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Doctor of Philosophy

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A Doctor of Philosophy degree (often abbreviated Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil) or a Doctorate of Philosophy, from the Latin Doctor Philosophiae, is a type of doctorate awarded by universities in many countries. [1]

180 relations: A History of the University in Europe, Aalto University, Academic degree, Academic Technology Approval Scheme, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation, Africa, Arthur Williams Wright, Asia, Australian dollar, Australian Postgraduate Awards, Austria, Baccalauréat, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Sacred Theology, Bachelor's degree, Belarus, Bologna Process, Bursary, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Candidate of Philosophy, Candidate of Sciences, Canon law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Clark University, Clinical psychology, Comprehensive examination, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Counseling psychology, Credentialism and educational inflation, Czechoslovakia, Decree, Denmark, Denmark–Norway, Diplom, Docent, Doctor (title), Doctor of Arts, Doctor of Canon Law, Doctor of Civil Law, Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Letters, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Music, Doctor of Musical Arts, Doctor of Sacred Theology, Doctor of Science, Doctoral advisor, ..., Doctorate, Doctors' Commons, Doktor nauk, Dottorato di ricerca, Duke, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Europe, Employment contract, Engineering Doctorate, English language, Eugene Schuyler, Europe, European Social Fund, Fachhochschule, Faculty (division), Field research, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, France, German language, German Rectors' Conference, Germany, Graduate Management Admission Test, Graduate Record Examinations, Graduate school, Grandee, Habilitation, Higher Attestation Commission, Honours degree, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hungary, Hypothecated tax, Income tax, India, Indian Institutes of Technology, Inns of Court, International Standard Classification of Education, Italy, Ivy League, Jagiellonian University, Johns Hopkins University, Kultusministerkonferenz, Latin, Laurea, Law, Licentiate, Licentiate of Arts, Licentiate of Canon Law, Licentiate of Sacred Theology, List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States, London, Magister degree, Marian Petre, Mark C. Taylor, Master of Arts, Master of Philosophy, Master's degree, McGraw Hill Financial, MD–PhD, Medicine, Medieval university, Ministry of Education and Science (Russia), Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), National Eligibility Test, National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Technology, National Science Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Nature (journal), Nepal, Norway, Peer review, PhD in management, Philosophy, Piled Higher and Deeper, Poland, Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish language, Post-Soviet states, Postdoctoral researcher, Postgraduate education, Pound sterling, Preliminary examination, Professor, Quadrivium, Quality assurance, Research, Research assistant, Research Councils UK, Richard B. Freeman, Rockefeller Foundation, Russia, Sacred theology, Sandwich, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Scandinavia, School psychology, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Signalling (economics), Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Staatsexamen, Stipend, Superior Graduate Schools in Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Teaching assistant, Tenure, Terminal degree, Test of English as a Foreign Language, The Economist, Theology, Thesis, Trivium, Tuition payments, Ukraine, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, University, University College London, University Grants Commission (India), University of Cambridge, University of Helsinki, University of London, University of Manchester, University of Oxford, Uppsala University, Yale University. Expand index (130 more) »

A History of the University in Europe

A History of the University in Europe is a four-volume book series on the history and development of the European university from the medieval origins of the institution until the present day.

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Aalto University

Aalto University (Aalto-yliopisto, Aalto-universitetet) is a university primarily located in Greater Helsinki, Finland.

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Academic degree

An academic degree is the state of recognized completion of studies at a school or university.

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Academic Technology Approval Scheme

The Academic Technology Approval Scheme (ATAS) is a scheme of the British government for certifying foreign students from outside the EU for entry into the United Kingdom to study or conduct research in certain sensitive technology-related fields.

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Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research

The Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research or AcSIR is an Indian institute of national importance, currently head quartered in CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai.

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Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation

The Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación), also known as Colciencias, is a Colombian government agency that supports fundamental and applied research in Colombia.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Arthur Williams Wright

Arthur Williams Wright (September 8, 1836 – December 19, 1915) was an American physicist.

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Asia

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Australian dollar

The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu.

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Australian Postgraduate Awards

The Australian Postgraduate Awards (APA), funded by the Australian Federal Government, are designed to support postgraduate research training and are awarded to students of "exceptional research potential".

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.

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Baccalauréat

The baccalauréat, often known in France colloquially as le bac, is an academic qualification which French and international students take at the end of the lycée (High School) (secondary education).

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Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA, B.A., AB or A.B.), from the Latin artium baccalaureus or baccalarium artium is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both.

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Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae. (abbreviated in many ways, viz. MBBS, MBChB, MBBCh, MBBChir(Cantab), BMBCh(Oxon), BMBS, etc.), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.

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Bachelor of Sacred Theology

The Bachelor of Sacred Theology (Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus; abbreviated S.T.B.) is a graduate-level academic degree in theology.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalarius) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Belarus

Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries designed to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher education qualifications.

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Bursary

A bursary is a monetary award made by an institution to individuals or groups of people who cannot afford to pay full fees.

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Canadian Institutes of Health Research

Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is the major federal agency responsible for funding health research in Canada.

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Candidate of Philosophy

Candidate of Philosophy is any of the following academic degrees: a Bachelor's level, Master's level, higher than Master's level, or Doctorate level degree, depending on the country.

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Candidate of Sciences

The Candidate of Sciences (кандидат наук, Kandidat nauk) is a first post-graduate scientific degree in some former Eastern Bloc countries, such as Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan which is awarded for original research that constitutes a significant contribution to a scientific field.

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Canon law

Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT) is a U.S.-based education policy and research center.

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Clark University

Clark University is an American private university and liberal arts college in Worcester, Massachusetts.

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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of the science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective and behavioural well-being and personal development.

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Comprehensive examination

In higher education, a comprehensive examination (or comprehensive exam or exams), often abbreviated as "comps," is a specific type of examination that must be completed by graduate students in some disciplines and courses of study, and also by undergraduate students in some institutions and departments.

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Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) established in 1942, is an autonomous body and India's largest research and development (R&D) organisation, with 37 laboratories and 39 field stations or extension centres spread across the nation, with a collective staff of over 17,000.

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Counseling psychology

Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.

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Credentialism and educational inflation

Credentialism and educational inflation refers to a number of related processes involving increased demands for formal educational qualifications, and the devaluation of these qualifications.

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Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko, in both of those languages) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Decree

A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.

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Denmark–Norway

Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge; Dänemark–Norwegen) is a former political entity consisting of the united kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, including overseas Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles.

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Diplom

A Diplom (from δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland (only for engineers), France, Greece, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.

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Docent

Docent is a title at some European universities to denote a specific academic appointment within a set structure of academic ranks below professor (i.e. professor ordinarius).

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Doctor (title)

Doctor, as a title, originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.

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Doctor of Arts

The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D.) is a discipline-based terminal doctoral degree that was originally conceived and designed to be an alternative to the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the education-based Doctor of Education (Ed.D.). Like other doctorates, the D.A. is an academic degree of the highest level.

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Doctor of Canon Law

Doctor of Canon Law (Juris Canonici Doctor; J.C.D.) is the doctoral-level terminal degree in the studies of canon law of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Doctor of Civil Law

Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees.

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Doctor of Divinity

Doctor of Divinity (D.D. or DD, Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity.

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Doctor of Education

The Doctor of Education (Ed.D. or D.Ed.), Doctor Educationis, is a terminal doctoral degree that has a research focus in the field of Education.

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Doctor of Letters

Doctor of Letters (Litterarum doctor; D.Litt.; Litt.D.; D. Lit.; or Lit. D.) is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be beyond the Ph.D. and equal to the Doctor of Science (Sc.D. or D.Sc.). It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits.

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Doctor of Medicine

Doctor of Medicine (MD or DM), or in Medicinae Doctor, meaning "Teacher of Medicine", is a terminal degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Doctor of Music

The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and/or scholarly publications on music.

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Doctor of Musical Arts

The Doctor of Musical Arts degree (D.M.A., D.M., D.Mus.A. or A.Mus.D.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.

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Doctor of Sacred Theology

Sacrae Theologiae Doctor (S.T.D.) (Doctor of Sacred Theology) (formerly Sacrae Theologiae Professor (S.T.P.), Professor of Sacred Theology), is the final theological degree in the pontifical university system of the Catholic Church.

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Doctor of Science

Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiæ Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., D.S., or Dr.Sc., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.

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Doctoral advisor

A doctoral advisor (also dissertation director or dissertation advisor, and known in British English as a doctoral supervisor) is an advanced member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate degree, helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation.

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Doctorate

A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree (Ph.D. or Ed.D.) awarded by universities that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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Doctors' Commons

Doctors' Commons, also called the College of Civilians, was a society of lawyers practising civil law in London.

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Doktor nauk

Doktor nauk (Ukrainian, до́ктор нау́к, literally translated as "Doctor of Sciences") is a higher doctoral degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (which is informally regarded in Russia and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to PhD obtained in countries in which PhD is not the highest academic degree).

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Dottorato di ricerca

The dottorato di ricerca (research doctorate) is the highest Italian academic degree, the equivalent of a Ph.D. The dottorato is a relatively recent addition to the Italian academic landscape, having been instituted in 1980.

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Duke

A duke (male) (British English: or American English) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.

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Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Employment contract

An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain.

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Engineering Doctorate

The Engineering Doctorate scheme is a British postgraduate education programme promoted by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Eugene Schuyler

Eugene Schuyler (Ithaca, New York, February 26, 1840 – Venice, Italy, July 16, 1890) was a nineteenth-century American scholar, writer, explorer and diplomat.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European Social Fund

The European Social Fund (ESF) is the European Union's main financial instrument for supporting employment in the member states of the European Union as well as promoting economic and social cohesion.

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Fachhochschule

A (FH; plural Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas (e.g. engineering, technology or business).

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Faculty (division)

A faculty is a division within a university comprising one subject area, or a number of related subject areas.

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Field research

Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside of a laboratory, library or workplace setting.

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Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the British Government.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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German Rectors' Conference

The German Rectors' Conference/Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) is the voluntary association of state and state-recognised universities and other higher education institutions in Germany.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Graduate Management Admission Test

The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT ()) is a computer adaptive test (CAT) intended to assess certain analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills in written English for use in admission to a graduate management program, such as an MBA.

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Graduate Record Examinations

The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is a standardized test that is an admissions requirement for most graduate schools in the United States.

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Graduate school

A graduate school (sometimes shortened as "grad school") is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.

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Grandee

Grandee (Grande; Grande) is a high aristocratic title used by the Spanish nobility, Portuguese nobility and Brazilian nobility.

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Habilitation

Habilitation (from Latin habilis "fit, proper, skillful") is the highest academic qualification a scholar can achieve by his or her own pursuit in many countries in Europe, Central Asia, Egypt and the Caucasus.

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Higher Attestation Commission

Higher Attestation Commission (Высшая аттестационная комиссия, Вища атестаційна комісія, abbreviated Cyrillic: ВАК, Latin: VAK) is a name of a national government agency in Russia, Ukraine and some other post-Soviet states that oversees awarding of advanced academic degrees.

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Honours degree

The term Honours degree has different meanings for different degrees.

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Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is one of Berlin's oldest universities, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt, whose university model has strongly influenced other European and Western universities.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Hypothecated tax

The hypothecation of a tax (also known as the ring fencing or ear marking of a tax) is the dedication of the revenue from a specific tax for a particular expenditure purpose.

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Income tax

An income tax is a government levy (tax) imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with the income or profits (taxable income) of the taxpayer.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Institutes of Technology

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.

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Inns of Court

The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.

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International Standard Classification of Education

The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education maintained by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Ivy League

The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States.

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Jagiellonian University

The Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński, often shortened to UJ; historical names include Studium Generale, University of Kraków, Kraków Academy, The Main Crown School, and Main School of Kraków) is a research university founded in 1364 by Casimir III the Great in Kraków.

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Johns Hopkins University

The Johns Hopkins University (commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Kultusministerkonferenz

The Kultusministerkonferenz (literally conference of ministers of education) is the assembly of ministers of education of the German states.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laurea

In Italy, the Iaurea is the main post-secondary academic degree.

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Law

Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour.

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Licentiate

Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree known as a licence or a licentiate.

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Licentiate of Arts

The Licentiate of Arts is a degree roughly equivalent to the completion of half the coursework required for a doctoral dissertation in arts.

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Licentiate of Canon Law

Licentiate of Canon Law is the title of an advanced graduate degree with canonical effects in the Roman Catholic Church offered by pontifical universities and ecclesiastical faculties of canon law.

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Licentiate of Sacred Theology

Licentiate of Sacred Theology (S.T.L.) is the second cycle of studies of a Faculty of Theology offered by pontifical universities or Ecclesiastical Faculties of sacred theology.

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List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States

This is a list of the fields of doctoral studies, as used by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in the United States in its annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted for the National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies, in the United States.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Magister degree

A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.

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Marian Petre

Marian Petre (born 1959) is a British computer scientist and Professor of Computing at the Open University and Director of its Centre for Research in Computing (CRC), known for her work on "Visual Programming Environments," and developed the concept of cognitive dimensions of notations.

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Mark C. Taylor

Mark C. Taylor (born 13 December 1945) is a philosopher of religion and cultural critic who has published more than twenty books on theology, philosophy, art and architecture, media, technology, economics, and the natural sciences.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts degree (Magister Artium; abbreviated M.A., MA, A.M., or AM) is a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries.

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Master of Philosophy

The Master of Philosophy (M.Phil. or MPhil, sometimes Ph.M.) is an advanced postgraduate research degree.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities upon completion of a course of study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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McGraw Hill Financial

McGraw Hill Financial, Inc. is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.

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MD–PhD

The Doctorate of Medicine and of Philosophy (MD–PhD) is a dual doctoral degree for physician–scientists.

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Medicine

Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medieval university

A medieval university is a corporation organized during the High Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.

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Ministry of Education and Science (Russia)

Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации) oversees scientific institutions, education and school accreditation in the Russian Federation.

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Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy)

The Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, in 'Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca', or MIUR, is the ministry of the Italian government for the national education system, the Italian universities and research.

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Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland)

The Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego) in Poland was opened on 5 May 2006 by the Minister of Science and Higher Education, in replacement of several parts of the Ministry of Education and Science.

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National Eligibility Test

The basic objective is to determine eligibility for college & university level lectureship and for award of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) for Indian nationals in order to ensure minimum standards for the entrants in the teaching profession and research.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.

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National Institutes of Technology

The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are a group of public engineering colleges of India.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) is a Canadian government agency that provides grants for research in the natural sciences and in engineering.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nepal

Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country located in South Asia.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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PhD in management

PhD in management is the highest academic degree awarded in the study of management science.

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Philosophy

Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Piled Higher and Deeper

Piled Higher and Deeper (also known as PhD Comics), is a newspaper and web comic strip written and drawn by Jorge Cham that follows the lives of several grad students.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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Polish Academy of Sciences

The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk or PAN), headquartered in Warsaw, is Poland's top academy of sciences.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.

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Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the 15 independent states that emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its dissolution in December 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union.

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Postdoctoral researcher

A postdoctoral researcher, post-doctoral researcher or postdoctoral fellow is a person conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD) as part of a temporary appointment, usually in preparation for an academic faculty position.

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Postgraduate education

Postgraduate education (or graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Preliminary examination

Preliminary examination is an umbrella term.

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Professor

A professor, informally often known as full professor, is the highest academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.

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Quadrivium

The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia and its use for the four subjects has been attributed to Boethius or Cassiodorus in the 6th century. Together, the trivium and the quadrivium comprised the seven liberal arts (based on thinking skills), as opposed to the practical arts (such as medicine and architecture). The quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. These followed the preparatory work of the trivium made up of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. In turn, the quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the serious study of philosophy (sometimes called the "liberal art par excellence") and theology.

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Quality assurance

Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes or defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers; which ISO 9000 defines as "part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled".

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Research

Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Research assistant

A research assistant is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university or a research institute, for the purpose of assisting in academic research.

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Research Councils UK

Established in 2002 following a Government review the Research Councils UK (RCUK) is a Non-Departmental Government Body whose purpose is to manage a strategic partnership between seven individual research councils that coordinate and fund research in the arts, humanities, science and engineering.

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Richard B. Freeman

Richard Barry Freeman (born June 29, 1943) is an economist.

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Rockefeller Foundation

The Rockefeller Foundation is a philanthropic organization and private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Sacred theology

Sacred theology is the name given to the theological degrees offered in a number of theological colleges, including the pontifical university system of the Catholic Church.

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Sandwich

A sandwich is a food item consisting of one or more types of food, such as vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for some other food.

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Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies

The Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, Italy, operating in the field of applied sciences.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a historical and cultural-linguistic region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethno-cultural North Germanic heritage and related languages.

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School psychology

School Psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents.

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Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.

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Signalling (economics)

In contract theory, signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is the idea that one party (termed the agent) credibly conveys some information about itself to another party (the principal).

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Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council

The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada is the federal research-funding agency that promotes and supports postsecondary-based research and training in the humanities and social sciences.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Spanish language

Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.

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Staatsexamen

The Staatsexamen (State Examination or Exam by State) is a German government licensing examination that future physicians, teachers, pharmacists, food chemists, psychotherapists and jurists (i.e., lawyers, judges, public prosecutors, civil-law notaries) as well as Surveyors have to pass to be allowed to work in their profession.

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Stipend

A stipend is a form of salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship.

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Superior Graduate Schools in Italy

A Superior Graduate School (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria) is a completely independent institution from a legal point of view, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland

Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.

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Teaching assistant

A teaching assistant or teacher's aide (TA) or education assistant (EA) is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities.

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Tenure

In the United States and Canada, tenure is a contractual right of a teacher or professor not to have his or her position terminated without just cause.

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Terminal degree

A terminal degree is the highest academic degree in a given field of study.

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Test of English as a Foreign Language

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is a standardized test of English language proficiency for non-native English language speakers wishing to enroll in US universities.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.

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Theology

Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious ideas, but can also mean the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university, seminary, or school of divinity.

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Thesis

A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Trivium

The Trivium is a systematic method of critical thinking used to derive factual certainty from information perceived with the traditional five senses: sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell.

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Tuition payments

Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged for instruction during higher education.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic degrees in various subjects and typically provides undergraduate education and postgraduate education.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University Grants Commission (India)

The University Grants Commission (UGC) of India is a statutory body set up by the Indian Union government in 1956, and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education.

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University of Cambridge

The University of CambridgeThe corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Helsinki

The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Turku, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.

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University of London

The University of London (informally referred to as London University) is a collegiate research university located in London, England, consisting of 18 constituent colleges, 10 research institutes and a number of central bodies.

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University of Manchester

The University of Manchester (UoM) is a public research university in the city of Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (est. 1824) and the Victoria University of Manchester (est. 1851).

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University or simply Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Uppsala University

Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries, founded in 1477.

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Yale University

Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_of_Philosophy

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