Inequality (mathematics)

In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).

Intensity (physics)

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.

International Bureau of Weights and Measures

The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.

International System of Quantities

The International System of Quantities (ISQ) is a system based on seven base quantities: length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity.

International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

Interpunct

An interpunct (&middot), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.

Ising model

The Ising model, named after the physicist Ernst Ising, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics.

James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.

Joseph Fourier

Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.

Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

Klein four-group

In mathematics, the Klein four-group (or just Klein group or Vierergruppe, four-group, often symbolized by the letter V or as K4) is the group, the direct product of two copies of the cyclic group of order 2.

Length

In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.

Linear density

Linear density is the measure of a quantity of any characteristic value per unit of length.

Linear independence

In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be if one of the vectors in the set can be defined as a linear combination of the others; if no vector in the set can be written in this way, then the vectors are said to be.

Linear map

In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

Linear span

In linear algebra, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set of vectors in a vector space is the intersection of all subspaces containing that set.

Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

Luminous intensity

In photometry, luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.

Mach number

In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.

Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

Magnetic potential

The term magnetic potential can be used for either of two quantities in classical electromagnetism: the magnetic vector potential, or simply vector potential, A; and the magnetic scalar potential ψ. Both quantities can be used in certain circumstances to calculate the magnetic field B. The more frequently used magnetic vector potential is defined so that its curl is equal to the magnetic field: curl A.

Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

Mass flow rate

In physics and engineering, mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes per unit of time.

Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

Metre per second

Metre per second (American English: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.

Michael Duff (physicist)

Michael James Duff FRS, FRSA is a British theoretical physicist and pioneering theorist of supergravity who is the Principal of the Faculty of Physical Sciences and Abdus Salam Chair of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London.

Miles per hour

Miles per hour (abbreviated mph, MPH or mi/h) is an imperial and United States customary unit of speed expressing the number of statute miles covered in one hour.

Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

Moment of inertia

The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.

Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

Monomial

In mathematics, a monomial is, roughly speaking, a polynomial which has only one term.

Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

N-sphere

In mathematics, the n-sphere is the generalization of the ordinary sphere to spaces of arbitrary dimension.

Natural units

In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants.

Newton (unit)

The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.

Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

Nitrogen oxide

Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.

Nondimensionalization

Nondimensionalization is the partial or full removal of units from an equation involving physical quantities by a suitable substitution of variables.

NOx

In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.

Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

Permittivity

In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.

Phase velocity

The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.

Physical quantity

A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...

Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

Poynting vector

In physics, the Poynting vector represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) of an electromagnetic field.

Price–earnings ratio

The price/earnings ratio (often shortened to the P/E ratio or the PER) is the ratio of a company's stock price to the company's earnings per share.

Quantity calculus

Quantity calculus is the formal method for describing the mathematical relations between abstract physical quantities.

Rankine scale

The Rankine scale is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.

Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator.

Rayleigh's method of dimensional analysis

Rayleigh's method of dimensional analysis is a conceptual tool used in physics, chemistry, and engineering.

Réaumur scale

The Réaumur scale (°Ré, °Re, °r), also known as the "octogesimal division", is a temperature scale for which the freezing and boiling points of water are defined as 0 and 80 degrees respectively.

Relativistic plasma

Relativistic plasmas in physics are plasmas for which relativistic corrections to a particle's mass and velocity are important.

Relativistic similarity parameter

In relativistic laser-plasma physics the relativistic similarity parameter S is a dimensionless parameter defined as where is the electron plasma density, is the critical plasma density and is the normalized vector potential.

Reynolds number

The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.

Roman type

In Latin script typography, roman is one of the three main kinds of historical type, alongside blackletter and italic.

Root mean square

In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).

Sanity check

A sanity test or sanity check is a basic test to quickly evaluate whether a claim or the result of a calculation can possibly be true.

Sans-serif

In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.

Scalar (physics)

A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.

Scalar multiplication

In mathematics, scalar multiplication is one of the basic operations defining a vector space in linear algebra (or more generally, a module in abstract algebra).

Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

Similitude (model)

Similitude is a concept applicable to the testing of engineering models.

Speed

In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.

Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

Stock and flow

Economics, business, accounting, and related fields often distinguish between quantities that are stocks and those that are flows.

System of measurement

A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them to each other.

Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

Tension (physics)

In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.

Thermodynamic temperature

Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

Time

Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.

Torque

Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

Transcendental function

A transcendental function is an analytic function that does not satisfy a polynomial equation, in contrast to an algebraic function.

Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

Velocity of money

Similar chart showing the velocity of a broader measure of money that covers M2 plus large institutional deposits, M3. The US no longer publishes official M3 measures, so the chart only runs through 2005. The term "velocity of money" (also "The velocity of circulation of money") refers to how fast money passes from one holder to the next.

Vlasov equation

The Vlasov equation is a differential equation describing time evolution of the distribution function of plasma consisting of charged particles with long-range interaction, e.g. Coulomb.

Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

Yard

The yard (abbreviation: yd) is an English unit of length, in both the British imperial and US customary systems of measurement, that comprises 3 feet or 36 inches.

References

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