248 relations: Abnormality (behavior), Actuarial science, Acute (medicine), Acute coronary syndrome, Addiction, Affect (psychology), Airborne disease, Allergy, Anorexia (symptom), Anxiety disorder, Asymptomatic, Athlete's foot, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Autism rights movement, Autoimmunity, Bacteria, Behavior, Benefit–cost ratio, Biology, Biopsychosocial model, Biostatistics, Birth, Birth defect, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Bright-line rule, Burn, Cachexia, Canada, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Cancer, Cancer survivor, Cardiovascular disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Cerebrovascular disease, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Chemotherapy, Chickenpox, Childbirth, Chronic condition, Cognitive synonymy, Common cold, Comorbidity, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, Complication (medicine), Conflict of interest, Connotation, Contagious disease, ..., Coronary artery disease, Count noun, Cure, Da Costa's syndrome, Death, Death by natural causes, Degenerative disease, Denotation, Depression (mood), Developmental disability, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diarrhea, Disability, Disability-adjusted life year, Disease burden, Disease mongering, Diseases of affluence, Diseases of poverty, Disseminated disease, Distress (medicine), Dorland's medical reference works, Down syndrome, Emergency department, Emotion, Emotional and behavioral disorders, Environmental disease, Epidemiology, Epilepsy, Evidence-based medicine, Evolutionary medicine, Exercise, Eye disease, Fasting, Feces, Foodborne illness, Fulminant, Functional disorder, Genetic disorder, Geographic information science, Global spread of H5N1, Gut flora, Health insurance, Health system, Helicobacter pylori, Heredity, HIV/AIDS, Hmong people, Host–pathogen interaction, Human variability, Hyperalgesia, Hypersensitivity, Hypertension, ICD-10, ICU scoring systems, Idiopathic disease, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Immunodeficiency, Incidence (epidemiology), Incubation period, Infection, Influenza, Injury, Insanity, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Leprosy, Lesion, Lethargy, Lifestyle disease, List of incurable diseases, Localized disease, Lower respiratory tract infection, Major depressive disorder, Malaria, Mass noun, Mechanism (biology), Medical device, Medical emergency, Medical literature, Medical sign, Medical sociology, Medical state, Medicalization, Medication, MedlinePlus, Mental disorder, Metabolic disorder, Metaphor, Metastasis, Metonymy, Microorganism, Military, Mitochondrial disease, Mortality rate, Mutation, Myocardial infarction, Narrative, National Institute of Mental Health, Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Non-communicable disease, Nosology, Nutrition, Obesity, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Organ system, Organism, Outbreak, Pain, Pain management, Parkinsonism, Passenger virus, Pathogen, Pathogenesis, Pathogenic bacteria, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Peptic ulcer disease, Physical disorder, Plant pathology, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Poverty, Prediabetes, Pregnancy, Prehypertension, Prenatal development, Preterm birth, Prevalence, Preventive healthcare, Prion, Prodrome, Progressive disease, Psychiatry, Psychosocial, Psychotherapy, Public health, Quality-adjusted life year, Ramadan, Rare disease, Relapse, Repetitive strain injury, Risk factor, Root cause, Sanitation, Schizophrenia, Sedentary lifestyle, Self-care, Senescence, Sequela, Sexually transmitted infection, Shell shock, Shingles, Sick role, Sickness behavior, Slate (magazine), Slavery, Social determinants of health, Social determinants of health in poverty, Social issue, Social science, Social status, Social stigma, Sociology of health and illness, Somnolence, Stroke, Subclinical infection, Substance abuse, Surgery, Symptom, Syndemic, Syndrome, Systemic disease, Therapy, Traffic collision, Transcendence (religion), Transmission (medicine), Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis in human culture, United States National Library of Medicine, Unnecessary health care, Urgent care, Vaccination, Value judgment, Varicella zoster virus, Vector (epidemiology), Vertically transmitted infection, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Viral disease, Virus latency, War on Cancer, White House, Word sense, World Health Organization, Years of potential life lost, Yom Kippur, Your Disease Risk. Expand index (198 more) » « Shrink index
Abnormality (or dysfunctional behavior) is a behavioral characteristic assigned to those with conditions regarded as rare or dysfunctional.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Athlete's foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) is Australia's national agency for information and statistics on Australia’s health and welfare.
The autism rights movement (ARM), also known as the autistic culture movement, is a social movement within the neurodiversity and disability rights movements that encourages autistic people, their caregivers and society to adopt a position of neurodiversity, accepting autism as a variation in functioning rather than a disorder to be cured.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
A benefit-cost ratio (BCR) is an indicator, used in cost-benefit analysis, that attempts to summarize the overall value for money of a project or proposal.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
A bright-line rule (or bright-line test) is a clearly defined rule or standard in the United States, composed of objective factors, which leaves little or no room for varying interpretation.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Medical Association Journal (French Journal de l'Association Médicale Canadienne) is a peer-reviewed general medical journal published by the Canadian Medical Association (CMA).
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A cancer survivor is a person with cancer of any type who is still living.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), previously known as the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), is a federal agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that administers the Medicare program and works in partnership with state governments to administer Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and health insurance portability standards.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, a group of varied inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Cognitive synonymy is a type of synonymy in which synonyms are so similar in meaning that they cannot be differentiated either denotatively or connotatively, that is, not even by mental associations, connotations, emotive responses, and poetic value.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a public website and research tool launched in November 2004 that curates scientific data describing relationships between chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, GO annotations, pathways, and interaction modules.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.
A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Da Costa's syndrome, which was colloquially known as soldier's heart, is a syndrome with a set of symptoms that are similar to those of heart disease, though a physical examination does not reveal any physiological abnormalities.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.
Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.
Denotation is a translation of a sign to its meaning, precisely to its literal meaning, more or less like dictionaries try to define it.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
Disease mongering is a term for the practice of widening the diagnostic boundaries of illnesses and aggressively promoting their public awareness in order to expand the markets for treatment.
Diseases of affluence is a term sometimes given to selected diseases and other health conditions which are commonly thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society.
Diseases of poverty is a term sometimes used to collectively describe diseases, disabilities, and health conditions that are more prevalent among the poor than among wealthier people.
Disseminated disease refers to a diffuse disease-process, generally either infectious or neoplastic.
In medicine, distress is an aversive state in which a person is unable to completely adapt to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors.
Dorland's is the brand name of a family of medical reference works (including dictionaries, spellers and word books, and spell-check software) in various media spanning printed books, CD-ROMs, and online content.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; sometimes called emotional disturbance or serious emotional disturbance) refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor social or academic adjustment that cannot be better explained by biological abnormalities or a developmental disability.
In epidemiology, environmental diseases are diseases that can be directly attributed to environmental factors (as distinct from genetic factors or infection).
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to understanding health and disease.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
This is a partial list of human eye diseases and disorders.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Fulminant is a descriptor for any event or process that occurs suddenly and escalates quickly, and is intense and severe to the point of lethality, i.e., it has an explosive character.
A functional disorder is a medical condition that impairs normal functioning of bodily processes that remains largely undetected under examination, dissection or even under a microscope.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Geographic information science or geographical information science (GIScience) is the scientific discipline that studies data structures and computational techniques to capture, represent, process, and analyze geographic information.
The global spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
Human variability, or human variation, is the range of possible values for any characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
There are several scoring systems in intensive care units (ICUs) today.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life.
This is an incomplete list of incurable diseases.
A localized disease is an infectious or neoplastic process that originates in and is confined to one organ system or general area in the body, such as a sprained ankle, a boil on the hand, an abscess of finger.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
In the science of biology, a mechanism is a system of causally interacting parts and processes that produce one or more effects.
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.
Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
Medical states or medical conditions are used to describe a patient's condition (that is, their clinical status) in a hospital.
Medicalization or medicalisation (see spelling differences) is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering behavioral neuroscience published by Elsevier.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
Nosology is a classification scheme used in medicine to classify diseases.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a continuously updated catalog of human genes and genetic disorders and traits, with a particular focus on the gene-phenotype relationship.
In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
A passenger virus is a virus that is frequently found in samples from diseased tissue, such as tumours, but does not contribute to causing the disease.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
A physical disorder (as a medical term) is often used as a term in contrast to a mental disorder, in an attempt to differentiate medical disorders that have an available mechanical test (such as chemical tests or brain scans), from those disorders which have no laboratory or imaging test, and are diagnosed only by behavioral syndrome (such as those in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Differentiating the physical disorders from mental disorders can be a difficult problem in both medicine and law, most notably because it delves into deep issues, and very old and unresolved arguments in philosophy and religion. Many materialists believe that all mental disorders are physical disorders of some kind, even if tests for them have not yet been developed (and it has been the case that some disorders once widely thought to be purely mental, are known to have physical origins, such as schizophrenia). Some recognized physical disorders produce significant behavioral changes. For example, fever, head trauma, and hyperthyroidism can produce delirium. Category:Medical terminology.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prehypertension, also known as high normal blood pressure, is an American medical classification for cases where a person's blood pressure is elevated above normal, but not to the level considered hypertension (high blood pressure).
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.
Progressive disease or progressive illness is a disease or physical ailment whose course in most cases is the worsening, growth, or spread of the disease.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
The quality-adjusted life year or quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a generic measure of disease burden, including both the quality and the quantity of life lived.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.
In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.
A repetitive strain injury (RSI, also known as work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs), is an "injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, or sustained or awkward positions".
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
A root cause is an initiating cause of either a condition or a causal chain that leads to an outcome or effect of interest.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
In health care, self-care is any necessary human regulatory function which is under individual control, deliberate and self-initiated.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Shell shock is a term coined in World War I to describe the type of posttraumatic stress disorder many soldiers were afflicted with during the war (before PTSD itself was a term).
Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area.
Sick role is a term used in medical sociology regarding sickness and the rights and obligations of the affected.
Ancher, Michael, "The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst. Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
The social determinants of health are linked to the economic and social conditions and their distribution among the population that influence individual and group differences in health status.
The social determinants of health in poverty describe the factors that affect impoverished populations' health and health inequality.
A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A subclinical infection (sometimes called a preinfection) is an infection that, being subclinical, is nearly or completely asymptomatic (no signs or symptoms).
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A syndemic or synergistic epidemic is the aggregation of two or more concurrent or sequential epidemics or disease clusters in a population with biological interactions, which exacerbate the prognosis and burden of disease.
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.
A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Through its effect on the world's population and major artists in various fields, tuberculosis has influenced history.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.
Urgent care is a category of walk-in clinic focused on the delivery of ambulatory care in a dedicated medical facility outside of a traditional emergency department (emergency room).
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A value judgment (or value judgement) is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of something or someone, or of the usefulness of something or someone, based on a comparison or other relativity.
Varicella zoster virus or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering allergy and immunology in the domain of veterinary medicine.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Virus latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle.
The War on Cancer refers to the effort to find a cure for cancer by increased research to improve the understanding of cancer biology and the development of more effective cancer treatments, such as targeted drug therapies.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning).
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Years of potential life lost (YPLL) or potential years of life lost (PYLL), is an estimate of the average years a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely.
Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
Your Disease Risk is a publicly available health risk assessment tool on the Internet.
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