168 relations: Accounts of Chemical Research, Acetone, Acid dissociation constant, Acyl chloride, Alexander Mikhaylovich Zaytsev, Alkylation, Alternative medicine, American Cancer Society, Amidine, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Autotransplantation, Bacteria, Bad breath, Biopreservation, Butyl rubber, Caenorhabditis elegans, Carbanion, Carboplatin, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical Reviews, Chemotherapy, Cisplatin, Clinical research, Coordination complex, Cornell University, Cryobiology, Cryoprotectant, Crystallization, Death of Gloria Ramirez, Debye, Deprotonation, Deuterated chloroform, Deuterated dichloromethane, Deuterated DMSO, Deuterium, Diallyl disulfide, Dichloromethane, Dichlorotetrakis(dimethylsulfoxide)ruthenium(II), Diethyl ether, Diethyl sulfoxide, Dimethyl disulfide, Dimethyl sulfate, Dimethyl sulfide, Dimethyl sulfite, Dimethyl trisulfide, Dimethylacetamide, Dimethylformamide, ..., Disproportionation, Dose (biochemistry), Drug delivery, Eagle's minimal essential medium, Electrochemical Society, Electrophile, Embolization, Embryonic stem cell, Enol, Ethylene vinyl alcohol, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Fetal bovine serum, Finkelstein reaction, Fluoroelastomer, Food and Drug Administration, Freeze-drying, Garlic, GC-content, Gene (journal), Genitourinary system, Glove, Hematopoietic stem cell, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Heparin, Hexamethylphosphoramide, High-throughput screening, Horse, Hygroscopy, Hypoxia (environmental), Icariin, In vitro, In vivo, Interstitial cystitis, Interventional radiology, Ketone, Kraft process, Latex, Ligand, Liniment, Liquid nitrogen, List of unproven and disproven cancer treatments, Lithium diisopropylamide, Lone pair, Median lethal dose, Medicare fraud, Methyl group, Methyl iodide, Methyl methanesulfonate, Methylsulfonylmethane, Miscibility, Mutagen, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone, National Academy of Sciences, National Council Against Health Fraud, Nematode, Neoprene, Neurotoxicity, Nitrile rubber, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitromethane, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic substitution, Olfaction, Onyx (interventional radiology), Oregon Health & Science University, Organic synthesis, Organosulfur compounds, Oxaliplatin, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Paint stripper, Panthenol, Paracetamol, Persistent carbene, Pfitzner–Moffatt oxidation, Phosphonium, Pleiotropy (drugs), PLOS One, Poise (unit), Polymerase chain reaction, Primer (molecular biology), Protic solvent, Quack Miranda warning, Relative permittivity, Rotary evaporator, Ruthenium, Sanitary sewer, Skin, Sodium hydride, Sodium methylsulfinylmethylide, Solvent, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Statistical significance, Stem-loop, Sulfoxide, Sulfur, Swern oxidation, Symmetry group, Synthesis (journal), Tendinitis, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, The Wall Street Journal, Thermostability, Thiol, Thousandth of an inch, Tissue (biology), Transdermal, Traumatic brain injury, Trigeminal ganglion, Trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry, Trimethylsulfoxonium iodide, TRPA1, Urology (journal), WebMD, Wittig reaction, Ylide, 60 Minutes. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Accounts of Chemical Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.
Aleksander Mikhaylovich Zaytsev (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович За́йцев), also spelled as Saytzeff and Saytzev (2 July 1841 – 1 September 1910), was a Russian chemist.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
Amidines are a class of oxoacid derivatives.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto- meaning "self" in Greek).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath.
Biopreservation is the use of natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials as a way of preserving food and extending its shelf life.
Butyl rubber, sometimes just called "butyl", is a synthetic rubber, a copolymer of isobutylene with isoprene.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of forms of cancer.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science.
A cryoprotectant is a substance used to protect biological tissue from freezing damage (i.e. that due to ice formation).
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Gloria Ramirez (January 11, 1963 – February 19, 1994) was an American woman dubbed "the Toxic Lady" by the media when several hospital workers became ill after exposure to her body and blood.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.
Deuterated chloroform (CDCl3), also known as chloroform-d, is an isotopologue of chloroform (CHCl3) in which the hydrogen atom ("H") is replaced with a deuterium (heavy hydrogen) isotope ("D").
Deuterated dichloromethane (CD2Cl2) is a form (called an isotopologue) of dichloromethane (DCM, CH2Cl2) in which the hydrogen atoms ("H") are replaced with deuterium (heavy hydrogen) isotope ("D").
Deuterated DMSO, also known as dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, is an isotopologue of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, (CH3)2S.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diallyl disulfide (DADS or 4,5-dithia-1,7-octadiene) is an organosulfur compound derived from garlic and a few other genus Allium plants.
Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
Dichlorotetrakis(dimethyl sulfoxide) ruthenium(II) describes coordination compounds with the formula RuCl2(dmso)4, where DMSO is dimethylsulfoxide.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diethyl sulfoxide, C4H10OS, is a sulfur-containing organic compound.
Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula CH3SSCH3 which is the simplest disulfide.
Dimethyl sulfate is a chemical compound with formula (CH3O)2SO2.
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methylthiomethane is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2S.
Dimethyl sulfite is a sulfite ester with the chemical formula (CH3O)2SO.
Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is an organic chemical compound and the simplest organic trisulfide.
Dimethylacetamide (DMAc or DMA) is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)N(CH3)2.
Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.
The Electrochemical Society is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of electrochemistry and solid-state science and technology.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Embolization or embolisation refers to the passage and lodging of an embolus within the bloodstream.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is a formal copolymer of ethylene and vinyl alcohol.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) comes from the blood drawn from a bovine fetus via a closed system of collection at the slaughterhouse.
The Finkelstein reaction (often referred to as a halex reaction or halogen exchange) named after the German chemist Hans Finkelstein, is an SN2 reaction (Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction) that involves the exchange of one halogen atom for another.
A fluoroelastomer is a fluorocarbon-based synthetic rubber.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Freeze drying, also known as lyophilisation or cryodessication, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).
Gene is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in genetics, focusing on the cloning, structure, and function of genes.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a garment covering the whole hand.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Hexamethylphosphoramide, often abbreviated HMPA, is a phosphoramide (i.e. an amide of phosphoric acid) with the formula This colorless liquid is a useful polar aprotic solvent and additive in organic synthesis.
High-throughput screening (HTS) is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Icariin is a chemical compound classified as a prenylated flavonol glycoside, a type of flavonoid.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder.
Interventional radiology (IR), sometimes known as vascular and interventional radiology (VIR), is a medical specialty which provides minimally invasive image-guided diagnosis and treatment of disease.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) is a process for conversion of wood into wood pulp, which consists of almost pure cellulose fibers, the main component of paper.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
This is a list of alternative treatments that have been promoted to treat or prevent cancer in humans but which lack scientific and medical evidence of effectiveness.
Lithium diisopropylamide (commonly abbreviated LDA) is a chemical compound with the molecular formula 2NLi.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
In the United States, Medicare fraud is the claiming of Medicare health care reimbursement to which the claimant is not entitled.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I.
Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), also known as methyl mesylate, is an alkylating agent and a carcinogen.
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO2.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is an organic compound consisting of a 5-membered lactam.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) was a not-for-profit, US-based organization, run by Dr.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neoprene (also polychloroprene or pc-rubber) is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Nitrile rubber, also known as NBR, Buna-N, and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, is a synthetic rubber copolymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitromethane is an organic compound with the chemical formula.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
In interventional radiology, Onyx is a trade name for a copolymer used for embolisation therapy, which involves the occlusion of blood vessels.
Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) is a public university in Oregon with a main campus, including two hospitals, in Portland.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur.
Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paint stripper, or paint remover, is a product designed to remove paint and other finishes and also to clean the underlying surface.
Panthenol (also called pantothenol) is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus a provitamin of B5.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
A persistent carbene (also known as stable carbene) is a type of carbene demonstrating particular stability.
The Pfitzner–Moffatt oxidation, sometimes referred to as simply the Moffatt oxidation, is a chemical reaction for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, respectively.
The phosphonium (more obscurely: phosphinium) cation describes polyatomic cations with the chemical formula.
In pharmacology, pleiotropy includes all of a drug's actions other than those for which the agent was specifically developed.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
The quack Miranda warning is a term used by skeptics to describe the text which the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) requires that all labels and marketing materials for products sold as dietary supplements carry, in boldface type: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
A rotary evaporator (or rotavap/rotovap) is a device used in chemical laboratories for the efficient and gentle removal of solvents from samples by evaporation.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sodium hydride is the chemical compound with the empirical formula NaH.
Sodium methylsulfinylmethylide (also called NaDMSO or dimsyl sodium) is the sodium salt of the conjugate base of dimethyl sulfoxide.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
Stem-loop intramolecular base pairing is a pattern that can occur in single-stranded DNA or, more commonly, in RNA.
A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl (SO) functional group attached to two carbon atoms.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The Swern oxidation, named after Daniel Swern, is a chemical reaction whereby a primary or secondary alcohol is oxidized to an aldehyde or ketone using oxalyl chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and an organic base, such as triethylamine.
In group theory, the symmetry group of an object (image, signal, etc.) is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation.
Synthesis is a scientific journal published from 1969 to the present day by Thieme.
Tendinitis (also tendonitis), meaning inflammation of a tendon, is a type of tendinopathy often confused with the more common tendinosis, which has similar symptoms but requires different treatment.
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Thermostability is the quality of a substance to resist irreversible change in its chemical or physical structure, often by resisting decomposition or polymerization, at a high relative temperature.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
A thousandth of an inch is a derived unit of length in an inch-based system of units.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.
In chemistry, a trigonal pyramid is a molecular geometry with one atom at the apex and three atoms at the corners of a trigonal base, resembling a tetrahedron (not to be confused with the tetrahedral geometry).
Trimethylsulfoxonium iodide is a sulfoxonium salt.
Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1, also known as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 or TRPA1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPA1 (and in other species by the Trpa1) gene.
Urology, also known as The Gold Journal, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on urology and nephrology published by Elsevier on behalf of the Société Internationale d'Urologie and edited by Eric A. Klein.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.
A ylide or ylid is a neutral dipolar molecule containing a formally negatively charged atom (usually a carbanion) directly attached to a heteroatom with a formal positive charge (usually nitrogen, phosphorus or sulfur), and in which both atoms have full octets of electrons.
60 Minutes is an American newsmagazine television program broadcast on the CBS television network.
(CH3)2SO, (Methanesulfinyl)methane, ATC code G04BX13, ATC code M02AX03, ATCvet code QG04BX13, ATCvet code QM02AX03, DMSO, DMSo, Demasorb, Demavet, Demeso, Demsodrox, Dermasorb, Dimethly sulfoxide, Dimethyl sulphoxide, Dimethylsulfoxide, Dimethylsulphoxide, Dimexide, Dipirartril-tropico, Dmso, Dolicur, Doligur, Domoso, Dromisol, Durasorb, Gamasol 90, Hyadur, Infiltrina, Kemsol, Methyl sulfoxide, Methylsulfinylmethane, Rimso 50, Rimso-50, Sclerosol, Somipront, Syntexan, Topsym.