94 relations: ACID, Address space, Algorithm, Application programming interface, Association for Computing Machinery, Availability, Benchmark (computing), Boolean algebra, Centralized computing, Comparison of operating systems, Computer architecture, Computer configuration, Computer data storage, Computer hardware, Computer multitasking, Computer network, Computer performance, Concurrent computing, Data, Data structure, Dataflow, Deadlock, Decentralised system, Dijkstra Prize, Diminishing returns, Distributed computing, DYSEAC, Fault (technology), Fault tolerance, Flexibility (engineering), Flip-flop (electronics), Hash table, Identifier, Indirection, Inferno (operating system), Information retrieval, Input/output, Inter-process communication, Interstate Highway System, Joint Computer Conference, Kernel (operating system), Linearizability, List of distributed computing conferences, List of distributed computing projects, List of important publications in concurrent, parallel, and distributed computing, List of operating systems, Load balancing (computing), Locale (computer hardware), Microkernel, MINIX, ..., Monolithic kernel, Multi-core processor, Multikernel, Multiprocessing, Mutual exclusion, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Network operating system, Network topology, Operating system, Operating System Projects, Parallel computing, Parameter, Peripheral, Plan 9 from Bell Labs, Portable computer, Process (computing), Process management (computing), Process migration, Program counter, Projection (mathematics), Refrigerator truck, Relay, Replication (computing), Separation of mechanism and policy, Serializability, Single system image, Software architecture, Software flow control, Spider web, Spirograph, String (computer science), String art, Subset, Synchronization (computer science), System resource, Thread (computing), Throughput, Time complexity, Transaction processing, TX-2, Unique key, United States Department of the Army, User interface, Value (mathematics). Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
In computer science, ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties of database transactions intended to guarantee validity even in the event of errors, power failures, etc.
In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
In reliability theory and reliability engineering, the term availability has the following meanings.
In computing, a benchmark is the act of running a computer program, a set of programs, or other operations, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by running a number of standard tests and trials against it.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
Centralized computing is computing done at a central location, using terminals that are attached to a central computer.
These tables provide a comparison of operating systems, of computer devices, as listing general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available PC or handheld (including smartphone and tablet computer) operating systems.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
In communications or computer systems, a configuration is an arrangement of functional units according to their nature, number, and chief characteristics.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system.
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
Dataflow is a term used in computing which has various meanings depending on application and the context in which the term is used.
In concurrent computing, a deadlock is a state in which each member of a group is waiting for some other member to take action, such as sending a message or more commonly releasing a lock.
A decentralised system in systems theory is a system in which lower level components operate on local information to accomplish global goals.
The Edsger W. Dijkstra Paper Prize in Distributed Computing is given for outstanding papers on the principles of distributed computing, whose significance and impact on the theory and/or practice of distributed computing has been evident for at least a decade.
In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
DYSEAC was the second Standards Electronic Automatic Computer.
In document ISO 10303-226, a fault is defined as an abnormal condition or defect at the component, equipment, or sub-system level which may lead to a failure.
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
Flexibility is used as an attribute of various types of systems.
In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.
In computing, a hash table (hash map) is a data structure that implements an associative array abstract data type, a structure that can map keys to values.
An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof).
In computer programming, indirection (also called "dereferencing") is the ability to reference something using a name, reference, or container instead of the value itself.
Inferno is a distributed operating system started at Bell Labs and now developed and maintained by Vita Nuova Holdings as free software.
Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States.
The Joint Computer Conferences were a series of computer conferences in the USA held under various names between 1951 and 1987.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
In concurrent programming, an operation (or set of operations) is atomic, linearizable, indivisible or uninterruptible if it appears to the rest of the system to occur at once without being interrupted.
This is a selected list of international academic conferences in the fields of distributed computing, parallel computing, and concurrent computing.
This is a list of distributed computing and grid computing projects.
This is a list of important publications in concurrent, parallel, and distributed computing, organized by field.
This is a list of operating systems.
In computing, load balancing improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, or disk drives.
In computer architecture a locale is an abstraction of the concept of a localized set of hardware resources which are close enough to enjoy uniform memory access.
In computer science, a microkernel (also known as μ-kernel) is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS).
MINIX (from "mini-Unix") is a POSIX-compliant (since version 2.0), Unix-like operating system based on a microkernel architecture.
A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.
A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.
A multikernel operating system treats a multi-core machine as a network of independent cores, as if it were a distributed system.
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.
In computer science, mutual exclusion is a property of concurrency control, which is instituted for the purpose of preventing race conditions; it is the requirement that one thread of execution never enter its critical section at the same time that another concurrent thread of execution enters its own critical section.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The term network operating system is used to refer to two rather different concepts.
Network topology is the arrangement of the elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
OSP, an Environment for Operating System Projects, is a teaching operating system designed to provide an environment for an introductory course in operating systems.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.
A portable computer was a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another and included a display and keyboard.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
Process management is an integral part of any modern-day operating system (OS).
In computing, process migration is a specialized form of process management whereby processes are moved from one computing environment to another.
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
In mathematics, a projection is a mapping of a set (or other mathematical structure) into a subset (or sub-structure), which is equal to its square for mapping composition (or, in other words, which is idempotent).
A refrigerator truck is a van or truck designed to carry perishable freight at specific temperatures.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
Replication in computing involves sharing information so as to ensure consistency between redundant resources, such as software or hardware components, to improve reliability, fault-tolerance, or accessibility.
The separation of mechanism and policy is a design principle in computer science.
In concurrency control of databases,Philip A. Bernstein, Vassos Hadzilacos, Nathan Goodman (1987): (free PDF download), Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Gerhard Weikum, Gottfried Vossen (2001):, Elsevier, transaction processing (transaction management), and various transactional applications (e.g., transactional memoryMaurice Herlihy and J. Eliot B. Moss. Transactional memory: architectural support for lock-free data structures. Proceedings of the 20th annual international symposium on Computer architecture (ISCA '93). Volume 21, Issue 2, May 1993. and software transactional memory), both centralized and distributed, a transaction schedule is serializable if its outcome (e.g., the resulting database state) is equal to the outcome of its transactions executed serially, i.e. without overlapping in time.
In distributed computing, a single system image (SSI) cluster is a cluster of machines that appears to be one single system.
Software architecture refers to the high level structures of a software system, the discipline of creating such structures, and the documentation of these structures.
Software flow control is a method of flow control used in computer data links, especially RS-232 serial.
A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word coppe, meaning "spider") is a device created by a spider out of proteinaceous spider silk extruded from its spinnerets, generally meant to catch its prey.
Spirograph is a geometric drawing toy that produces mathematical roulette curves of the variety technically known as hypotrochoids and epitrochoids.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
String art, or pin and thread art, is characterized by an arrangement of colored thread strung between points to form geometric patterns or representational designs such as a ship's sails, sometimes with other artist material comprising the remainder of the work.
In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.
In computer science, synchronization refers to one of two distinct but related concepts: synchronization of processes, and synchronization of Data.
In computing, a system resource, or simply resource, is any physical or virtual component of limited availability within a computer system.
In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by a scheduler, which is typically a part of the operating system.
In general terms, throughput is the maximum rate of production or the maximum rate at which something can be processed.
In computer science, the time complexity is the computational complexity that describes the amount of time it takes to run an algorithm.
Transaction processing is information processing in computer science that is divided into individual, indivisible operations called transactions.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2 computer was the successor to the Lincoln TX-0 and was known for its role in advancing both artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction.
In database relational modeling and implementation, a unique key (also known as a candidate key) of a relation is a minimal superkey for that relation; that is, a set of attributes such that.
The Department of the Army (DA) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
In mathematics, value may refer to several, strongly related notions.