323 relations: A. H. M. Jones, Achilleus (Roman usurper), Adriatic Sea, Adventus (ceremony), Afranius Hannibalianus, Alemanni, Alexandria, Allectus, Ancient Greek, Anicius Faustus Paulinus (consul 298), Anno Domini, Anthimus of Nicomedia, Anti-Taurus Mountains, Antioch, Aphrodisias, Apollo, Appeal, Aquincum, Ardashir I, Argenteus, Arles, Armenia, Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Arzanene, Asia (Roman province), Augustan History, Augustus, Augustus (title), Aurelian, Aurelius Victor, Austria, Autocracy, İzmit, Bagaudae, Bahram II, Bahram III, Bakhchysarai, Balikh River, Balkans, Basel, Battle of Satala (298), Battle of the Margus, Begeč, Belgrade, Bishop, Bithynia, Bitlis, Blemmyes, Bosra, Britannia Secunda, ..., Budapest, Bulgaria, Bureaucracy, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Cabbage, Caesar (title), Camp of Diocletian, Campania, Carausius, Caria, Carinus, Carnuntum, Carpi (people), Carthage, Carus, Cassius Dio (consul 291), Cathedral of Saint Domnius, Catholic Encyclopedia, Church History (Eusebius), Church of Alexandria, Circesium, Civil service, Civil wars of the Tetrarchy, Classical Philology (journal), Codex Gregorianus, Codex Hermogenianus, Codex Justinianus, Codex Theodosianus, Colonus (person), Consistorium, Constantine the Great, Constantius Chlorus, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Corduene, Cornell University Press, Crisis of the Third Century, Croatia, Ctesiphon, Cursus publicus, Cyzicus, Dalmatia (Roman province), Damnatio memoriae, Danube, Deacon, Death by boiling, Decapitation, Decennalia, Decurion (administrative), Denarius, Devil, Devil's Dykes, Didyma, Dioclesian, Diocletian window, Diocletian's Palace, Diocletianic Persecution, Diocletianopolis, Dionysius Exiguus, Divination, Diyarbakır, Dohuk, Domesticus (Roman Empire), Dominate, Domitius Domitianus, Donatism, Duke, Dukljan, Dunaújváros, Dux, Edict on Maximum Prices, Edinburgh University Press, Edward Gibbon, Egypt (Roman province), Elephantine, Epitome de Caesaribus, Epoch (reference date), Era of the Martyrs, Ernest Hébrard, Eunuch, Euphrates, European Plain, Eusebius, Eutropius (historian), Farnham, Fasces, Faustus of Byzantium, Fergus Millar, Flavia Maximiana Theodora, Follis, Franks, Freedman, Gaius Annius Anullinus, Gaius Junius Tiberianus, Galeria Valeria, Galerius, Gallienus, Geyre, God, Gorgonius, Great Morava, Greek East and Latin West, Hadrian, Hakkâri, Harran, Haruspex, Henry Purcell, Hercules, Hermogenian, Hero, Herodian, History of Sofia, Homs, Hungary, Iller, Imperial cult of ancient Rome, Inflation, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, Istanbul, Italy, Jaś Elsner, Joannes Zonaras, John the Lydian, Judge, Julius Asclepiodotus, Jupiter (mythology), Jurist, Kingdom of Iberia, Lactantius, Lake Constance, Lars Brownworth, Laterculus Veronensis, Latin, Lesser Armenia, Licinius, List of Roman consuls, List of Roman emperors, Litter (vehicle), Lucania, Lucius Flavius Aper, Magister officiorum, Mani (prophet), Manichaeism, Marcomanni, Marcus Aurelius, Marmara Island, Martyr, Maxentius, Maximian, Maximinus II, Mediolanum, Michael Rostovtzeff, Milan, Moesia, Moselle, Narseh, Nicomedia, Nobatia, Numerian, Nummius Tuscus, Nummus, Oracle, Oxyrhynchus, Palestine (region), Palmyra, Palmyrene Empire, Panegyric, Panegyrici Latini, Pannonia, Paul Veyne, Peace of Nisibis (299), Perimeter, Persecution of Christians, Peter Brown (historian), Petronell-Carnuntum, Philae, Piracy, Plovdiv, Pompey's Pillar (column), Pomponius Januarianus, Postumus, Praefectus urbi, Praeses, Precedent, Price controls, Primus inter pares, Prisca (empress), Probus (emperor), Promagistrate, Proskynesis, Ptuj, Quadi, Radius, Rags to riches, Raqqa, Ravenna, Rescript, Rhine, Roger S. Bagnall, Roman cavalry, Roman consul, Roman diocese, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman Gaul, Roman province, Roman Senate, Roman–Persian Wars, Romanus of Caesarea, Rouen, Ruse, Bulgaria, Sabinus Julianus, Sacrifice, Salona, Sarmatians, Sasanian Empire, Satala, Saxon Shore, Saxons, Scribe, Seleucia Pieria, Septimius Severus, Serbia, Shapur I, Siirt, Silvan, Diyarbakır, Simon Corcoran, Sirmium, Sisak, Slavic paganism, Slovenia, Smederevo, Solidus (coin), Solin, Song dynasty, Sophene, Sphere of influence, Split, Croatia, Sremska Mitrovica, Strata Diocletiana, Suicide, Supply and demand, Syria, Syria Palaestina, Syriac Christianity, Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Tetrarchy, Thebaid, Thessaloniki, Thrace, Tigranocerta, Timothy Barnes, Tiridates III of Armenia, Titus Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus, Tributary, Trier, Tur Abdin, Turkey, Tyrian purple, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Upper Egypt, Valerian (emperor), Valerius Romulus, Valerius Severus, Vicarius, Vidin, Viminacium, Virgil, Virius Gallus, Western Roman Empire, Zenobia, Zosimus, 20,000 Martyrs of Nicomedia. Expand index (273 more) » « Shrink index
Arnold Hugh Martin Jones FBA (9 March 1904 – 9 April 1970) — known as A. H. M. Jones or Hugo Jones — was a prominent 20th century British historian of classical antiquity, particularly of the later Roman Empire.
Achilleus (fl. 3rd century AD) assumed the title of Roman emperor under Diocletian and reigned over Egypt for some time.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The adventus was a ceremony in ancient Rome, in which an emperor was formally welcomed into a city either during a progress or after a military campaign, often (but not always) Rome.
Afranius Hannibalianus (fl. 3rd century) was the consul of 292 CE, a praetorian prefect, a senator and a military officer and commander.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Allectus (died 296) was a Roman-Britannic usurper-emperor in Britain and northern Gaul from 293 to 296.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
(Sextus or Marcus) Anicius Faustus Paulinus or Paulinianus (c. 240 - aft. 300) was a Roman senator who was appointed consul in AD 298.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Anthimus of Nicomedia (martyred 303 or 311–12), was the bishop of Nicomedia in Bithynia, where he was beheaded during a persecution of Christians, traditionally placed under Diocletian (following Eusebius), in which "rivers of blood" flowed.
The Anti-Taurus Mountains (from Αντίταυρος, Aladağlar) are a mountain range in southern and eastern Turkey, curving northeast from the Taurus Mountains.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Aphrodisias (Aphrodisiás) was a small ancient Greek Hellenistic city in the historic Caria cultural region of western Anatolia, Turkey.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.
Aquincum was an ancient city, situated on the northeastern borders of the Pannonia province within the Roman Empire.
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire.
The argenteus was a silver coin produced by the Roman Empire from the time of Diocletian's coinage reform in AD 294 to ca.
Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
Arzanene (Ἀρζανηνή), in Armenian Aghdznik or Altzniq (Ałjnikʿ), was a historical region in southwestern Greater Armenia.
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.
The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
Sextus Aurelius Victor (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality.
In the later Roman Empire, bagaudae (also spelled bacaudae) were groups of peasant insurgents who arose during the Crisis of the Third Century, and persisted until the very end of the western Empire, particularly in the less-Romanised areas of Gallia and Hispania, where they were "exposed to the depredations of the late Roman state, and the great landowners and clerics who were its servants".
Bahram II (𐭥𐭫𐭧𐭫𐭠𐭭, Wahrām, بهرام دوم, Bahrām) was the fifth Sasanian King of Persia in 274–293.
Bahram III (𐭥𐭫𐭧𐭫𐭠𐭭, Wahrām, بهرام سوم, Bahrām), (died 293) was the sixth Sassanid King of Persia and son of Bahram II.
Bakhchysarai (Бахчисарáй; Bağçasaray; Бахчисарáй; Bahçesaray; باغچه سرای Bāghche Sarāy) is a city in central Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
The Balikh River (نهر البليخ) is a perennial river that originates in the spring of 'Ayn al-'Arus in Syria.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
The Battle of Satala was fought in 298, in Armenia, between the forces of the Roman Empire under the Tetrarch Galerius and the forces of the Sassanid Empire of Persia led by Shah Narseh (Narses).
The Battle of the Margus was fought in July 285 between the armies of Roman Emperors Diocletian and Carinus in the valley of the Margus River (today Great Morava) in Moesia (present day Serbia).
Begeč (Бегеч) is a suburban settlement of the city of Novi Sad, Serbia.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Bitlis (Բաղեշ; Bidlîs; ܒܝܬ ܕܠܝܣ; بتليس; Βαλαλης Balales) is a city in eastern Turkey and the capital of Bitlis Province.
The Blemmyes (Latin Blemmyae) were a nomadic Beja tribal kingdom that existed from at least 600 BC to the 3rd century AD in Nubia.
Bosra (Buṣrā), also spelled Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra and officially known Busra al-Sham (Buṣrā al-Shām, Busra el-Şam)Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri.
Britannia Secunda or Britannia II (Latin for "Second Britain") was one of the provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" created during the Diocletian Reforms at the end of the 3rd century.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
The Camp of Diocletian was a Roman military complex, or castra, built in the ancient city of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius (died 293) was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus Augustus; died 285) was Roman Emperor from 283 to 285.
Carnuntum (Καρνους, Carnous in Ancient Greek according to Ptolemy) was a Roman Legionary Fortress or castrum legionarium and also headquarters of the Pannonian fleet from 50 AD.
The Carpi or Carpiani were an ancient people that resided in the eastern parts of modern Romania in the historical region of Moldavia from no later than c. AD 140 and until at least AD 318.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus; c. 222 – July or August 283) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283, and was 60 at ascension.
Cassius Dio (fl. late third century) was a Roman senator who was appointed consul in AD 291.
The Cathedral of Saint Domnius (Katedrala Svetog Duje), known locally as the Sveti Dujam or colloquially Sveti Duje, is the Catholic cathedral in Split, Croatia.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.
The Church of Alexandria in Egypt is the Christian Church headed by the Patriarch of Alexandria.
Circesium (ܩܪܩܣܝܢ) was an ancient city in Osrhoene, corresponding to the modern city of Buseira, in the region of Deir ez-Zor in Syria, at the confluence of the Khabur River with the Euphrates.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
The Civil wars of the Tetrarchy were a series of conflicts between the co-emperors of the Roman Empire, starting in 306 AD with the usurpation of Maxentius and the defeat of Severus, and ending with the defeat of Licinius at the hands of Constantine I in 324 AD.
Classical Philology is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1906.
The Codex Gregorianus (Eng. Gregorian Code) is the title of a collection of constitutions (legal pronouncements) of Roman emperors over a century and a half from the 130s to 290s AD.
The Codex Hermogenianus (Eng. Hermogenian Code) is the title of a collection of constitutions (legal pronouncements) of the Roman emperors of the first tetrarchy (Diocletian, Maximian Augusti, and Constantius and Galerius Caesars), mostly from the years 293–94.
The Codex Justinianus (Latin for "The Code of Justinian") is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople.
The Codex Theodosianus (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312.
A colonus was a tenant farmer from the late Roman Empire and Early Middle Ages.
The sacrum consistorium or sacrum auditorium (from consistere, "discuss a topic"; theion synedrion, "sacred assembly") was the highest political council of the Roman Empire from the time of Constantine the Great on.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Gordian; Kardox; Karduya; Կորճայք Korchayk;; Hebrew: קרטיגיני) was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia, present-day eastern Turkey.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
The cursus publicus (Latin: "the public way"; δημόσιος δρόμος, dēmósios drómos) was the state-run courier and transportation service of the Roman Empire, later inherited by the Byzantine Empire.
Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
Dalmatia was a Roman province.
Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase literally meaning "condemnation of memory", meaning that a person must not be remembered.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
Death by boiling is a method of execution in which a person is killed by being immersed in a boiling liquid.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Decennalia (or decennia, from Latin decennium - "tenth anniversary"; decem, "ten" + annus, "year") were Ancient Roman festivals celebrated with games every ten years by the Roman emperors.
A decurion was a member of a city senate in the Roman Empire.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
The Devil's Dykes (Hungarian: Ördög árok), also known as the Csörsz árka ("Csörsz Ditch") or the Limes Sarmatiae (Latin for "Sarmatian border"), are several lines of Roman fortifications built mostly during the reign of Constantine I (312–337), stretching between today's Hungary, Romania and Serbia.
Didyma (Δίδυμα) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia.
Dioclesian (The Prophetess: or, The History of Dioclesian) is a tragicomic semi-opera in five acts by Henry Purcell to a libretto by Thomas Betterton based on the play The Prophetess, by John Fletcher and Philip Massinger, which in turn was based very loosely on the life of the Emperor Diocletian.
Diocletian windows, also called thermal windows, are large semicircular windows characteristic of the enormous public baths (thermae) of Ancient Rome.
Diocletian's Palace (Dioklecijanova palača) is an ancient palace built for the Roman Emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD, that today forms about half the old town of Split, Croatia.
The Diocletianic or Great Persecution was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
Diocletianopolis may refer to a number of places in the ancient world named after Emperor Diocletian.
Dionysius Exiguus (Latin for "Dionysius the Humble"; –) was a 6th-century monk born in Scythia Minor (probably modern Dobruja, in Romania and Bulgaria).
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
Dohuk (دهۆک,; ܢܘܗܕܪܐ.; دهوك) is the capital of Dohuk Governorate in Iraq, it is a city with a population of approximately 300 000 inhabitants, consisting mostly of Kurds and then Assyrians.
The origins of the word domesticus can be traced to the late 3rd century of the Late Roman army.
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
Lucius Domitius Domitianus was a Roman usurper against Diocletian, who seized power for a short time in Aegyptus.
Donatism (Donatismus, Δονατισμός Donatismós) was a schism in the Church of Carthage from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Dukljan or Dukljanin is a figure in Serbian mythology that is a reflection of the Roman emperor Diocletian.
Dunaújváros (formerly known as Dunapentele and Sztálinváros; Neustadt an der Donau Пантелија/Pantelija) is an industrial city in Fejér County, Central Hungary.
Dux (plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank.
The Edict on Maximum Prices (Latin: Edictum de Pretiis Rerum Venalium, "Edict Concerning the Sale Price of Goods"; also known as the Edict on Prices or the Edict of Diocletian) was issued in 301 by Roman Emperor Diocletian.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.
The Epitome de Caesaribus is a Latin historical work written at the end of the 4th century.
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era.
The Era of the Martyrs (anno martyrum), also known as the Diocletian era (anno Diocletiani), is a method of numbering years used by the Church of Alexandria beginning in the 4th centuryAD and by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria from the 5th century to the present.
Ernest Hébrard (1875–1933) was a French architect, archaeologist and urban planner who completed major projects in Greece, Morocco, and French Indochina.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The European Plain or Great European Plain is a plain in Europe and is a major feature of one of four major topographical units of Europe - the Central and Interior Lowlands.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD.
Farnham is a town in Surrey, England, within the Borough of Waverley.
Fasces ((Fasci,, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The axe originally associated with the symbol, the Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) the double-bitted axe, originally from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. Commonly, the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power, law and governance. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived). During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika (each symbol having its own unique ancient religious and mythological associations) became heavily identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became deeply stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process. The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had already been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts. (The swastika remains in common usage in parts of Asia for religious purposes which are also unrelated to early 20th century European fascism.) The fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce.
Faustus of Byzantium (also Faustus the Byzantine, Փավստոս Բուզանդ, P’avstos Buzand) was an Armenian historian of the 5th century.
Sir Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar FBA (born 5 July 1935) is a British historian and Camden Professor of Ancient History Emeritus, Oxford University.
Flavia Maximiana Theodora, also known as Theodora, was a Roman Empress, wife of Constantius Chlorus.
The follis (plural folles; follaro, fels) was a type of coin in the Roman and Byzantine traditions.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Gaius Annius Anullinus (died 4th century) was a Roman senator who was appointed consul in AD 295.
Gaius Junius Tiberianus (born c. AD 230) was a Roman soldier and senator who was appointed consul twice, first around AD 265, and then in AD 291.
Galeria Valeria (died 315) was the daughter of Roman Emperor Diocletian and wife of his co-emperor Galerius.
Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268), also known as Gallien, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268.
Geyre is a small town in the District of Karacasu, Aydın Province, Turkey.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Saint Gorgonius of Nicomedia was a Christian martyr, part of the group Gorgonius, Peter Cubicularius and Dorotheus, who died in 304 AD at Nicomedia during the persecution of Emperor Diocletian.
The Great Morava (Велика Морава/Velika Morava) is the final section of the Morava (Serbian Cyrillic: Морава), a major river system in Serbia.
Greek East and Latin West are terms used to distinguish between the two parts of the Greco-Roman world, specifically the eastern regions where Greek was the lingua franca (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East) and the western parts where Latin filled this role (Central and Western Europe).
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hakkâri (ܗܲܟܵܐܪܝ̣ Hakkārī, Colemêrg), is a city and the capital of the Hakkâri Province of Turkey.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
In the religion of Ancient Rome, a haruspex (plural haruspices; also called aruspex) was a person trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy (haruspicina), the inspection of the entrails (exta—hence also extispicy (extispicium)) of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep and poultry.
Henry Purcell (or; c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
Aurelius Hermogenianus, or Hermogenian, was an eminent Ancient Roman jurist and public servant of the age of Diocletian (245–311) and his fellow tetrarchs.
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
Herodian or Herodianus (Ἡρωδιανός) of Syria, sometimes referred to as "Herodian of Antioch" (c. 170 – c. 240), was a minor Roman civil servant who wrote a colourful history in Greek titled History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (τῆς μετὰ Μάρκον βασιλείας ἱστορία) in eight books covering the years 180 to 238.
The history of Sofia, Bulgaria's capital and largest city, spans thousands of years from Antiquity to modern times, during which the city has been a commercial, industrial, cultural and economic centre in its region and the Balkans.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The (ancient name Ilargus) is a river in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, standard abbreviation ILS, is a three-volume selection of Latin inscriptions edited by Hermann Dessau.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jaś Elsner, FBA (born 19 December 1962) is a British art historian and classicist, who in 2013 was Humfry Payne Senior Research Fellow in Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford, based at Corpus Christi College (since 1999), and Visiting Professor of Art History at the University of Chicago (since 2003).
Joannes or John Zonaras (Ἰωάννης Ζωναρᾶς, Iōánnēs Zōnarâs; fl. 12th century) was a Byzantine chronicler and theologian who lived in Constantinople.
John the Lydian or John Lydus (Ἰωάννης Λαυρέντιος ὁ Λυδός; Ioannes Laurentius Lydus) was a 6th-century Byzantine administrator and writer on antiquarian subjects.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
Julius Asclepiodotus was a Roman praetorian prefect who, according to the Historia Augusta, served under the emperors Aurelian, Probus and Diocletian, and was consul in 292.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.
Lake Constance (Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance, and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.
Lars Mehrling Brownworth (born c. 1975) is an author and former United States history and political science teacher at The Stony Brook School in Stony Brook on Long Island, New York, who created the top 50 podcast,.
The Laterculus Veronensis or Verona List is a list of Roman provinces from the times of the Roman emperors Diocletian and Constantine I. The list is transmitted only in a 7th-century manuscript, which is preserved in the Chapter House Library (Biblioteca Capitolare) in Verona.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lesser Armenia (Փոքր Հայք, Pokr Hayk; Armenia Minor), also known as Armenia Minor and Armenia Inferior, comprised the Armenian–populated regions primarily to the west and northwest of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia (also known as Kingdom of Greater Armenia).
Licinius I (Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus;In Classical Latin, Licinius' name would be inscribed as GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS. c. 263 – 325) was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324.
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
The Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military.
The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons.
Lucania (Leukanía) was an ancient area of Southern Italy.
Aper (full name Lucius Flavius Aper, also known as Arrius Aper, date of birth unknown -284) was a Roman citizen of the third century AD.
The magister officiorum (Latin literally for "Master of Offices", in μάγιστρος τῶν ὀφφικίων, magistros tōn offikiōn) was one of the most senior administrative officials in the late Roman Empire and the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Marmara Island (Προκόννησος) is a Turkish island in the Sea of Marmara.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312.
Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305.
Maximinus II (Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia Augustus; 20 November c. 270 – July or August 313), also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313.
Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.
Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff, or Rostovtsev (Михаи́л Ива́нович Росто́вцев) (Zhitomir, Russian Empire – October 20, 1952, New Haven, USA) was an ancient historian whose career straddled the 19th and 20th centuries and who produced important works on ancient Roman and Greek history.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Narseh (𐭭𐭥𐭮𐭧𐭩 نرسه., Narsē, whose name is also sometimes written as Narses or Narseus) was the seventh Sasanian king of Ērānshahr (293–302).
Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.
Nobatia or Nobadia (Greek: Νοβαδἰα, Nobadia; Old Nubian: ⲙⲓⲅⲓⲧⲛ︦ ⲅⲟⲩⲗ, Migitin Goul) was a late antique kingdom in Lower Nubia.
Numerian (Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus Augustus; died 20 November 284) was Roman Emperor from 283 to 284 with his older brother Carinus.
Nummius Tuscus (fl. late 3rd to early 4th century) was a Roman senator who was appointed consul in AD 295.
Nummus: (νουμμίον, noummion), plural nummi (νοῦμμοι) is a Latin term meaning "coin", but used technically by modern writers for a range of low-value copper coins issued by the Roman and Byzantine empires during Late Antiquity.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and undiscriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
XII Panegyrici Latini or Twelve Latin Panegyrics is the conventional title of a collection of twelve ancient Roman and late antique prose panegyric orations written in Latin.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Paul Veyne (born 13 June 1930 in Aix-en-Provence) is a French archaeologist and historian, and a specialist on Ancient Rome.
The Peace of Nisibis of 299, also known as the First Peace of Nisibis, was a peace treaty signed in 299 by the Roman and Sassanian empires, and concluded the Roman-Sassanian War of 296-299.
A perimeter is a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape.
The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.
Peter Robert Lamont Brown, FBA, (born 26 July 1935) is Rollins Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University.
Petronell-Carnuntum is a community of Bruck an der Leitha in Austria.
Philae (Φιλαί, فيله, Egyptian: p3-jw-rķ' or 'pA-jw-rq; Coptic) is currently an island in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Pompey's Pillar (عمود السواري) is a Roman triumphal column in Alexandria, Egypt, the largest of its type constructed outside the imperial capitals of Rome and Constantinople,Thiel 2006, pp.
Pomponius Januarianus (fl. 3rd century) was a Roman senator who was appointed consul in AD 288.
Marcus Cassianius Latinius PostumusJones & Martindale (1971), p. 720 was a Roman commander of provincial origin who ruled as emperor in the west.
The praefectus urbanus, also called praefectus urbi or urban prefect in English, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople.
Praeses (Latin praesides) is a Latin word meaning "placed before" or "at the head".
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
Prisca (died 315) was the Empress of Rome (286–305) and wife of Emperor Diocletian.
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282.
In ancient Rome a promagistrate (pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later.
Proskynesis or proscynesis (Greek προσκύνησις, proskúnēsis) refers to the traditional Persian act of bowing or prostrating oneself before a person of higher social rank.
Ptuj (Pettau; Poetovium/Poetovio) is a town in northeastern Slovenia that is the seat of the Municipality of Ptuj.
The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire.
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.
Rags to riches refers to any situation in which a person rises from poverty to wealth, and in some cases from absolute obscurity to heights of fame—sometimes instantly.
Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
In legal terminology, a rescript is a document that is issued not on the initiative of the author, but in response (it literally means 'written back') to a specific demand made by its addressee.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Roger Shaler Bagnall (born August 19, 1947 in Seattle) is an American classical scholar.
Roman cavalry (Latin: equites Romani) refers to the horse-mounted forces of the Roman army throughout the Regal, Republican, and Imperial eras.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The word diocese (dioecēsis, from the διοίκησις, "administration") means 'administration,' 'management,' 'assize district,' 'management district.' It can also refer to the collection of taxes and to the territory per se. The earliest use of "diocese" as an administrative unit is found in the Greek-speaking East.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.
Saint Romanus of Caesarea (also known as Romanus of Antioch) is venerated as a martyr.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Ruse (also transliterated as Rousse, Russe or Rusçuk; Русе) is the fifth largest city in Bulgaria.
Marcus Aurelius Sabinus Julianus (also known as Julian of Pannonia; died 285–286) was a Roman usurper (283–285 or 286) against Emperor Carinus or Maximian.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Salona (Σάλωνα) was an ancient city and the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Located in Turkey, the settlement of Satala (Սատաղ Satał), according to the ancient geographers, was situated in a valley surrounded by mountains, a little north of the Euphrates, where the road from Trapezus to Samosata crossed the boundary of the Roman Empire, when it was a bishopric, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
The Saxon Shore (litus Saxonicum) was a military command of the late Roman Empire, consisting of a series of fortifications on both sides of the English Channel.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.
Seleucia in Pieria (Greek Σελεύκεια ἐν Πιερίᾳ), also known in English as Seleucia by the Sea, and later named Suedia, was a Hellenistic town, the seaport of Antioch ad Orontes (Syria Prima), the Seleucid capital, modern Antakya (Turkey).
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shapur I (𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩; New Persian: rtl), also known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire.
Siirt (سِعِرْد Siʿird, Սղերդ Sġerd, ܣܥܪܬ siʿreth, Sêrt, سعرد Σύρτη) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of Siirt Province). The population of the city according to the 2009 census was 129,188. The majority of the city's population is Arabic and Kurdish.
Silvan (Turkish: Silvan, ميا فارقين Meyafarikîn, ميافارقين, Meiafarakin or Mayyafariqin; Նփրկերտ, Np'rkert; Mαρτυρόπολις, Martyropolis; Kurdish: Farqîn; ܡܝܦܪܩܝܛ) is a city and district in the Diyarbakır Province of Turkey.
Simon Corcoran is a British ancient historian and lecturer in ancient history within the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, Newcastle University.
Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia.
Sisak (Sziszek; also known by other alternative names) is a city and episcopal see in central Croatia, located at the confluence of the Kupa, Sava and Odra rivers, southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb, and is usually considered to be where the Posavina (Sava basin) begins, with an elevation of 99 m. The city's total population in 2011 was 47,768 of which 33,322 live in the urban settlement (naselje).
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Smederevo (Смедерево) is a city and the administrative center of the Podunavlje District in eastern Serbia.
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.
Solin (Latin and Italian: Salona, Ancient Greek: Σαλώνα) is a town in Dalmatia, Croatia.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Sophene (Ծոփք Tsopkh, translit or Չորրորդ Հայք, Fourth Armenia) was a province of the Armenian Kingdom and of the Roman Empire, located in the south-west of the kingdom.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city and the administrative center of the Srem District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Strata Diocletiana (Latin for "Road of Diocletian") was a fortified road that ran along the eastern desert border, the limes Arabicus, of the Roman Empire.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.
The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (italic; Tempio di Giove Ottimo Massimo; English: "Temple of Jupiter Best and Greatest on the Capitoline") was the most important temple in Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
The Thebaid or Thebais (Θηβαΐς, Thēbaïs) was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Tigranocerta (Τιγρανόκερτα, Tigranόkerta; Tigranakert (Տիգրանակերտ)) was the capital of the Armenian Kingdom.
Timothy David Barnes, (born 1942) is a British classicist.
Tiridates III (spelled Trdat; Armenian: Տրդատ Գ; 250–330) was the king of Arsacid Armenia (287–330), and is also known as Tiridates the Great Տրդատ Մեծ; some scholars incorrectly refer to him as Tiridates IV as a result of the fact that Tiridates I of Armenia reigned twice.
Titus Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus (died after AD 296) was a Roman soldier and politician who served as Roman consul in 285 CE.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
Tur Abdin (ܛܘܼܪ ܥܒ݂ܕܝܼܢ) is a hilly region situated in southeast Turkey, including the eastern half of the Mardin Province, and Şırnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE.
Valerius Romulus, also Marcus Aurelius Romulus (c. 295 – 309) was the son of the Caesar and later usurper Maxentius and of Valeria Maximilla, daughter of Emperor Galerius.
Valerius Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus; died September 307), also Severus II, was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307.
Vicarius is a Latin word, meaning substitute or deputy.
Vidin (Видин) is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube in north-western Bulgaria.
Viminacium (VIMINACIUM) or Viminatium was a major city (provincial capital) and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia (today's Serbia), and the capital of Moesia Superior (hence once Metropolitan archbishopric, now a Latin titular see).
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Virius Gallus was a senator of the Roman Empire who was appointed consul in AD 298.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Septimia Zenobia (Palmyrene: (Btzby), pronounced Bat-Zabbai; 240 – c. 274 AD) was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire.
Zosimus (Ζώσιμος; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Historicus, i.e. "Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I (491–518).
The 20,000 Martyrs of Nicomedia refers to victims of persecution of Christians in Nicomedia, Bithynia (modern Izmit, Turkey) by the Roman Emperors Diocletian and Maximian in the early 4th century AD.
Diocleciano, Diocletian Reforms, Diocletian period, Diocletianus, Diolcetian, Emperor Diocletian, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus, Gaius aurelius Valerius Diocletian, Valerius Diocletianus.