424 relations: Achaea, Acoetes, Adonis, Aeacus, Aeolis, Aeschylus, Agave (mythology), Alexander the Great, Alphesiboea, Althaea (mythology), Ampelos, Ancient Greek art, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Libya, Ancient Rome, Angelos (mythology), Anthesteria, Apaturia, Aphrodite, Apollo, Apollodorus of Athens, Apollonian and Dionysian, Arabian Peninsula, Arcadia, Archetype, Ares, Argolis, Ariadne, Aristophanes, Arnobius, Arrian, Ars Poetica (Horace), Artemis, Arthur Goldhammer, Ascolia, Atë, Athamas, Athena, Athens, Aura (mythology), Ausonius, Autonoë, Aventine Hill, Aventine Triad, Axis mundi, Bacchanalia, Bacchus (Michelangelo), Bacchus and Ariadne, Barberini Faun, Belvedere Torso, ..., Beyond Good and Evil, Biblica (journal), Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Boeotia, British Museum, C. S. 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P. Beekes, Roman mythology, Roman sculpture, Roman triumph, Rome, Sabazios, Sacred bull, Samos, Sarcophagus, Satyr, Scholia, Scotland, Semele, Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, Septimius Severus, Serpent (symbolism), Sicyon, Sigmund Freud, Silenus, Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus, Skopelos, Sleeping Hermaphroditus, Smyrna, Sophocles, Staphylus, Stephanus of Byzantium, Stoa of Attalos, Strabo, Suda, Syncretism, T. P. 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Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa (Αχαΐα Achaïa), is one of the regional units of Greece.
Acoetes (from Greek Ἀκοίτης, via Latin Ăcoetēs) was the name of three men in Greek and Roman mythology.
Adonis was the mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite in Greek mythology.
Aeacus (also spelled Eacus; Ancient Greek: Αἰακός) was a mythological king of the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf.
Aeolis (Ancient Greek: Αἰολίς, Aiolís), or Aeolia (Αἰολία, Aiolía), was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
In Greek mythology, Agave (Ancient Greek: Ἀγαύη, Agauē, "illustrious") was the daughter of Cadmus, the king and founder of the city of Thebes, Greece, and of the goddess Harmonia.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alphesiboea (Ancient Greek: Ἀλφεσιβοίας) was the name of several characters in Greek mythology.
Althaea or Althea (Ἀλθαία Althaía "healer; also a kind of mallow") was the queen of Calydon in Greek mythology.
Ampelos (ἄμπελος) is the Ancient Greek for "vine".
Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
In Greek mythology, Angelos (Ἄγγελος) or Angelia (Ἀγγελία) was a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became known as a chthonic deity.
Anthesteria or the Anthesteria (Ἀνθεστήρια, Anthestḗria) was one of the four Athenian festivals in honor of Dionysus.
Apaturia (Ἀπατούρια) were ancient Greek festivals held annually by all the Ionian towns, except Ephesus and Colophon.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollodorus of Athens (Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades, was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian.
The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical and literary concept, or dichotomy, loosely based on Apollo and Dionysus in Greek mythology.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arcadia (Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.
Argolis or the Argolid (Αργολίδα Argolída,; Ἀργολίς Argolís in ancient Greek and Katharevousa) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Ariadne (Ἀριάδνη; Ariadne), in Greek mythology, was the daughter of Minos—the King of Crete and a son of Zeus—and Pasiphaë—Minos' queen and a daughter of Helios.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Arnobius of Sicca (died c. 330) was an Early Christian apologist of Berber origin, during the reign of Diocletian (284–305).
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Ars Poetica, or "The Art of Poetry," is a poem written by Horace c. 19 BC, in which he advises poets on the art of writing poetry and drama.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Arthur Goldhammer (born November 17, 1946) is an American academic and translator.
Ascolia, in Ancient Greece, was a yearly feast that the peasants of Attica celebrated in honor of Dionysus.
Atë, Até or Aite (or; ἄτη) is the Greek goddess of mischief, delusion, ruin, and folly.
In Greek mythology, Athamas (Ἀθάμας "rich harvest") was a Boeotian king.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
In Greek and Roman mythology, Aura (Αὔρα) is a minor deity, whose name means breeze.
Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius (– c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France.
In Greek mythology, Autonoë (Αὐτονόη) was a daughter of Cadmus, founder of Thebes, Greece, and the goddess Harmonia.
The Aventine Hill (Collis Aventinus; Aventino) is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome was built.
The Aventine Triad (also referred to as the plebeian Triad or the agricultural Triad) is a modern term for the joint cult of the Roman deities Ceres, Liber and Libera.
The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven and Earth.
The Bacchanalia were Roman festivals of Bacchus, based on various ecstatic elements of the Greek Dionysia.
Bacchus (1496–1497) is a marble sculpture by the Italian High Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect and poet Michelangelo.
Bacchus and Ariadne (1522–1523) is an oil painting by Titian.
The life-size marble statue known as the Barberini Faun, Fauno Barberini or Drunken Satyr is located in the Glyptothek in Munich, Germany.
The Belvedere Torso is a fragmentary marble statue of a nude male, known to be in Rome from the 1430s, and signed prominently on the front of the base by "Apollonios, son of Nestor, Athenian", who is unmentioned in ancient literature.
Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche that expands the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, with a more critical and polemical approach.
Biblica is an academic journal published by the Pontifical Biblical Institute.
The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
In Greek mythology, Cadmus (Κάδμος Kadmos), was the founder and first king of Thebes.
A cage cup, also vas diatretum, plural diatreta, or "reticulated cup" is a type of luxury Late Roman glass vessel, found from roughly the 4th century, and "the pinnacle of Roman achievements in glass-making".
Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; 310/305–240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya.
Calydon (Καλυδών; gen.: Καλυδῶνος) was an ancient Greek city in Aetolia, situated on the west bank of the river Evenus, 7.5 Roman miles (approx. 11 km) from the sea.
The Camerini d'alabastro (little rooms of alabaster) are a range of rooms built over the Via Coperta in Ferrara, northern Italy, linking the Castello Estense to the Palazzo Ducale.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.
In Greek mythology, Carmanor or Karmanor (Καρμάνωρ) may refer to the following personages.
In Greek mythology, Carya was a daughter of the Laconian king Dion and Amphithea, daughter of Pronax.
Castor and Pollux (or in Greek, Polydeuces) were twin brothers and demigods in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.
Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes.
A centaur (Κένταυρος, Kéntauros), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a mythological creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse.
Chania (Χανιά,, Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania regional unit.
In Greek mythology, a Charis (Χάρις) or Grace is one of three or more minor goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites (Χάριτες) or Graces.
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
In Greek mythology, Chiron (also Cheiron or Kheiron; Χείρων "hand") was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren, as he was called as the "wisest and justest of all the centaurs".
Chthonic (from translit, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών italic "earth") literally means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Ancient Greek religion.
In Greek mythology, Chthonophyle (Χθονοφύλη) was the daughter of King Sicyon (whose name was given to the city of Sicyon) and Zeuxippe.
Circe (Κίρκη Kírkē) is a goddess of magic or sometimes a nymph, witch, enchantress or sorceress in Greek mythology.
Cithaeron or Kithairon (Κιθαιρών, -ῶνος) is a mountain and mountain range about 10 mi (16 km) long, in central Greece.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
Comparative mythology is the comparison of myths from different cultures in an attempt to identify shared themes and characteristics.
In Greek mythology, Comus (Κῶμος) is the god of festivity, revels and nocturnal dalliances.
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
In Greek mythology, the name Coresus (Κόρησος) may refer to.
The crone is a stock character in folklore and fairy tale, an old woman.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
The Cult of Dionysus is strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni, and its characteristic symbols are the bull, the serpent, tigers/leopards, the ivy, and the wine.
Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.
Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"), which originally referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit; the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic religion and philosophy.
Damascius (Δαμάσκιος, 458 – after 538), known as "the last of the Neoplatonists," was the last scholarch of the School of Athens.
Dancer of Pergamon is the modern name for a Hellenistic statue of a woman from Pergamon, which is now kept at the Antikensammlung Berlin.
The over-lifesize Dancing Satyr of Mazara del Vallo is a Greek bronze statue, whose refinement and rapprochement with the manner of Praxiteles has made it a subject of discussion.
Deianira, Deïanira, or Deianeira (Δηϊάνειρα, Dēiáneira, or Δῃάνειρα, Dēáneira), also known as Dejanira, is a figure in Greek mythology whose name translates as "man-destroyer" or "destroyer of her husband".
The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
The Derveni Krater is a volute krater, the most elaborate of its type, discovered in 1962 in a tomb at Derveni, not far from Thessaloniki, and displayed at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Dione (Διώνη, Diōnē) was an ancient Greek goddess, an oracular TitanessSmith, William.
The Dionysia was a large festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central events of which were the theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and, from 487 BC, comedies.
The Dionysiaca (Διονυσιακά, Dionysiaká) is an ancient Greek epic poem and the principal work of Nonnus.
The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which sometimes used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques (like dance and music) to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return to a natural state.
Dionies Vos (1612 – 25 October 1633), often known by his Latin name Dionysius Vossius, was a Dutch translator.
Aesymnetes (Ancient Greek: Ἁισυμνήτης) was an epithet of the Greek god Dionysus, which signifies the "Lord", or "Ruler", and under which he was worshipped at Aroë in Achaea.
The Dionysus Cup is the modern name for one of the best known works of ancient Greek vase painting, a kylix (drinking cup) dating to 540–530 BC.
Dionysus in '69 is a 1970 film by Brian De Palma.
Dionysus in 69 was a theatrical production by The Performance Group (TGP), a New York-based experimental theatre group.
The Dionysus Sardanapalus is an uncommon Hellenistic-Roman Neo Attic sculpture-type of the god Dionysus, misnamed after the king Sardanapalus.
The dithyramb (διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god: Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb." Plato also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.
Donna Tartt (born December 23, 1963) is an American writer, the author of the novels The Secret History (1992), The Little Friend (2002), and ''The Goldfinch'' (2013).
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Drunken Silenus is a painting by Jusepe de Ribera, produced in 1626 in Naples and now in the Museo di Capodimonte in Naples.
Drunken Silenus is a 1620 painting by Anthony van Dyck, now in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden.
A dying-and-rising, death-rebirth, or resurrection deity is a religious motif in which a god or goddess dies and is resurrected.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Eastford is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States.
Ecce homo ("behold the man") are the Latin words used by Pontius Pilate in the Vulgate translation of John 19:5.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eileithyia or Ilithyia (Εἰλείθυια;,Ἐλεύθυια (Eleuthyia) in Crete, also Ἐλευθία (Eleuthia) or Ἐλυσία (Elysia) in Laconia and Messene, and Ἐλευθώ (Eleuthō) in literature) was the Greek goddess of childbirth and midwifery.
The Eleusinian Mysteries (Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiations held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece.
Eleusis (Ελευσίνα Elefsina, Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσίς Eleusis) is a town and municipality in West Attica, Greece.
Emotionality is the observable behavioral and physiological component of emotion.
In Greek mythology, Enorches (Enorchês) was a son of Thyestes by his sister Daeta.
Enyo (Ancient Greek: Ἐνυώ) was a goddess of war in Classical Greek mythology.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Eris (Ἔρις, "Strife") is the Greek goddess of strife and discord.
In Greek mythology, Eros (Ἔρως, "Desire") was the Greek god of sexual attraction.
In Greek mythology, Ersa or Herse (Ἔρσα Érsa, Ἕρση Hérsē, literally "dew") is the goddess of dew and the daughter of Zeus and the Moon (Selene), sister of Pandia and half-sister to Endymion's 50 daughters.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Euhemerism is an approach to the interpretation of mythology in which mythological accounts are presumed to have originated from real historical events or personages.
Euphrosyne (Εὐφροσύνη), in ancient Greek religion, was one of the Charites, known in English as the "Three Graces".
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Fantasia is a 1940 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and released by Walt Disney Productions.
Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.
Ferula (from Latin ferula, "rod") is a genus of about 170 species of flowering plants in the carrot family, native to the Mediterranean region east to central Asia, mostly growing in arid climates.
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
In Etruscan mythology, Fufluns (or Puphluns) was a god of plant life, happiness, wine, health, and growth in all things.
The Furietti Centaurs (known as the Old Centaur and Young Centaur, or Older Centaur and Younger Centaur, when being treated separately) are a pair of Hellenistic or Roman grey-black marble sculptures of centaurs based on Hellenistic models.
In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.
Georgius Gemistus (Γεώργιος Γεμιστός; /1360 – 1452/1454), later called Plethon (Πλήθων), was one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Gerrit Janszoon Vos (March or April 1577, Heidelberg – 19 March 1649, Amsterdam), often known by his Latin name Gerardus Vossius, was a Dutch classical scholar and theologian.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
Golders Green Crematorium and Mausoleum was the first crematorium to be opened in London, and one of the oldest crematoria in Britain.
Mystery religions, sacred mysteries or simply mysteries were religious schools of the Greco-Roman world for which participation was reserved to initiates (mystai).
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Asia Minor.
In mythology, the Greek underworld is an otherworld where souls go after death.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272).
In Greek mythology, Harmonia (Ἁρμονία) is the immortal goddess of harmony and concord.
Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American novelist, best known for his work in the genres of alternate history, historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction.
Hebe (Ἥβη) in ancient Greek religion, is the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas).
Hedera, commonly called ivy (plural ivies), is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
Hellenistic art is the art of the period in classical antiquity generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 31 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The Hellfire Caves (also known as the West Wycombe Caves) are a network of man-made chalk and flint caverns which extend a quarter of a mile (500 metres) underground.
Hellfire Club was a name for several exclusive clubs for high society rakes established in Britain and Ireland in the 18th century.
Hendrick Goltzius (January or February 1558 – 1 January 1617) was a German-born Dutch printmaker, draftsman, and painter.
Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
In Greek mythology, Hermaphroditus or Hermaphroditos (Ἑρμαφρόδιτος) was the son of Aphrodite and Hermes.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
Hermes and the Infant Dionysus, also known as the Hermes of Praxiteles or the Hermes of Olympia is an ancient Greek sculpture of Hermes and the infant Dionysus discovered in 1877 in the ruins of the Temple of Hera, Olympia, in Greece.
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
In Ancient Greek religion, Hestia (Ἑστία, "hearth" or "fireside") is a virgin goddess of the hearth, architecture, and the right ordering of domesticity, the family, the home, and the state.
Hesychius of Alexandria (Ἡσύχιος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς), a Greek grammarian who, probably in the 5th or 6th century AD, compiled the richest lexicon of unusual and obscure Greek words that has survived, probably by absorbing the works of earlier lexicographers.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The Homeric Hymns are a collection of thirty-three anonymous ancient Greek hymns celebrating individual gods.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
In Greek mythology the Horae or Horai or Hours (Ὧραι, Hōrai,, "Seasons") were the goddesses of the seasons and the natural portions of time.
Household Gods is a 1999 science fiction time-travel novel written by Harry Turtledove and Judith Tarr.
In Greek mythology, the Hyades (Ὑάδες, popularly "the rainy ones" from ὕω hyo "I fall as rain", but probably from ὗς hys "swine") are a sisterhood of nymphs that bring rain.
The Hyades (Greek Ὑάδες, also known as Melotte 25 or Collinder 50) is the nearest open cluster and one of the best-studied star clusters.
Hymen (Ὑμήν), Hymenaios or Hymenaeus, in Hellenistic religion, is a god of marriage ceremonies, inspiring feasts and song.
Hysteria, in the colloquial use of the term, means ungovernable emotional excess.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Iacchus (also Iacchos, Iakchos) (Ἴακχος) was a minor deity, of some cultic importance, particularly at Athens and Eleusis in connection with the Eleusinian mysteries, but without any significant mythology.
Icaria, also spelled Ikaria (Ικαρία), is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, 10 nautical miles (19 km) southwest of Samos.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
In Greek mythology Ino (Ἰνώ) was a mortal queen of Thebes, who after her death and transfiguration was worshiped as a goddess under her epithet Leucothea, the "white goddess." Alcman called her "Queen of the Sea" (θαλασσομέδουσα), which, if not hyperbole, would make her a doublet of Amphitrite.
Inverkeithing is a town and a royal burgh, and parish, in Fife, Scotland, located on the Firth of Forth.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Isaak Vossius, sometimes anglicised Isaac Voss (1618 in Leiden – 21 February 1689 in Windsor, Berkshire) was a Dutch scholar and manuscript collector.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
The word joy means a feeling of great pleasure and happiness.
Judith Tarr (born in Augusta, Maine, January 30, 1955) is an American fantasy and science fiction author.
Jusepe de Ribera (baptized February 17, 1591; died September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera.
Kastelli Hill (also Kasteli; Λόφος Καστέλλι or Καστέλι) is a landform at the city of Chania on the island of Crete in the present day country of Greece.
Károly (Carl, Karl) Kerényi (Kerényi Károly,; 19 January 1897 – 14 April 1973) was a Hungarian scholar in classical philology and one of the founders of modern studies of Greek mythology.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
In the pottery of ancient Greece, a kylix (κύλιξ, pl.; also spelled cylix; pl.: kylikes) is the most common type of wine-drinking cup.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Lees are deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of "fining", to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and aging.
The Lenaia (Λήναια) was an annual Athenian festival with a dramatic competition.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Leptis Magna (also Lepcis, Berber: Lubta, Neo-Punic: lpqy) was a prominent city in Roman Libya.
In classical Greece, Lerna (Λέρνη) was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
In Greek mythology, Leto (Λητώ Lētṓ; Λατώ, Lātṓ in Doric Greek) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe, the sister of Asteria.
In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Liber ("the free one"), also known as Liber Pater ("the free Father"), was a god of viticulture and wine, fertility and freedom.
In ancient Roman religion, Libera was a goddess of wine, fertility and freedom.
The Liberalia (17 March) is the festival of Liber Pater and his consort Libera.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This is an index to deities of the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world, listed by type and by region.
Litae (Λιταί meaning 'Prayers') are personifications in Greek mythology.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
The over-lifesize marble Dionysus with Panther and Satyr in the Palazzo Altemps, Rome, is a Roman work of the 2nd century CE, found in the 16th century on the Quirinal Hill at the time foundations were being dug for Palazzo Mattei at Quattro Fontane.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Lycurgus Cup is a 4th-century Roman glass cage cup made of a dichroic glass, which shows a different colour depending on whether or not light is passing through it; red when lit from behind and green when lit from in front.
In Greek mythology, Lycurgus(/laɪˈkɜːrɡəs/; Greek: Λυκοῦργος, Lykoûrgos, Ancient Greek:; c. 820 BC) (also Lykurgos, Lykourgos) was the king of the Edoni in Thrace, son of Dryas, the "oak", and father of a son whose name was also Dryas.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
In Greek mythology, Macris was a daughter of Aristaeus and Autonoe.
In Greek mythology, maenads (μαινάδες) were the female followers of Dionysus and the most significant members of the Thiasus, the god's retinue.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Maia (or; Μαῖα; Maia), in ancient Greek religion, is one of the Pleiades and the mother of Hermes.
Marcel Detienne (born 1935) is a Belgian historian and specialist in the study of ancient Greece.
Maron or Maro (Μάρων, gen. Μάρωνος) in mythology was son of Evanthes (some also call him a son of Oenopion, Silenus or of Bacchus, and a pupil of Seilenus), and grandson of Dionysus and Ariadne.
Martin Hengel (14 December 1926 – 2 July 2009) was a German historian of religion, focusing on the "Second Temple Period" or "Hellenistic Period" of early Judaism and Christianity.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Metis (Greek: Μῆτις - "wisdom," "skill," or "craft"), in ancient Greek religion, was a mythical Titaness belonging to the second generation of Titans.
Midas (Μίδας) is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
In Greek mythology, Minos (Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
In Greek mythology, the Moirai or Moerae or (Μοῖραι, "apportioners"), often known in English as the Fates (Fata, -orum (n)), were the white-robed incarnations of destiny; their Roman equivalent was the Parcae (euphemistically the "sparing ones").
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Christopher Montague Woodhouse, 5th Baron Terrington, DSO, OBE (11 May 1917 – 13 February 2001) was a Conservative politician and Member of Parliament for Oxford from 1959 to 1966 and again from 1970 to 1974.
The mos maiorum ("ancestral custom" or "way of the ancestors," plural mores, cf. English "mores"; maiorum is the genitive plural of "greater" or "elder") is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
The mosaics of Delos are a significant body of ancient Greek mosaic art.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Mount Olympus (Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek also transliterated Olimbos, or) is the highest mountain in Greece.
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
In Greek mythology, the Naiads (Greek: Ναϊάδες) are a type of female spirit, or nymph, presiding over fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of fresh water.
The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.
The National Roman Museum (Italian: Museo Nazionale Romano) is a museum, with several branches in separate buildings throughout the city of Rome, Italy.
Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.
Neo-Attic or Atticizing is a sculptural style, beginning in Hellenistic sculpture and vase-painting of the 2nd century BCE and climaxing in Roman art of the 2nd century CE, copying, adapting or closely following the style shown in reliefs and statues of the Classical (5th–4th centuries BCE) and Archaic (6th century BCE) periods.
In Greek mythology, Nicaea or Nikaia was a naiad nymph ("the Astakid nymph", as referred to by Nonnus) of the springs or fountain of the Greek colony of Nikaia in Bithynia (northwestern Anatolia) or else the goddess of the adjacent lake Askanios (Ascanius).
Nicolas Poussin (June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome.
Nonnus of Panopolis (Νόννος ὁ Πανοπολίτης, Nónnos ho Panopolítēs) was a Greek epic poet of Hellenized Egypt of the Imperial Roman era.
Northern Mannerism is the form of Mannerism found in the visual arts north of the Alps in the 16th and early 17th centuries.
Nudity, or nakedness, is the state of wearing no clothing.
A nymph (νύμφη, nýmphē) in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.
In Greek mythology, the mountainous district of Nysa (Νῦσα), variously associated with Ethiopia, Libya, Tribalia, India or Arabia by Greek mythographers, was the traditional place where the rain nymphs, the Hyades, raised the infant god Dionysus, the "Zeus of Nysa".
In Greek Mythology, the Nysiads or Nysiades (Νυσιάδες) were Okeanid nymphs of mythical Mount Nysa.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Oedipus Rex, also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus (Οἰδίπους Τύραννος IPA), or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC.
In Greek mythology, Oenopion (Ancient Greek: Οἰνοπίων, Oinopíōn, English translation: "wine drinker", "wine-rich") was a legendary king of Chios, and was said to have brought winemaking to the island, which was assigned to him by Rhadamanthys.
Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olymbía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.
Omophagia, or omophagy (from Greek "raw") is the eating of raw flesh.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
In ancient Greek religion, an orgion (ὄργιον, more commonly in the plural orgia) was an ecstatic form of worship characteristic of some mystery cults.
In modern usage, an orgy is a sex party where guests freely engage in open and unrestrained sexual activity or group sex.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
Orpheus (Ὀρφεύς, classical pronunciation) is a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Orphism (more rarely Orphicism; Ὀρφικά) is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, as well as by the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into the Greek underworld and returned.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Pactolus (Sart Çayı) is a river near the Aegean coast of Turkey.
Paculla Annia was a Campanian priestess of Bacchus.
In Greek mythology, the name Pallene (Παλλήνη) may refer to.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan (Πάν, Pan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.
In Greek mythology, the goddess Pandia or Pandeia (Πανδία, Πανδεία, meaning "all brightness") was a daughter of Zeus and the goddess Selene, the Greek personification of the moon.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
A Panther is a creature in ancient legend that resembles a big cat with a multicoloured hide.
Paphos (Πάφος; Baf) is a coastal city in the southwest of Cyprus and the capital of Paphos District.
In Greek mythology, Pasithea ("relaxation"), or Pasithee, was one of the Charites (Graces), and the personification of relaxation, meditation, hallucinations and all other altered states of consciousness.
A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.
Patras (Πάτρα, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.),, Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, west of Athens.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
In Greek mythology, Pentheus (Πενθεύς) was a king of Thebes.
Percy Jackson & the Olympians, often shortened to Percy Jackson, is a pentalogy of fantasy adventure novels written by American author Rick Riordan, and the first book series in the Camp Half-Blood Chronicles.
In Greek mythology, Persephone (Περσεφόνη), also called Kore ("the maiden"), is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter and is the queen of the underworld.
In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Phædo or Phaedo (Φαίδων, Phaidōn), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul, is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
Pherecydes of Syros (Φερεκύδης ὁ Σύριος; fl. 6th century BC) was a Greek thinker from the island of Syros.
Phigalia or Phigaleia (Φιγαλεία or Φιγάλεια) is an ancient Greek city in the south-west corner of Arcadia.
Phlias or Phlius or Phliasus was the son of Dionysus and Chthonophyle in Greek mythology.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
In Greek mythology, Phthonus (Φθόνος, Phthónos) was the personification of jealousy and envy, especially in matters of love.
In Greek mythology, Physcoa (Φυσκόα, Phuskóa) was a woman from the deme Orthia of Elis.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath", and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul".
The Pontifical Biblical Institute (it: Pontificio Istituto Biblico), or "'Biblicum'", in Rome, Italy, is an institution of the Holy See that is run by the Jesuits and offers instruction at the university level.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.
In Greek mythology, Priapus (Πρίαπος, Priapos) was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia.
Prince Caspian (originally published as Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia) is a high fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by Geoffrey Bles in 1951.
Prosymnus or Polymnus (Πρόσυμνος/Πόλυμνος), in Greek mythology, was a shepherd living near the reputedly bottomless Alcyonian Lake, hazardous to swimmers, which lay in the Argolid, on the coast of the Gulf of Argos, near the prehistoric site of Lerna.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The Protrepticus (Προτρεπτικὸς πρὸς Ἕλληνας: "Exhortation to the Greeks") is the first of the three surviving works of Clement of Alexandria, a Christian theologian of the 2nd century.
In Greek mythology, Psalacantha (Ψαλάκανθα) was a nymph of the island Icaria.
Pseudanor (Greek: pseudo- + anēr "false man", metaphorically an "effeminate man") was a Macedonian epithet applied to Dionysus.
In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Religious ecstasy is a reported type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional (and sometimes physical) euphoria.
Remich (Réimech) is a commune with town status in south-eastern Luxembourg with a population of 3,645 inhabitants.
The Resting Satyr or Leaning Satyr, also known as the Satyr anapauomenos (in ancient Greek ἀναπαυόμενος, from ἀναπαύω / anapaúô, to rest) is a statue type generally attributed to the ancient Greek sculptor Praxiteles.
In Greek mythology, Rhadamanthus or Rhadamanthys (Ῥαδάμανθυς) was a wise king of Crete.
Rhea (Ῥέα) is a character in Greek mythology, the Titaness daughter of the earth goddess Gaia and the sky god Uranus as well as sister and wife to Cronus.
Richard Russell Riordan Jr. (born June 5, 1964), is an American author.
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017) was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
The study of Roman sculpture is complicated by its relation to Greek sculpture.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sabazios (translit, Savázios) is the horseman and sky father god of the Phrygians and Thracians.
Numerous peoples throughout the world have at one point in time honored bulls as sacred.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.
In Greek mythology, a satyr (σάτυρος satyros) is the member of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus; they usually have horse-like ears and tails, as well as permanent, exaggerated erections.
Scholia (singular scholium or scholion, from σχόλιον, "comment, interpretation") are grammatical, critical, or explanatory comments, either original or extracted from pre-existing commentaries, which are inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author, as glosses.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Semele (Σεμέλη Semelē), in Greek mythology, is a daughter of the Boeotian hero Cadmus and Harmonia, and the mother of Dionysus by Zeus in one of his many origin myths.
The senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus ("senatorial decree concerning the Bacchanalia") is a notable Old Latin inscription dating to 186 BC.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.
Sicyon (Σικυών; gen.: Σικυῶνος) was an ancient Greek city state situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day regional unit of Corinthia.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
In Greek mythology, Silenus (Greek: Σειληνός Seilēnos) was a companion and tutor to the wine god Dionysus.
Sine Cerere et Baccho friget Venus, Latin for Without Ceres and Bacchus, Venus freezes, or Sine Cerere et Libero friget Venus, is a quotation from the Roman comedian Terence (c. 195/185 – c. 159 BC) that became a proverb in the Early Modern period.
Skopelos (Σκόπελος) is a Greek island in the western Aegean Sea.
The Sleeping Hermaphroditus is an ancient marble sculpture depicting Hermaphroditus life size.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
Staphylus (Στάφυλος "grape cluster") is one of several personages of ancient Greek mythology, almost always associated with grapes or wine.
Stephen of Byzantium, also known as Stephanus Byzantinus (Greek: Στέφανος Βυζάντιος; fl. 6th century AD), was the author of an important geographical dictionary entitled Ethnica (Ἐθνικά).
The Stoa of Attalos (also spelled Attalus) was a stoa (covered walkway or portico) in the Agora of Athens, Greece.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Timothy Peter Wiseman (born 3 February 1940), who usually publishes as T. P.
In Greek mythology, Telete was the daughter of Dionysus and Nicaea.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Thalia (Θαλία Thalía, "Abundance"), in ancient Greek religion, was one of the three Graces or Charites with her sisters Aglaea and Euphrosyne.
In Greek mythology, Thanatos (Θάνατος, pronounced in "Death", from θνῄσκω thnēskō "to die, be dying") was the personification of death.
The Antichrist (Der Antichrist) is a book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1895.
The Bacchae (Βάκχαι, Bakchai; also known as The Bacchantes) is an ancient Greek tragedy, written by the Athenian playwright Euripides during his final years in Macedonia, at the court of Archelaus I of Macedon.
The Bacchanal of the Andrians is an oil painting by Titian.
The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) is an 1872 work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels by C. S. Lewis.
The Frogs (Βάτραχοι Bátrachoi, "Frogs"; Latin: Ranae, often abbreviated Ran.) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes.
The Frogs is a musical "freely adapted" by Stephen Sondheim and Burt Shevelove from The Frogs, an Ancient Greek comedy by Aristophanes.
The Mythology of All Races is a 13-volume book series edited by Louis Herbert Gray between 1916-1932 with George Foot Moore as consulting editor.
The Secret History is the first novel by Donna Tartt, published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1992.
The Triumph of Bacchus (Greek title is Ο Θρίαμβος του Βάκχου) is a painting by Diego Velázquez, now in the Museo del Prado, in Madrid.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
The Theatre of Dionysus Eleuthereus is a major theatre in Athens, considered to be the world's first theatre, built at the foot of the Athenian Acropolis.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Theocritus (Θεόκριτος, Theokritos; fl. c. 270 BC), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC.
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
Theophany (from Ancient Greek (ἡ) θεοφάνεια theophaneia, meaning "appearance of a god") is the appearance of a deity to a human.
A theophoric name (from Greek: θεόφορος, theophoros, literally "bearing or carrying a god") embeds the name of a god, both invoking and displaying the protection of that deity.
Theseus (Θησεύς) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.
Thessaly (Θεσσαλία, Thessalía; ancient Thessalian: Πετθαλία, Petthalía) is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region of Greece, comprising most of the ancient region of the same name.
Thetis (Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles.
In Greek mythology and religion, the thiasus (Greek thiasos), was the ecstatic retinue of Dionysus, often pictured as inebriated revelers.
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee.
In Greek mythology, Thoas was a son of the god Dionysus and Ariadne, the daughter of Cretan king Minos.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
A thyrsus or thyrsos (θύρσος) was a wand or staff of giant fennel (Ferula communis) covered with ivy vines and leaves, sometimes wound with taeniae and topped with a pine cone or by a bunch of vine-leaves and grapes or ivy-leaves and berries.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
In Greek mythology, Tiresias (Τειρεσίας, Teiresias) was a blind prophet of Apollo in Thebes, famous for clairvoyance and for being transformed into a woman for seven years.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
A triclinium (plural: triclinia) is a formal dining room in a Roman building.
relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.
Twilight of the Idols, or, How to Philosophize with a Hammer (Götzen-Dämmerung, oder, Wie man mit dem Hammer philosophiert) is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche, written in 1888, and published in 1889.
The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek: Τυρρηνοί Turrhēnoi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic: Τυρσηνοί Tursēnoi; Doric: Τυρσανοί Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people.
The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.
Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The Veroli Casket is a casket, made in Constantinople (now Istanbul) in the late tenth or early eleventh century, and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae.
Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov (Вячесла́в Ива́нович Ива́нов; – 16 July 1949) was a Russian poet and playwright associated with the Russian Symbolist movement.
William Henry Denham (W. H. D.) Rouse (30 May 1863 – 10 February 1950) was a pioneering British teacher who advocated the use of the Direct Method of teaching Latin and Greek.
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
Walter Burkert (born 2 February 1931, Neuendettelsau; died 11 March 2015, Zurich) was a German scholar of Greek mythology and cult.
The will to power (der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Sir William Smith (20 May 1813 – 7 October 1893) was an English lexicographer.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A wine press is a device used to extract juice from crushed grapes during wine making.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Zagreus (Ζαγρεύς) was sometimes identified with a god worshipped by the followers of Orphism, the “first Dionysus”, a son of Zeus and Persephone, who was dismembered by the Titans and reborn.
Zalmoxis (Ζάλμοξις) is a supposed divinity of the Getae and Dacians (a people of the lower Danube), mentioned by Herodotus in his ''Histories'' Book IV, 93–96, written before 425 BC.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Acratophorus, Aegobolus, Bacchic, Bacchic Art, Bacchic art, Bacchino, Bacchus, Bacchus (god), Bacchus (mythology), Bachus, Di-wo-ni-so-jo, Dionysiac cult, Dionysis, Dionysos, Dionysos Dendrites, Dionysus Dendrites, Dionysus,, Diónysos, Dyonisos, Dyonysus, Father Bacchus, God of Wine, God of wine, Layios, Liknites, Lyaeus, Lyoeus, Lyæus, Morychus, Διόνυσος, Διώνυσος.