104 relations: Adam Ferguson, Adam Smith, Alexis de Tocqueville, André Gorz, Assembly line, Austrian School, Émile Durkheim, Bernard Mandeville, Bertell Ollman, Business process, Business process reengineering, Cambridge University Press, Capital, Volume I, Capitalism, Cato Institute, Charles Babbage, Charles Darwin, Classical economics, Commerce, Communism, Comparative advantage, Complex society, Cooking, Cyropaedia, Departmentalization, Division of labour, Economic interdependence, Economic sector, Estimation (project management), Ethnography, Explanation, Family economy, Flexible manufacturing system, Fordism, Friedrich Hayek, George Reisman, Globalization, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, Harry Braverman, Harvard University Press, Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau, Henry David Thoreau, Human capital, Ibn Khaldun, Industrial Revolution, Industrialisation, International Labour Organization, Ireland, Job enlargement, Job enrichment, ..., Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, Logical consequence, Ludwig von Mises, Management, Marx's theory of alienation, Mechanical and organic solidarity, Meritocracy, Mesopotamia, Muqaddimah, Murray Rothbard, Natural law, Natural resource, New international division of labour, OECD, On the Origin of Species, Opportunity cost, Organization, Output (economics), Parenting, Pin, Plato, Political economy, Power (social and political), Price system, Productive and unproductive labour, Project manager, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic (Plato), SAGE Publications, Schedule (project management), Scientific management, Self-sustainability, Shipyard, Social division of labor, Social science, Solidarity, Sowing, Sumer, Surplus product, System, Technology, The Ancient Economy, The Division of Labour in Society, The Fable of the Bees, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The Use of Knowledge in Society, The Wealth of Nations, Time-use survey, Trade, Urbanization, Walden, William Petty, World Bank, Xenophon. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Adam Ferguson, FRSE (Scottish Gaelic: Adhamh MacFhearghais), also known as Ferguson of Raith (1 JulyGregorian Calendar/20 JuneJulian Calendar 1723 – 22 February 1816), was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
André Gorz (né Gerhart Hirsch; born 9 February 1923 – 22 September 2007) more commonly known by his pen names Gérard Horst and Michel Bosquet was an Austrian social philosopher and journalist.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist.
Bertell Ollman (born April 30, 1935 in Milwaukee) is a professor of politics at New York University.
A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that in a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular business goal) for a particular customer or customers.
Business process re-engineering (BPR) is a business management strategy, originally pioneered in the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of workflows and business processes within an organization.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
The Cyropaedia, sometimes spelled Cyropedia, is a largely fictional biography of Cyrus the Great the founder of Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Departmentalization (or departmentalisation) refers to the process of grouping activities into departments.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Economic interdependence is a consequence of specialization or the division of labor.
One classical breakdown of economic activity distinguishes three sectors.
In project management (e.g., for engineering), accurate estimates are the basis of sound project planning.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts.
The term Family Economy can be used to describe the family as an economic unit.
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted.
Fordism is the basis of modern economic and social systems in industrialized, standardized mass production and mass consumption.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
George Gerald Reisman (born January 13, 1937)"George Gerald Reisman" (2002), Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, Retrieved on January 18, 2007.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals) is the first of Immanuel Kant's mature works on moral philosophy and remains one of the most influential in the field.
Harry Braverman (December 9, 1920 – August 2, 1976) was an American Marxist, worker, political economist and revolutionary.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau (20 July 1700, Paris13 August 1782, Paris), was a French physician, naval engineer and botanist.
Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its job duties and responsibilities generally within the same level and periphery.
Job enrichment can be described as a medium through which management can motivate self-driven employees by assigning them additional responsibility normally reserved for higher level employees.
Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century is a book by Harry Braverman on the economics and sociology of work under capitalism.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
In sociology, "mechanical solidarity" and "organic solidarity" refer to the concepts of solidarity as developed by Émile Durkheim.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (مقدّمة ابن خلدون) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun in 1377 which records an early view of universal history.
Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
In economics, the new international division of labor (NIDL) is an outcome of globalization.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Output in economics is the "quantity of goods or services produced in a given time period, by a firm, industry, or country", whether consumed or used for further production.
Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.
A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
In economics, a price system is a component of any economic system that uses prices expressed in any form of money for the valuation and distribution of goods and services and the factors of production.
Productive and unproductive labour are concepts that were used in classical political economy mainly in the 18th and 19th centuries, which survive today to some extent in modern management discussions, economic sociology and Marxist or Marxian economic analysis.
A project manager is a professional in the field of project management.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
In project management, a schedule is a listing of a project's milestones, activities, and deliverables, usually with intended start and finish dates.
Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows.
Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired.
Social division of labor, one of the two aspects of the division of labor, is the social structural foundation of the specialized commodity production divided between industries, firms, and occupations of workers, or the technical division of tasks.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
Sowing is the process of planting.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Surplus product (German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Ancient Economy is a book about the economic system of classical antiquity written by the classicist Moses I. Finley.
The Division of Labour in Society (De la division du travail social) is the doctoral dissertation of the French sociologist Émile Durkheim, published in 1893.
The Fable of The Bees: or, Private Vices, Public Benefits is a book by Bernard Mandeville, consisting of the poem The Grumbling Hive: or, Knaves turn’d Honest, along with prose discussion of the poem.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
"The Use of Knowledge in Society" is a scholarly article written by economist Friedrich Hayek, first published in the September 1945 issue of The American Economic Review.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
A time-use survey is a statistical survey which aims to report data on how, on average, people spend their time.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) is a book by noted transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.
Sir William Petty FRS (Romsey, 26 May 1623 – 16 December 1687) was an English economist, physician, scientist and philosopher.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Division of Labor, Division of Labour, Division of labor, Division of work, Economic specialization, International division of labor, International division of labour, Labor division, Labor specialization, Labour division, Labour specialization, Specialization of labor, Specialization of labour, Trade specialization.