100 relations: Allophone, Ancient Greek, Approximant consonant, Australian English, Balearic dialect, Bernese German, Brazilian Portuguese, British English, California English, Canadian English, Canadian raising, Cantonese, Catalan phonology, Close vowel, Cornish language, Czech phonology, Diacritic, Diaeresis (prosody), Digraph (orthography), Dutch phonology, English language, Erft, European Portuguese, Faroese language, Finnish language, Finnish phonology, French phonology, General American, German dialects, Great Vowel Shift, Hiatus (linguistics), Icelandic language, Icelandic phonology, Index of phonetics articles, Indonesian language, International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, Inverted breve, Irish language, Irish phonology, Italian language, Khmer language, Kolo (magazine), L-vocalization, Languages of Indonesia, Limburg (Belgium), Maltese language, Middle English, Middle High German, Minimal pair, ..., Modern Cornish, Monophthong, Monophthongization, Mora (linguistics), Near-close vowel, North-Central American English, Northern Sami, Norwegian phonology, Old English, Open vowel, Palatal approximant, Phoneme, Phonetics, Pleurisy, Quebec French, Received Pronunciation, Rhoticity in English, Samoan language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Seine fishing, Semivowel, Serbo-Croatian phonology, SIL International, Sonorant, Southern American English, Spanish phonology, Speech organ, Speech production, Standard Chinese, Standard German phonology, Standard Written Form, Stress (linguistics), Syllable, Table of vowels, Thai language, Triphthong, Vietnamese language, Voiced labio-velar approximant, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Vowel shift, Walter de Gruyter, Welsh language, Welsh phonology, Western Australian English, Western Pennsylvania English, Yiddish phonology, Zulu language. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Balearic (balear) is the collective name for the dialects of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands: mallorquí in Majorca, eivissenc in Ibiza, and menorquí in Menorca.
Bernese German (Standard German: Berndeutsch, Bärndütsch) is the dialect of High Alemannic German spoken in the Swiss plateau (Mittelland) part of the canton of Bern and in some neighbouring regions.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
California English (or Californian English) collectively refers to American English in California, particularly an emerging youthful variety, mostly associated with speakers of urban and coastal California.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Canadian raising is an allophonic rule of phonology in many dialects of North American English that changes the pronunciation of diphthongs with open-vowel starting points.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
In poetic meter, diaeresis (or, also spelled diæresis or dieresis) has two meanings: the separate pronunciation of the two vowels in a diphthong for the sake of meter, and a division between feet that corresponds to the division between words.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Erft is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in the former Häme Province in central south Finland.
French phonology is the sound system of French.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Unlike many languages, Icelandic has only very minor dialectal differences in sounds.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (̑), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘).
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Kolo is a Croatian literary magazine published by Matica hrvatska.
L-vocalization, in linguistics, is a process by which a lateral approximant sound such as, or, more often, velarized, is replaced by a vowel or a semivowel.
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: Limburg; Limbourg) is a province in Belgium.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Modern Cornish (Kernuack Nowedga) is a variety of the revived Cornish language.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
Monophthongization is a sound change by which a diphthong becomes a monophthong, a type of vowel shift.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
North-Central American English (also known as the Upper Midwestern or North Central dialect in the United States) is an American English dialect native to the Upper Midwestern United States, an area that somewhat overlaps with speakers of the separate Inland North dialect, centered more around the eastern Great Lakes region.
Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae).
Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.
Seine fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech organs or articulators, produce the sounds of language.
Speech production is the process by which thoughts are translated into speech.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
The Standard Written Form or SWF (Furv Skrifys Savonek) of the Cornish language is an orthography standard that is designed to "provide public bodies and the educational system with a universally acceptable, inclusive, and neutral orthography".
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
This table lists the vowel letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
A vowel shift is a systematic sound change in the pronunciation of the vowel sounds of a language.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are rare in European languages, such as the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and several voiceless sonorants (nasals and liquids), some of which result from consonant mutation.
Western Australian English is the English spoken in the Australian state of Western Australia (WA).
Western Pennsylvania English, known more narrowly as Pittsburgh English or popularly by outsiders as Pittsburghese, is a dialect of American English native primarily to the western half of Pennsylvania, centered on the city of Pittsburgh, but potentially appearing as far north as Erie County, as far east as Sunbury, Pennsylvania, as far west as metropolitan Youngstown (Ohio), and as far south as micropolitan Clarksburg (West Virginia).
— There is significant phonological variation among the various Yiddish dialects.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
Ascending diphthong, Aʊ (IPA), Cent(e)ring diphthong, Centering diphthong, Centring diphthong, Centring diphthongs, Close front rounded to unrounded diphthong, Close front unrounded to open back diphthong, Close front unrounded to rounded diphthong, Closing diphthong, Descending diphthong, Diphthongation, Diphthongs, Diphtong, Dipthong, Dipthongs, Eɪ (IPA), Falling diphthong, Falling diphthongs, Gliding vowel, Height harmonic, Height harmonic diphthong, Height-harmonic, Height-harmonic diphthong, Long diphthong, Open back unrounded to close front diphthong, Opening diphthong, Oʊ (IPA), Rising diphthong, Short diphthong, Vowel cluster, Vowel clusters, Ɔɪ (IPA), Δίφθογγος, Аɪ (IPA).