195 relations: A History of the University in Europe, Aalto University, Academic degree, Academic Technology Approval Scheme, Academic tenure, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation, Albrecht Behmel, All but dissertation, Arthur Williams Wright, Association of American Universities, Australian Postgraduate Awards, Baccalauréat, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Sacred Theology, Bachelor's degree, Bologna Process, Bucknell University, Bursary, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Candidate of Philosophy, Candidate of Sciences, Canon law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, CILECT, Civil law (legal system), Clark University, Clinical psychology, Collection of articles, Columbia University Press, Comprehensive examination, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Counseling psychology, Credentialism and educational inflation, Czechoslovakia, Denmark–Norway, Der Spiegel, Diplom, Diploma, Docent, Doctor (title), Doctor of Arts, Doctor of Canon Law, Doctor of Civil Law, Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Letters, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Music, ..., Doctor of Musical Arts, Doctor of Professional Studies, Doctor of Sacred Theology, Doctor of Science, Doctoral advisor, Doctorate, Doctors' Commons, Doktor nauk, Dottorato di ricerca, Duke, Durham University, Eastern Bloc, Education in Russia, Employment contract, Engineering Doctorate, English language, Erhard Weigel, Eugene Schuyler, European Association of Conservatoires, European Economic Area, European League of Institutes of the Arts, European Research Council, European Social Fund, Fachhochschule, Field research, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Foundation (nonprofit), France, Freeman Dyson, German Rectors' Conference, Graduate Management Admission Test, Graduate Record Examinations, Graduate school, Grandee, Habilitation, Harold Jeffreys, Honours degree, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hungary, Hypothecated tax, Income tax, Indian Institutes of Information Technology, Indian Institutes of Technology, Inns of Court, Institute for Advanced Study, International Standard Classification of Education, Ivy League, Jagiellonian University, Johns Hopkins University, King's College London, Kultusministerkonferenz, Latin, Laurea, Law, Liberal arts education, Licentiate (degree), Licentiate of Arts, Licentiate of Canon Law, Licentiate of Sacred Theology, List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States, London, Magister degree, Marian Petre, Mark C. Taylor, Master of Arts, Master of Philosophy, Master of Research, Master's degree, McGraw-Hill Education, MD–PhD, Medicine, Medieval university, Merriam-Webster, Ministry of Education and Science (Russia), Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Nanyang Technological University, National Eligibility Test, National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Technology, National Science Foundation, National University of Singapore, Natural philosophy, Natural science, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Nature (journal), Oxford University Press, Parliament of Poland, Peer review, PhD in management, Philosophy, Piled Higher and Deeper, Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish language, Post-nominal letters, Post-Soviet states, Postdoctoral researcher, Postgraduate education, Princeton, New Jersey, Professor, Publish or perish, Quadrivium, Research, Research assistant, Research Councils UK, Research fellow, Richard B. Freeman, Rockefeller Foundation, Sandwich degree, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Süddeutsche Zeitung, School psychology, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Signalling (economics), Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore Management University, Singapore University of Social Sciences, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Social science, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Society for Artistic Research (SAR), Spanish language, Staatsexamen, Stipend, Superior Graduate Schools in Italy, Teaching assistant, Terminal degree, Test of English as a Foreign Language, The Economist, Theology, Thesis, Trivium, Tuition payments, U.S. News & World Report, UNESCO, University Grants Commission (India), University of Cambridge, University of Helsinki, University of London, University of Manchester, University of Oxford, University of Sussex, University of York, Uppsala University, Yale University. Expand index (145 more) » « Shrink index
A History of the University in Europe is a four-volume book series on the history and development of the European university from the medieval origins of the institution until the present day.
Aalto University (Aalto-yliopisto, Aalto-universitetet) is a university primarily located in Greater Helsinki, Finland.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
The Academic Technology Approval Scheme (ATAS) is a scheme of the British government for certifying foreign students from outside the EU for entry into the United Kingdom to study or conduct research in certain sensitive technology-related fields.
A tenured appointment is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discontinuation.
The Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research or AcSIR is an Indian institute of national importance, headquartered at the CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai.
The Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación), also known as Colciencias, is a Colombian government agency that supports fundamental and applied research in Colombia.
Albrecht Behmel (born 24 March 1971) is a German artist, novelist, historian, best-selling non-fiction writer and award-winning playwright.
"All but dissertation" (ABD) is a term identifying a stage in the process of obtaining a research doctorate in the United States.
Arthur Williams Wright (September 8, 1836 – December 19, 1915) was an American physicist.
The Association of American Universities (AAU) is a binational organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education.
The Australian Postgraduate Awards (APA) was a scholarship, funded by the Australian Federal Government, designed to support postgraduate research training, which was awarded to students of "exceptional research potential".
The baccalauréat, often known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students take after high school.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in '''Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae'''. (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.
The Bachelor of Sacred Theology (Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus; abbreviated STB) is a graduate-level academic degree in theology.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
Bucknell University is a private liberal arts college in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.
A bursary is a monetary award made by an institution to individuals or groups of people who cannot afford to pay full fees.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR, Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada) is the major federal agency responsible for funding health and medical research in Canada.
Candidate of Philosophy can refer to the US degree or status of Candidate in Philosophy (C.Phil. or Ph.C) granted to Ph.D. students who have been accepted as candidates for that degree, or (as a direct translation) to degrees or former degrees at bachelor's or master's level from some Scandinavian countries.
Kandidat nauk (Кандидат наук, literally "Candidate of Sciences") is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in some former Soviet countries.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT) is a U.S.-based education policy and research center.
The International Association of Film and Television Schools (French: Centre international de liaison des écoles de cinéma et de télévision, CILECT) is the association of the world's major film and television schools.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Clark University is an American private research university located in Worcester, Massachusetts.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
A thesis as a collection of articles, University of reading, UK.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
In higher education, a comprehensive examination (or comprehensive exam or exams), often abbreviated as "comps", is a specific type of examination that must be completed by graduate students in some disciplines and courses of study, and also by undergraduate students in some institutions and departments.
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (IAST: vaigyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada; abbreviated as CSIR) was established by the Government of India in 1942 is an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India.
Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.
Credentialism and educational inflation are any of a number of related processes involving increased demands for formal educational qualifications, and the devaluation of these qualifications.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
A Diplom (from δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland (only for engineers), France, Greece, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.
Docent is a title at some European universities to denote a specific academic appointment within a set structure of academic ranks at or below the full professor rank.
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.
The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D. from the Latin artium doctor) is a discipline-based terminal doctoral degree that was originally conceived and designed to be an alternative to the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the education-based Doctor of Education (Ed.D.). Like other doctorates, the D.A. is an academic degree of the highest level.
Doctor of Canon Law (Juris Canonici Doctor; J.C.D.) is the doctoral-level terminal degree in the studies of canon law of the Roman Catholic Church.
Doctor of Civil Law (DCL; Doctor Civilis Legis) is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws (LLD) degrees.
Doctor of Divinity (DD or DDiv; Doctor Divinitatis) is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity.
The Doctor of Education (EdD or DEd; Latin Educationis Doctor or Doctor Educationis) is a doctoral degree that has a research focus in the field of education.
Doctor of Letters (D.Litt., Litt.D., D. Lit., or Lit. D.; Latin Litterarum Doctor or Doctor Litterarum) is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be beyond the Ph.D. and equal to the Doctor of Science (Sc.D. or D.Sc.). It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or occasionally Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and/or scholarly publications on music.
The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.
The Doctor of Professional Studies (or sometimes awarded as Doctorate in Professional Practice) (most commonly DProf, but also available as ProfD and DPS) is a doctoral degree for experienced professionals who wish to undertake a programme that is applied in nature and of practical value to their career.The Dprof is based on applied research of real world problems.
Doctor of Sacred Theology (Sacrae Theologiae Doctor; formerly Professor of Sacred Theology, Sacrae Theologiae Professor) is the final theological degree in the pontifical university system of the Roman Catholic Church.
Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.
A doctoral advisor (also dissertation director or dissertation advisor) is a member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate, helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Doctors' Commons, also called the College of Civilians, was a society of lawyers practising civil law in London.
Doktor nauk (p; До́ктор нау́к; Доктор на науките; Доктар навук; "Doctor of Sciences") is a higher doctoral degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (the latter is informally regarded in Russia and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to the PhD obtained in countries in which the PhD is not the highest academic degree).
The dottorato di ricerca (research doctorate) is the highest Italian academic degree, the equivalent of a Ph.D. The term dottore is frequently used in Italy to refer to any person with a university Laurea: thus, a person with a Laurea Magistrale uses the title "dottore magistrale" and a person with a Laurea uses the title of "dottore".
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
In Russia the state provides most education services, regulating education through the Ministry of Education and Science.
An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain.
The Engineering Doctorate scheme is a British postgraduate education programme promoted by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Erhard Weigel (December 16, 1625 – March 20, 1699) was a German mathematician, astronomer and philosopher.
Eugene Schuyler (Ithaca, New York, February 26, 1840 – Venice, Italy, July 16, 1890) was a nineteenth-century American scholar, writer, explorer and diplomat.
The European Association of Conservatoires (AEC) is the main association of colleges and university schools of music in Europe, which was established in 1953.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European League of Institutes of the Arts (ELIA) is an independent membership organization representing approximately 300 higher arts education institutions in 47 countries.
The European Research Council (ERC) is a public body for funding of scientific and technological research conducted within the European Union (EU).
The European Social Fund (ESF) is the European Union's main financial instrument for supporting employment in the member states of the European Union as well as promoting economic and social cohesion.
A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas (e.g. engineering, technology or business).
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
A foundation (also a charitable foundation) is a legal category of nonprofit organization that will typically either donate funds and support to other organizations, or provide the source of funding for its own charitable purposes.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freeman John Dyson (born 15 December 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician.
The German Rectors' Conference/Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) is the voluntary association of state and state-recognised universities and other higher education institutions in Germany.
The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT ()) is a computer adaptive test (CAT) intended to assess certain analytical, writing, quantitative, verbal, and reading skills in written English for use in admission to a graduate management program, such as an MBA.
The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) is a standardized test that is an admissions requirement for most graduate schools in the United States.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
Sir Harold Jeffreys, FRS (22 April 1891 – 18 March 1989) was a British mathematician, statistician, geophysicist, and astronomer.
The term "honours degree" (or "honors degree") has various meanings in the context of different degrees and education systems.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The hypothecation of a tax (also known as the ring-fencing or earmarking of a tax) is the dedication of the revenue from a specific tax for a particular expenditure purpose.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) are a group of institutes of higher education in India, focused on information technology.
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.
The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education maintained by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Kultusministerkonferenz (literally conference of ministers of education) is the assembly of ministers of education of the German states.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In Italy, the Iaurea is the main post-secondary academic degree.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.
The Licentiate of Arts is a degree roughly equivalent to the completion of half the coursework required for a doctoral dissertation in arts.
Licentiate of Canon Law (Juris Canonici Licentia; JCL) is the title of an advanced graduate degree with canonical effects in the Roman Catholic Church offered by pontifical universities and ecclesiastical faculties of canon law.
Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL) is the second cycle of studies of a faculty of theology offered by pontifical universities or Ecclesiastical Faculties of sacred theology.
This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.
Marian Petre (born 1959) is a British computer scientist and Professor of Computing at the Open University and Director of its Centre for Research in Computing (CRC), known for her work on "Visual Programming Environments," and developed the concept of cognitive dimensions of notations.
Mark C. Taylor (born 13 December 1945) is a philosopher of religion and cultural critic who has published more than twenty books on theology, philosophy, art and architecture, media, technology, economics, and the natural sciences.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
The Master of Philosophy (abbr. M.Phil. or MPhil, sometimes Ph.M.; Latin Magister Philosophiae or Philosophiae Magister) is a postgraduate degree.
A Master of Research (abbr. MRes) degree is an internationally recognised advanced postgraduate research degree.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
The Doctorate of Medicine and of Philosophy (MD–PhD) is a dual doctoral degree for physician–scientists, combining the vocational training of the Doctor of Medicine degree with the research expertise of the Doctor of Philosophy degree.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации or Minobrnauki of Russia) existed from March 2004 till May 2018.
The Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (in italic or MIUR) is the ministry of the Italian government for the national education system, the Italian universities and research agencies.
The Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego) in Poland was opened on 5 May 2006 by the Minister of Science and Higher Education, in replacement of several parts of the Ministry of Education and Science.
The Nanyang Technological University (Abbreviation: NTU) is an autonomous research university in Singapore.
The National Eligibility Test (NET), also known as UGC NET or CBSE NET, is a test to determine eligibility for college and university level lecturership and for the award of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) for Indian nationals.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National University of Singapore (NUS) is an autonomous research university in Singapore.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC; Conseil de recherches en sciences naturelles et en génie du Canada) is an agency of the Government of Canada that provides grants for research in the natural sciences and in engineering.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
PhD in management is the highest academic degree awarded in the study of management science.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Piled Higher and Deeper (also known as PhD Comics), is a newspaper and webcomic strip written and drawn by Jorge Cham that follows the lives of several grad students.
The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate that that individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute or fraternity.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
"Publish or perish" is a phrase coined to describe the pressure in academia to rapidly and continually publish academic work to sustain or further one's career.
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
A research assistant is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university or a research institute, for the purpose of assisting in academic research.
Research Councils UK, known as RCUK, was a non-departmental public body which coordinated science policy in the United Kingdom.
A research fellow is an academic research position at a university or a similar research institution, usually for academic staff or faculty members.
Richard Barry Freeman (born June 29, 1943) is an economist.
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
A sandwich degree is a course specific to the United Kingdom, a four-year undergraduate course – if it's part of a bachelor's degree – or – if it's part of a master's degree – a five-year postgraduate course in which students undertake a placement year, or internship in industry; normally after the second year at university.
The Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies (SSSA, Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento Sant'Anna) is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, Italy, operating in the field of applied sciences.
The Süddeutsche Zeitung (German for South German Newspaper), published in Munich, Bavaria, is one of the largest daily newspapers in Germany.
School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents.
The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (SNS) is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.
In contract theory, signalling (or signaling; see spelling differences) is the idea that one party (termed the agent) credibly conveys some information about itself to another party (the principal).
The Singapore Institute of Technology (or SIT/Singaporetech;The university itself spells its short form as "Singaporetech"; as used in their social media account such as Twitter, Instagram and the university's home webpage and is also occasionally referred to as "SIT" in short. abbreviation: SIT) is an autonomous university in Singapore.
The Singapore Management University (Abbreviation: SMU) is an autonomous university in Singapore.
The Singapore University of Social Sciences (Abbreviation: SUSS) is an autonomous university in Singapore.
The Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) is the fourth autonomous university to be established in Singapore.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC; Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines) is a Canadian federal research-funding agency that promotes and supports post-secondary research and training in the humanities and social sciences.
The Society for Artistic Research (SAR) is an international nonprofit, artistic and scientific society devoted to developing, linking and disseminating internationally Artistic Research as a specific practice of producing knowledge.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Staatsexamen ("State examination" or "exam by State"; pl.: Staatsexamina) is a German government licensing examination that future physicians, teachers, pharmacists, food chemists, psychotherapists and jurists (i.e., lawyers, judges, public prosecutors, civil-law notaries) as well as surveyors have to pass to be allowed to work in their profession.
A stipend is a form of salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship.
A Superior Graduate School (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria) is a completely independent institution from a legal point of view, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.
A teaching assistant or teacher's aide (TA) or education assistant (EA) is an individual who assists a teacher with instructional responsibilities.
A terminal degree is a university degree that can signify one of two outcomes.
Test of English as a Foreign Language® (TOEFL) is a standardized test to measure the English language ability of non-native speakers wishing to enroll in English-speaking universities.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University Grants Commission of India (UGC India) is a statutory body set up by the Indian Union government in accordance to the UGC Act 1956 under Ministry of Human Resource Development, and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Sussex is a public research university in Falmer, Sussex, England.
The University of York (abbreviated as Ebor or York for post-nominals) is a collegiate plate glass research university located in the city of York, England.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
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