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Index Doctorate

A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession. [1]

236 relations: Academic degree, Academic journal, Academic tenure, Academy, Advanced practice registered nurse, Al-Azhar University, All India Council for Technical Education, American Medical Association, Ancient Greek, Apostles, Apprenticeship, Architecture, Argentina, Assistant professor, Auditorium, Austria, Bachelor's degree, Bedel, Belgium, Bologna Process, British Heart Foundation, British undergraduate degree classification, California Institute of Technology, Cancer Research UK, Candidate of Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Catholic Church, Central and Eastern Europe, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chemistry Quality Eurolabels, Chiropractic, Christianity, Church Fathers, Collection of articles, Columbia University, Communism, Complutense University of Madrid, Comprehensive examination, Constitution of Brazil, Cornell University, Council of People's Commissars, Decree, Delft University of Technology, Denmark, Dental degree, Dentistry, Der Spiegel, Diploma, Disputation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, ..., Doctor (title), Doctor of Arts, Doctor of Audiology, Doctor of Business Administration, Doctor of Clinical Psychology, Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Engineering, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Letters, Doctor of Management, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Music, Doctor of Musical Arts, Doctor of Nursing Practice, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Physical Therapy, Doctor of Practical Theology, Doctor of Professional Studies, Doctor of Public Health, Doctor of Sacred Theology, Doctor of Science, Doctor of Social Science, Doctor of Technology, Doctor of Theology, Doctorandus, Doctorate, Doktor nauk, Doktoringenieur, Dorothea Erxleben, Dr. rer. nat., Duke, Durham University, Early Christianity, Education, Education in Germany, Eindhoven University of Technology, Elena Cornaro Piscopia, Engineering Doctorate, English language, English-speaking world, Europe, European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, European Research Council, Exegesis, Flemish Community, Fordham University, Formal science, France, French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation, Fulbright Program, Gabelli School of Business, General relativity, Geriatrics, German language, Germany, Grandee, Grandes écoles, Guild, Habilitation, Harvard University, Higher Attestation Commission, History, Holy orders, Honorary degree, Human science, Humanities, Ijazah, Il Dottore, India, Indian Institutes of Management, Institut national de la recherche agronomique, Italian language, Italy, Juliana Morell, Juris Doctor, Latin, Laura Bassi, Laurea, Law, Lexikon des Mittelalters, Liberal arts education, Licensure, Licentiate (degree), Liechtenstein, List of diplomatic missions of the United States, List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States, Management, María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master of Arts, Master of Philosophy, Master's degree, Master's degree in Europe, Mathematics, Medicine, Medieval university, Michael Brock, Middle Ages, Minas Gerais, Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy), Monograph, National Institute of Industrial Engineering, National qualifications frameworks in the United Kingdom, National Science Foundation, Natural philosophy, Natural science, Naturopathy, Netherlands, Oath of allegiance, Occupational therapy, Optometry, Oral exam, Outline of health sciences, Oxbridge, Peer review, Pharmacy, Philosophy, Physical therapy, Poland, Pope, Postdoctoral researcher, Princeton University, Principle of opportunity, Privatdozent, Profession, Professional degree, Professional Doctorate in Engineering, Professor, Psychology, Public health, Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, Quantum mechanics, Redaction, Research, Research assistant, Research Councils UK, Rice University, Rio de Janeiro, Robert Gordon University, Russia, Russian Empire, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, São Paulo (state), Süddeutsche Zeitung, Scandinavia, Science, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Social science, Soviet Union, Spanish language, Speech-language pathology, Stefan Banach, Superior Graduate Schools in Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Teacher, Theology, Theoretical physics, Thesis, Third Council of the Lateran, Trade, UNESCO, United States Department of Education, Université catholique de Louvain, University of Bologna, University of Buckingham, University of Cambridge, University of Hertfordshire, University of Leicester, University of London, University of Michigan, University of Oxford, University of Padua, University of Paris, University of Pennsylvania, University of Salamanca, University of Technology Sydney, University of Twente, University of Virginia, University of Wales, Wellcome Trust, White tie, Yale University. Expand index (186 more) »

Academic degree

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

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Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Academic tenure

A tenured appointment is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discontinuation.

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An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Advanced practice registered nurse

An advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) is a nurse with post-graduate education in nursing.

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Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.

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All India Council for Technical Education

The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).

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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Assistant professor

Assistant professor is an academic rank used in universities or colleges in the United States, Canada, and some other countries.

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An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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The bedel (from medieval Latin pedellus or bidellus, occasionally bidellus generalis, from Old High German bital, pital, "the one who invites, calls"; cognate with beadle) was, and is to some extent still, an administrative official at universities in several European countries, and often had a policiary function at the time when universities had their own jurisdiction over students.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.

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British Heart Foundation

The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is a charity organisation in the United Kingdom.

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British undergraduate degree classification

The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading structure for undergraduate degrees (bachelor's degrees and integrated master's degrees) in the United Kingdom.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Cancer Research UK

Cancer Research UK is a cancer research and awareness charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund.

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Candidate of Sciences

Kandidat nauk (Кандидат наук, literally "Candidate of Sciences") is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in some former Soviet countries.

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Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central and Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.

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Centre national de la recherche scientifique

The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.

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Chemistry Quality Eurolabels

The Chemistry Quality Eurolabels or European Quality Labels in Chemistry (Labels européens de Qualité en Chimie) is a marketing scheme for chemistry degrees at institutions located within the 45 countries involved in the Bologna process.

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Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church Fathers

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.

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Collection of articles

A thesis as a collection of articles, University of reading, UK.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Complutense University of Madrid

The Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid or Universidad de Madrid, Universitas Complutensis) is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world.

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Comprehensive examination

In higher education, a comprehensive examination (or comprehensive exam or exams), often abbreviated as "comps", is a specific type of examination that must be completed by graduate students in some disciplines and courses of study, and also by undergraduate students in some institutions and departments.

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Constitution of Brazil

The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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Council of People's Commissars

The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.

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A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).

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Delft University of Technology

Delft University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dental degree

There are a number of professional degrees in dentistry offered by dental schools in various countries around the world.

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Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.

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In the scholastic system of education of the Middle Ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in sciences.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Doctor (title)

Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.

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Doctor of Arts

The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D. from the Latin artium doctor) is a discipline-based terminal doctoral degree that was originally conceived and designed to be an alternative to the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the education-based Doctor of Education (Ed.D.). Like other doctorates, the D.A. is an academic degree of the highest level.

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Doctor of Audiology

The Doctor of Audiology (Au.D.) is a professional degree for an audiologist.

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Doctor of Business Administration

The Doctor of Business Administration (abbreviated DBA, D.B.A., DrBA, or Dr.B.A. or BusD) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in the field of business administration.

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Doctor of Clinical Psychology

The degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy/DClinPsych/ClinPsyD) is a professional doctorate in clinical psychology, awarded mainly in the United Kingdom.

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Doctor of Divinity

Doctor of Divinity (DD or DDiv; Doctor Divinitatis) is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity.

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Doctor of Education

The Doctor of Education (EdD or DEd; Latin Educationis Doctor or Doctor Educationis) is a doctoral degree that has a research focus in the field of education.

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Doctor of Engineering

The Doctor of Engineering, or Engineering Doctorate, (abbreviated Eng.D., D.Eng., D.Engr., Dr.Eng., or Dr.-Ing.) is a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in engineering and applied sciences.

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Doctor of Juridical Science

Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of the Science of Law, (in Latin) Scientiae Juridicae Doctor or Juridicae Scientiae Doctor (sometimes also referred to as a Doctor of Laws), abbreviated S.J.D. or J.S.D., respectively, is a research doctorate in law equivalent to the more commonly awarded research doctorate, the Ph.D. It is offered primarily in the United States (where it originated), and in Canada and Australia.

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Doctor of Law

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.

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Doctor of Letters

Doctor of Letters (D.Litt., Litt.D., D. Lit., or Lit. D.; Latin Litterarum Doctor or Doctor Litterarum) is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be beyond the Ph.D. and equal to the Doctor of Science (Sc.D. or D.Sc.). It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits.

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Doctor of Management

The Doctor of Management (D.M., D.Mgt. or DMan) is a doctoral degree focusing on study and research in the applied science and practice of professional management.

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Doctor of Medicine

A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.

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Doctor of Music

The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or occasionally Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and/or scholarly publications on music.

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Doctor of Musical Arts

The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.

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Doctor of Nursing Practice

The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is a terminal professional degree in nursing.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Doctor of Physical Therapy

In the United States a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree is a post-baccalaureate degree that takes 3 years to complete following completion of a Bachelor's degree.

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Doctor of Practical Theology

The Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT, DPTh) is a professional doctorate developed for those seeking to apply theological principles to their professional practice.

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Doctor of Professional Studies

The Doctor of Professional Studies (or sometimes awarded as Doctorate in Professional Practice) (most commonly DProf, but also available as ProfD and DPS) is a doctoral degree for experienced professionals who wish to undertake a programme that is applied in nature and of practical value to their career.The Dprof is based on applied research of real world problems.

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Doctor of Public Health

The Doctor of Public Health (abbr. DrPH or DPH; Latin Publica Sanitas Doctor) is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of Public Health.

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Doctor of Sacred Theology

Doctor of Sacred Theology (Sacrae Theologiae Doctor; formerly Professor of Sacred Theology, Sacrae Theologiae Professor) is the final theological degree in the pontifical university system of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Doctor of Science

Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.

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Doctor of Social Science

The Doctor of Social Science degree is a higher qualification offered by select universities, which serves as a doctoral level qualification specifically relating to academic work in the field of social sciences.

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Doctor of Technology

The Doctor of Technology (abbreviated variously in different countries) is a degree normally conferred upon candidates after having completed a course of study in technology and a project of lengthy duration in a technologically related field.

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Doctor of Theology

Doctor of Theology (Doctor Theologiae, abbreviated D.Th., Th.D., D.Theol., or Dr. theol.) is a terminal degree in the academic discipline of theology.

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Doctorandus, abbreviated drs., is a Dutch academic title according to the pre-Bachelor–Master system.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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Doktor nauk

Doktor nauk (p; До́ктор нау́к; Доктор на науките; Доктар навук; "Doctor of Sciences") is a higher doctoral degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (the latter is informally regarded in Russia and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to the PhD obtained in countries in which the PhD is not the highest academic degree).

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The Doktoringenieur (acronym Dr.-Ing., also Doktor der Ingenieurwissenschaften) is the German engineering doctorate degree, comparable to the Doctor of Engineering, Engineering Doctorate, Doctor of Science (Engineering), Doctor of Science (Technology) or a PhD in Engineering or Architecture.

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Dorothea Erxleben

Dorothea Christiane Erxleben née Leporin (13 November 1715, Quedlinburg – 13 June 1762 in Quedlinburg) was the first female medical doctor in Germany.

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Dr. rer. nat.

Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.), literally: Doctor of the things of nature, doctor of natural sciences, is a post-graduate academic degree awarded by universities in some European countries (for instance in Germany and Austria) to graduates in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, computer science, other natural sciences, and similar areas.

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A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.

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Durham University

Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Education in Germany

The responsibility for the education system in Germany lies primarily with the states (Länder), while the federal government plays a minor role.

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Eindhoven University of Technology

The Eindhoven University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, abbr. TU/e) is a university of technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands.

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Elena Cornaro Piscopia

Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia, also Helen Cornaro (5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), was a Venetian philosopher of noble descent, who was one of the first women to receive an academic degree from a university and in 1678 she became the first woman in the world to receive a Ph.D. degree.

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Engineering Doctorate

The Engineering Doctorate scheme is a British postgraduate education programme promoted by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English-speaking world

Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits are a standard means for comparing the "volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload" for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries.

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European Research Council

The European Research Council (ERC) is a public body for funding of scientific and technological research conducted within the European Union (EU).

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Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.

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Flemish Community

The term Flemish Community (Vlaamse Gemeenschap; Communauté flamande; Flämische Gemeinschaft) has two distinct, though related, meanings.

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Fordham University

Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.

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Formal science

Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation

The French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique) is a French national research institution focusing on computer science and applied mathematics.

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Fulbright Program

The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills.

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Gabelli School of Business

The Gabelli School of Business is the undergraduate and graduate business schools of Fordham University, the Jesuit University of New York.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.

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Grandes écoles

The Grandes Écoles (literally in French "Great Schools") of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Higher Attestation Commission

Higher Attestation Commission (Высшая аттестационная комиссия, Вища атестаційна комісія, abbreviated Cyrillic: ВАК, Latin: VAK) is a name of a national government agency in Russia, Ukraine and some other post-Soviet states that oversees awarding of advanced academic degrees.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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Holy orders

In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.

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Honorary degree

An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.

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Human science

Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.

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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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An ijazah (الإِجازَة., "permission", "authorization", "license") is a license authorizing its holder to transmit a certain text or subject, which is issued by someone already possessing such authority.

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Il Dottore

Il Dottore ("the Doctor"; commonly known in Italian as Dottor Balanzone or simply Balanzone; Bolognese Dutåur Balanzån) is a commedia dell'arte stock character, one of the vecchi, or "old men", whose function in a scenario is to be an obstacle to the young lovers.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Institutes of Management

The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 20 public, autonomous institutes of management education and research in India.

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Institut national de la recherche agronomique

The Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA, pronounced; English: National Institute of Agricultural Research) is a French public research institute dedicated to agricultural science.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Juliana Morell

Juliana Morell (16 February 1594 – 26 June 1653) was a Spanish Dominican nun, and the first woman to receive a Doctor of Laws degree.

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Juris Doctor

The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laura Bassi

Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was an Italian physicist and academic.

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In Italy, the Iaurea is the main post-secondary academic degree.

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Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Lexikon des Mittelalters

The Lexikon des Mittelalters ("Lexicon of the Middle Ages", LMA, LexMA) is a German encyclopedia on the history and culture of the Middle Ages.

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Liberal arts education

Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.

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Licensure means a restricted practice or a restriction on the use of an occupational title, requiring a license.

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Licentiate (degree)

A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.

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Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.

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List of diplomatic missions of the United States

This is a list of diplomatic missions of the United States of America.

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List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States

This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey.

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Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.

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María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda

María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda (October 31, 1767 – March 5, 1803) was a Spanish noble and scholar.

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Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg

The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.

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Master of Philosophy

The Master of Philosophy (abbr. M.Phil. or MPhil, sometimes Ph.M.; Latin Magister Philosophiae or Philosophiae Magister) is a postgraduate degree.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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Master's degree in Europe

The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medieval university

A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.

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Michael Brock

Michael George Brock CBE FRHistS FRSL (9 March 1920 – 30 April 2014) was a British historian who was associated with several Oxford colleges during his academic career.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.

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Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy)

The Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (in italic or MIUR) is the ministry of the Italian government for the national education system, the Italian universities and research agencies.

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A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.

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National Institute of Industrial Engineering

National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), formerly National Institute for Training in Industrial Engineering, is a prestigious post graduate education institute located in Powai near Vihar Lake in Mumbai, India.

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National qualifications frameworks in the United Kingdom

The national qualification frameworks in the United Kingdom are qualifications frameworks that define and link the levels and credit values of different qualifications.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of alternative medicine that employs an array of pseudoscientific practices branded as "natural", "non-invasive", and as promoting "self-healing".

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Oath of allegiance

An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to monarch or country.

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.

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Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.

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Oral exam

The oral exam (also oral test or viva voce; Rigorosum in German-speaking nations) is a practice in many schools and disciplines in which an examiner poses questions to the student in spoken form.

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Outline of health sciences

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.

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Oxbridge is a portmanteau of "Oxford" and "Cambridge"; the two oldest, most prestigious, and consistently most highly-ranked universities in the United Kingdom.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Postdoctoral researcher

A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Principle of opportunity

The principle of opportunity is a principle in Dutch law (opportuniteitsbeginsel), Swedish law, Slovenian law and French law.

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Privatdozent (for men) or Privatdozentin (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualifications that denote an ability to teach (venia legendi) a designated subject at university level.

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A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.

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Professional degree

A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession, often meeting the academic requirements for licensure or accreditation.

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Professional Doctorate in Engineering

The Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng) is a Dutch degree awarded to graduates of a Technological Designer (engineering) program that develop their students' capabilities to work within a professional context.

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Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education

The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) is the independent body that checks on standards and quality in UK higher education.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Redaction is a form of editing in which multiple source texts are combined (redacted) and altered slightly to make a single document.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Research assistant

A research assistant is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university or a research institute, for the purpose of assisting in academic research.

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Research Councils UK

Research Councils UK, known as RCUK, was a non-departmental public body which coordinated science policy in the United Kingdom.

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Rice University

William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

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Robert Gordon University

Robert Gordon University, commonly called RGU, is a public university in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies

The Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies (SSSA, Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento Sant'Anna) is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, Italy, operating in the field of applied sciences.

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São Paulo (state)

São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.

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Süddeutsche Zeitung

The Süddeutsche Zeitung (German for South German Newspaper), published in Munich, Bavaria, is one of the largest daily newspapers in Germany.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (SNS) is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.

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Stefan Banach

Stefan Banach (30 March 1892 – 31 August 1945) was a Polish mathematician who is generally considered one of the world's most important and influential 20th-century mathematicians.

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Superior Graduate Schools in Italy

A Superior Graduate School (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria) is a completely independent institution from a legal point of view, which offers advanced training and research through university-type courses or is dedicated to teaching at graduate or post-doctoral level.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Third Council of the Lateran

The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the eleventh ecumenical council.

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Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United States Department of Education

The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.

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Université catholique de Louvain

The University of Louvain (Université catholique de Louvain, UCL) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university.

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University of Bologna

The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.

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University of Buckingham

The University of Buckingham (UB) is a non-profit, private university in the UK and the oldest of the country's five private universities.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Hertfordshire

The University of Hertfordshire is a university in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.

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University of Leicester

The University of Leicester is a public research university based in Leicester, England.

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University of London

The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Padua

The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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University of Salamanca

The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.

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University of Technology Sydney

The University of Technology Sydney (UTS) is a public research university located in Sydney, Australia.

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University of Twente

The University of Twente (Dutch: Universiteit Twente;, abbr. UT) is a public research university located in Enschede, Netherlands.

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University of Virginia

The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.

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University of Wales

The University of Wales (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru) was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK.

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Wellcome Trust

The Wellcome Trust is a biomedical research charity based in London, United Kingdom.

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White tie

White tie, also called full evening dress or a dress suit, is the most formal evening dress code in Western high fashion.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Redirects here:

D.S.Litt, Doctor rerum politicarum, Doctor's degree, Doctorado, Doctoral, Doctoral Program, Doctoral degree, Doctoral degrees, Doctoral program, Doctoral student, Doctoral students, Doctorat, Doctorat d'université, Doctorat de spécialité, Doctorat de troisième cycle, Doctorate Degree, Doctorate degree, Doctorate degrees, Doctorates, Dr. rer. pol, Dr. rer. pol., Higher Doctorate, Higher Doctorates, Higher doctorate, Higher doctorates, Inaugural dissertation, MUDr., Philosophy of Doctorate, Post-doctoral degree, Professional Doctorate, Professional doctorate, Promotion (Germany), Promotion (academic), Research doctorate.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctorate

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