213 relations: Active rectification, Alkaline earth metal, All American Five, Alternating current, Alternator (automotive), Amplitude, Amplitude modulation, Anode, Avalanche breakdown, Avalanche diode, Barium, Bell Labs, Bipolar junction transistor, Boltzmann constant, Capacitor, Carrier generation and recombination, Cathode, Charge carrier, Charge-coupled device, Check valve, Circuit diagram, Clamper (electronics), CMOS, Cockcroft–Walton generator, Commutator (electric), Constant-current diode, Copper(I) oxide, Cosmic ray, Crystal detector, Crystallinity, Current–voltage characteristic, Depletion region, Detector (radio), DIAC, Diode logic, Diode modelling, Direct and indirect band gaps, Direct current, Dopant, Doping (semiconductor), Double diode triode, Electric battery, Electric current, Electric generator, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrode, Electron, Electron hole, Electronic component, Electronic filter, ..., Electronic Industries Alliance, Electronic keyboard, Electronic oscillator, Electronics, Electronvolt, Electrostatics, Elementary charge, Energy, Exponential function, Extrinsic semiconductor, Faraday rotator, Fleming valve, Flyback diode, Frederick Guthrie, Frequency mixer, Frequency-locked loop, Gallium arsenide, Gamma ray, General Electric Company, Germanium, Gold, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard, Gunn diode, H bridge, Hot cathode, IMPATT diode, Infrared, Insulated-gate bipolar transistor, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, Jagadish Chandra Bose, JEDEC, JFET, JIS semiconductor designation, John Ambrose Fleming, Karl Ferdinand Braun, Kelvin, Keyboard matrix circuit, Lambda diode, Laser, Laser diode, Leo Esaki, Light-emitting diode, Linear circuit, Liquid nitrogen, List of Greek and Latin roots in English, List of semiconductor materials, Logarithm, Logic gate, Logical conjunction, Logical disjunction, Marconi Company, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McGraw-Hill Education, Metal rectifier, Metal–semiconductor junction, Microwave, Mineral, Modulation, MOSFET, Motor controller, Mullard, Mullard–Philips tube designation, Musical keyboard, Negative resistance, Nichrome, Noise, Optical cavity, Optical communication, Optical isolator, Optical storage, Opto-isolator, Oscillation, Oxide, Particle detector, Passivity (engineering), P–n junction, Peak inverse voltage, Pentagrid converter, Pentode, Phase-locked loop, Photodetector, Photodiode, Photometry (optics), Photon, PIN diode, Pinball, Plate electrode, Platinum, Power electronics, Power semiconductor device, Power supply, Printed circuit board, Pro Electron, Pulse, Purdue University, Quantum tunnelling, Radio, Radio frequency, Rectifier, Relay, Saturation current, Schottky diode, Scintillator, Selenium, Selenium rectifier, Semiconductor, Semiconductor detector, Semiconductor device, Signal, Silicon, Silicon bandgap temperature sensor, Slew rate, Small-signal model, Solar cell, Solid-state electronics, Stabistor, Step recovery diode, Stepper motor, Strontium, Substrate (electronics), Switched-mode power supply, Telegraphy, Temperature, Terminal (electronics), Tetrode, Thermal diode, Thermionic emission, Thermoelectric cooling, Thermoelectric effect, Thyristor, Time-division multiplexing, Transducer, Transient (oscillation), Transient-voltage-suppression diode, Transistor, TRIAC, Triode, Tunnel diode, Ultraviolet, Uninterruptible power supply, United Kingdom, Vacuum tube, Varicap, Varistor, Volt, Voltage multiplier, Voltage reference, Voltage spike, Voltage-controlled oscillator, Voltmeter, Walter H. Schottky, Wavelength, Western Electric, William Eccles, William Shockley, Wireless telegraphy, Work function, Zener diode, Zener effect, 1N400x general-purpose diodes, 1N4148 signal diode, 1N58xx Schottky diodes. Expand index (163 more) » « Shrink index
Active rectification, or synchronous rectification, is a technique for improving the efficiency of rectification by replacing diodes with actively controlled switches such as transistors, usually power MOSFETs or power BJTs.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
The term All American Five (abbreviated AA5) is a colloquial name for mass-produced, superheterodyne radio receivers that used five vacuum tubes in their design.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
Alternators are used in modern automobiles to charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials.
In electronics, an avalanche diode is a diode (made from silicon or other semiconductor) that is designed to experience avalanche breakdown at a specified reverse bias voltage.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
In physics, a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve, reflux valve, retention valve or one-way valve is a valve that normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction.
A circuit diagram (electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit.
A clamper is an electronic circuit that fixes either the positive or the negative peak excursions of a signal to a defined value by shifting its DC value.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
The Cockcroft–Walton (CW) generator, or multiplier, is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input.
A commutator is a rotary electrical switch in certain types of electric motors and electrical generators that periodically reverses the current direction between the rotor and the external circuit.
Constant-current diode is an electronic device that limits current to a maximal specified value for the device.
Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
A crystal detector is an obsolete electronic component in some early 20th century radio receivers that used a piece of crystalline mineral as a detector (demodulator) to rectify the alternating current radio signal to extract the audio modulation which produced the sound in the earphones.
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
A current–voltage characteristic or I–V curve (current–voltage curve) is a relationship, typically represented as a chart or graph, between the electric current through a circuit, device, or material, and the corresponding voltage, or potential difference across it.
In semiconductor physics, the depletion region, also called depletion layer, depletion zone, junction region, space charge region or space charge layer, is an insulating region within a conductive, doped semiconductor material where the mobile charge carriers have been diffused away, or have been forced away by an electric field.
In radio, a detector is a device or circuit that extracts information from a modulated radio frequency current or voltage.
The DIAC is a diode that conducts electrical current only after its breakover voltage, VBO, has been reached momentarily.
Diode logic (DL), or diode-resistor logic (DRL), is the construction of Boolean logic gates from diodes.
In electronics, diode modelling refers to the mathematical models used to approximate the actual behaviour of real diodes to enable calculations and circuit analysis.
In semiconductor physics, the band gap of a semiconductor is of two types, a direct band gap or an indirect band gap.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
A double diode triode is a type of electronic vacuum tube once widely used in radio receivers.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.
The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA; until 1997 Electronic Industries Association) was a standards and trade organization composed as an alliance of trade associations for electronics manufacturers in the United States.
An electronic keyboard or digital keyboard is an electronic musical instrument, an electronic or digital derivative of keyboard instruments.
An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
A Faraday rotator is a polarization rotator based on the Faraday effect, which in turn is based on a magneto-optic effect.
The Fleming valve, also called the Fleming oscillation valve, was a thermionic valve or vacuum tube invented in 1904 by Englishman John Ambrose Fleming as a detector for early radio receivers used in electromagnetic wireless telegraphy.
A flyback diode is a diode connected across an inductor used to eliminate flyback, which is the sudden voltage spike seen across an inductive load when its supply current is suddenly reduced or interrupted.
Prof Frederick Guthrie FRS FRSE (15 October 1833 – 21 October 1886) was a British physicist and chemist and academic author.
In electronics, a mixer, or frequency mixer, is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it.
A frequency-lock, or frequency-locked loop (FLL), is an electronic control system that generates a signal that is locked to the frequency of an input or "reference" signal.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The General Electric Company, or GEC, was a major UK-based industrial conglomerate involved in consumer and defence electronics, communications, and engineering.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Greenleaf Whittier Pickard (February 14, 1877, Portland, Maine – January 8, 1956, Newton, Massachusetts) was a United States radio pioneer.
A Gunn diode, also known as a transferred electron device (TED), is a form of diode, a two-terminal passive semiconductor electronic component, with negative resistance, used in high-frequency electronics.
An H bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in opposite direction.
In vacuum tubes and gas-filled tubes, a hot cathode or thermionic cathode is a cathode electrode which is heated to make it emit electrons due to thermionic emission.
An IMPATT diode (IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time diode) is a form of high-power semiconductor diode used in high-frequency microwave electronics devices.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, CSI, CIE, FRS (30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction.
The JEDEC Solid State Technology Association is an independent semiconductor engineering trade organization and standardization body.
The junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET or JUGFET) is the simplest type of field-effect transistor.
Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) has standard JIS-C-7012 for semiconductor part numbers.
Sir John Ambrose Fleming FRS (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945), an English electrical engineer and physicist, invented the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, and also established the left-hand rule for electric motors.
Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
A keyboard matrix circuit is a design used in most electronic musical keyboards and computer keyboards in which the key switches are connected by a grid of wires, similar to a diode matrix.
A lambda diode is an electronic circuit that combines a complementary pair of field-effect transistors into a two-terminal device that exhibits an area of differential negative resistance much like a tunnel diode.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Reona Esaki (江崎 玲於奈 Esaki Reona, born March 12, 1925), also known as Leo Esaki, is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
A linear circuit is an electronic circuit in which, for a sinusoidal input voltage of frequency f, any steady-state output of the circuit (the current through any component, or the voltage between any two points) is also sinusoidal with frequency f. Note that the output need not be in phase with the input.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
The English language uses many Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes.
Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (∧) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the and of a set of operands is true if and only if all of its operands are true.
In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.
The Marconi Company was a British telecommunications and engineering company that did business under that name from 1963 to 1987.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A metal rectifier is an early type of semiconductor rectifier in which the semiconductor is copper oxide or selenium.
In solid-state physics, a metal–semiconductor (M–S) junction is a type of junction in which a metal comes in close contact with a semiconductor material.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
A motor controller is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor.
Mullard Limited was a British manufacturer of electronic components.
In Europe, the principal method of numbering vacuum tubes ("thermionic valves") was the nomenclature used by the Philips company and its subsidiaries Mullard in the UK, Valvo(de, it) in Germany, Radiotechnique (Miniwatt-Dario brand) in France, and Amperex in the United States, from 1934 on.
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument.
In electronics, negative resistance (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it.
Nichrome (NiCr, nickel-chrome, chrome-nickel, etc.) is any of various alloys of nickel, chromium, and often iron (and possibly other elements).
Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing.
An optical cavity, resonating cavity or optical resonator is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave cavity resonator for light waves.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
An optical isolator, or optical diode, is an optical component which allows the transmission of light in only one direction.
Optical storage is the storage of data on an optically readable medium.
In electronics, an opto-isolator, also called an optocoupler, photocoupler, or optical isolator, is a component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
The peak inverse voltage is either the specified maximum voltage that a diode rectifier can block, or, alternatively, the maximum voltage that a rectifier needs to block in a given circuit.
The pentagrid converter is a type of radio receiving valve (vacuum tube) with five grids used as the frequency mixer stage of a superheterodyne radio receiver.
A pentode is an electronic device having five active electrodes.
A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop abbreviated as PLL is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
Photometry is the science of the measurement of light, in terms of its perceived brightness to the human eye.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A PIN diode is a diode with a wide, undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region.
Pinball is a type of arcade game, in which points are scored by a player manipulating one or more steel balls on a play field inside a glass-covered cabinet called a pinball table (or "pinball machine").
A plate, usually called anode in Britain, is a type of electrode that forms part of a vacuum tube.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power.
A power semiconductor device is a semiconductor device used as a switch or rectifier in power electronics; a switch-mode power supply is an example.
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Pro Electron or EECA is the European type designation and registration system for active components (such as semiconductors, liquid crystal displays, sensor devices, electronic tubes and cathode ray tubes).
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
The saturation current (or scale current), more accurately, the reverse saturation current, is that part of the reverse current in a semiconductor diode caused by diffusion of minority carriers from the neutral regions to the depletion region.
The Schottky diode (named after the German physicist Walter H. Schottky), also known as Schottky barrier diode or hot-carrier diode, is a semiconductor diode formed by the junction of a semiconductor with a metal.
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
A selenium rectifier is a type of metal rectifier, invented in 1933.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
This article is about ionizing radiation detectors.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The silicon bandgap temperature sensor is an extremely common form of temperature sensor (thermometer) used in electronic equipment.
In electronics, slew rate is defined as the change of voltage or current, or any other electrical quantity, per unit of time.
Small-signal modeling is a common analysis technique in electronics engineering which is used to approximate the behavior of electronic circuits containing nonlinear devices with linear equations.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).
The stabistor (also called a forward reference diode) is the technical term used to designate a special type of semiconductor silicon diode featuring extremely stable forward voltage characteristics.
In electronics, a step recovery diode (SRD) is a semiconductor junction diode having the ability to generate extremely short pulses.
A stepper motor or step motor or stepping motor is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
A substrate (also called a wafer) is a solid (usually planar) substance onto which a layer of another substance is applied, and to which that second substance adheres.
A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits.
A tetrode is a vacuum tube (called valve in British English) having four active electrodes.
The term "thermal diode" is sometimes used for a (possibly non-electrical) device which allows heat to flow preferentially in one direction.
Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier.
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials.
The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa via a thermocouple.
A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
A transient event is a short-lived burst of energy in a system caused by a sudden change of state.
A transient-voltage-suppression (TVS) diode, also transil or thyrector, is an electronic component used to protect electronics from voltage spikes induced on connected wires.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
TRIAC, from triode for alternating current, is a generic trademark for a three terminal electronic component that conducts current in either direction when triggered.
A triode is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube (or valve in British English) consisting of three electrodes inside an evacuated glass envelope: a heated filament or cathode, a grid, and a plate (anode).
A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region (up to), made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In electronics, a varicap diode, varactor diode, variable capacitance diode, variable reactance diode or tuning diode is a type of diode designed to exploit the voltage-dependent capacitance of a reversed-biased p–n junction.
A varistor is an electronic component with an electrical resistance that varies with the applied voltage.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Villard cascade voltage multiplier. A voltage multiplier is an electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage, typically using a network of capacitors and diodes.
A voltage reference is an electronic device that ideally produces a fixed (constant) voltage irrespective of the loading on the device, power supply variations, temperature changes, and the passage of time.
In electrical engineering, spikes are fast, short duration electrical transients in voltage (voltage spikes), current (current spikes), or transferred energy (energy spikes) in an electrical circuit.
A microwave (12–18nbspGHz) voltage-controlled oscillator A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is an electronic oscillator whose oscillation frequency is controlled by a voltage input.
A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.
Walter Hans Schottky (23 July 1886 – 4 March 1976) was a German physicist who played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the pentode in 1919 while working at Siemens, co-invented the ribbon microphone and ribbon loudspeaker along with Dr.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.
William Henry Eccles FRS (23 August 1875 – 29 April 1966) was a British physicist and a pioneer in the development of radio communication.
William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor.
Wireless telegraphy is the transmission of telegraphy signals from one point to another by means of an electromagnetic, electrostatic or magnetic field, or by electrical current through the earth or water.
In solid-state physics, the work setting (sometimes spelled workfunction) is the minimum thermodynamic work (i.e. energy) needed to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.
A Zener diode is a particular type of diode that, unlike a normal one, allows current to flow not only from its anode to its cathode, but also in the reverse direction, when the Zener voltage is reached.
In electronics, the Zener effect (employed most notably in the appropriately named Zener diode) is a type of electrical breakdown, discovered by Clarence Melvin Zener.
The 1N400x (or 1N4001 or 1N4000) series is a family of popular 1 A general-purpose silicon rectifier diodes commonly used in AC adapters for common household appliances.
The 1N4148 is a standard silicon switching signal diode.
The 1N58xx is a series of medium power, fast, low voltage Schottky diodes, which consists of part number numbers 1N5817 through 1N5825.
Crystal diode, Diodes, Germanium diode, Ideal diode equation, Junction diode, Point contact diode, Point-contact diode, Power diode, Semiconductor diode, Shockley equation, Shockley's diode equation, Shockley's equation, Silicon diode, Silicon rectifiers, Thermionic diode.