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Index Dog

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore. [1]

330 relations: Aboriginal Tasmanians, Aging in dogs, Agriculture, Ain Mallaha, Aléria, Aloe vera, American Pet Products Association, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Ancient Greece, Andamanese, Animal euthanasia, Animal Reproduction Science, Animal shelter, Animal track, Animal welfare, Annwn, Apache, Argos (dog), Artificial insemination, Assistance dog, Athabaskan languages, Babylonia, Basset Hound, Before Present, Begonia, Beringia, Bernese Mountain Dog, BioScience, Bite inhibition, Bloodhound, Bluey (dog), Border Terrier, Bosintang, Braque du Bourbonnais, Brittany dog, Brygos, Cairn Terrier, Canine reproduction, Canis, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivora, Carnivore, Castration, Cat, Catholic Church, Caucasus, Cŵn Annwn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cerberus, Cestoda, ..., Chatham Islands, Chemical weapon, Chihuahua (dog), China, Chinvat Bridge, Chocolate, Christianity, Church grim, Churchyard, Clade, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Coat (dog), Coefficient of relationship, Colin Groves, Collie, Colorado, Conserved name, Control of fire by early humans, Cook Islands, Countershading, Coyote, Cruciate ligament, Cultural depictions of the dog, Cutaneous larva migrans, Cynanthropy, Dachshund, Detection dog, Dewclaw, Diabetes in dogs, Diabetes mellitus, Dictionary.com, Diminutive, Dingo, Dirofilaria immitis, Disulfide, Docking (dog), Dog (zodiac), Dog anatomy, Dog behavior, Dog bite, Dog breed, Dog in Chinese mythology, Dog odor, Dog training, Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan, Doga (Dog Yoga), Dog–cat relationship, Dognapping, Dogs in the United States, Dogs in warfare, Dogue de Bordeaux, Domestication, Dominance (ethology), Dominican Order, East Asia, Easter Island, Ecclesiastical Latin, Egg cell, Elbow dysplasia, Electrophoresis, English Mastiff, Ensembl genome database project, Epic poetry, Estrous cycle, Ethnocynology, Euthanasia, Evolutionary developmental biology, Extinction, Feral, Fertilisation, Flea, Food and drink prohibitions, Free-ranging dog, French Bulldog, French Polynesia, Fuegian dog, Fuegians, Fur, Garlic, Garmr, Gastric dilatation volvulus, Genetic divergence, Genus, Geocentric orbit, German Shepherd, Gheorghe Benga, Gilbert Islands, Grape, Gray wolf, Great Dane, Greek mythology, Guard dog, Guide dog, Guinness World Records, Hachikō, Hades, Halakha, Hearing dog, Hearing loss, Hel (location), Hemangiosarcoma, Herding dog, Hindu mythology, Hip dysplasia (canine), Homer, Hookworm infection, Horse, Hound, Human–canine bond, Humane Society of the United States, Hunter-gatherer, Hunting, Hunting dog, Hygiene hypothesis, Hypersexuality, Hypersociability, Illegal drug trade, Inbreeding depression, India, Indochina, Indonesia, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Inuit, Irish Wolfhound, Islam, Israel, Japan, Japanese Spitz, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Juliet Clutton-Brock, Kerala, Khaled Abou El Fadl, Korea, Laika, Late Pleistocene, Leonberger, Leopard, Libido, List of dog sports, List of fictional dogs, List of individual dogs, List of mammalian gestation durations, Litter (animal), Luxating patella, Macadamia, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malaysia, Mammal Species of the World, Man's best friend (phrase), Manchuria, Mangaia, Marquesas Islands, Marshall Islands, Mastiff, Mesopotamia, Middle Ages, Middle English, Miniature Bull Terrier, Mite, Mobility assistance dog, Mongrel, Moulting, Mountain dog, Musical canine freestyle, Muthappan, Muthappan Temple, Mutiny on the Bounty, Naraka, Natufian culture, Navajo, Nematode, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Neontology, Neutering, New Caledonia, Nintinugga, Norse mythology, North Malabar, Nureongi, Odysseus, Odyssey, Old English, Omnivore, Opinion 2027, Osteosarcoma, Ovary, Overpopulation in domestic pets, Pack animal, Pack hunter, Palau, Persian mythology, Pet, Pet adoption, Pet recovery service, Phenotype, Philippine mythology, Phosphatase, Pitcairn Islands, Poinsettia, Police dog, Polynesia, Poodle, Pre-Columbian Mexico, Predation, Pregnancy, Prostate cancer, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European religion, Psychiatric service dog, Puberty, Pulmonary valve stenosis, Puppy, Pusuke, Pyometra, Qi, Raisin, Rapa Iti, Renaissance, Reuters, Rhyton, Richard H. Tedford, Rico (dog), Sacrilege, Saint Dominic, Scallion, Scavenger, Search and rescue dog, Selective breeding, Service dog, Sheep dog, Siberia, Sister group, Sled dog, Sobriquet, Soviet space program, Species, Species problem, Sputnik 2, Striped hyena, Sulfoxide, Sympatry, Synonym (taxonomy), Temporal muscle, Theobromine poisoning, Theory of mind, Therapy dog, Thiosulfate, Tibet, Tibetan Spaniel, Tick, Tiger, Tonga, Toxocara canis, Toxocariasis, Toy dog, Toy group, Turkmenistan, Tympanic part of the temporal bone, Type species, Urinary incontinence, Urination, Uterus, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Violet gland, Visual impairment, Walter de Gruyter, Welsh mythology, West Highland White Terrier, Williams syndrome, Withers, Wolfdog, Working dog, World Health Organization, Xiaoming Wang (paleontologist), Xylitol, Yama, Yorkshire Terrier, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (280 more) »

Aboriginal Tasmanians

The Aboriginal Tasmanians (Tasmanian: Palawa) are the indigenous people of the Australian state of Tasmania, located south of the mainland.

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Aging in dogs

Aging in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) varies from breed to breed, and affects the dog's health, physical ability and life expectancy.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ain Mallaha

Ain Mallaha, also known as Eynan, was a Natufian settlement built and settled circa 10,000–8,000 BCE.

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Aléria (Ancient Greek: Ἀλαλίη, Alaliē; Latin and Italian: Aleria, U Cateraghju) is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica, former bishopric and present Latin Catholic titular see.

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Aloe vera

Aloe vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe.

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American Pet Products Association

The American Pet Products Association (APPA) is a not-for-profit industry association founded in 1958 in Greenwich, Connecticut.

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American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing cruelty to animals.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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The Andamanese are the various indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, part of India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal.

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Animal euthanasia

Animal euthanasia (euthanasia from εὐθανασία; "good death") is the act of putting an animal to death or allowing it to die by withholding extreme medical measures.

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Animal Reproduction Science

Animal Reproduction Science is a monthly peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research and reviews on topics relating to reproduction and fertility in animals.

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Animal shelter

An animal shelter or pound is a place where stray, lost, abandoned or surrendered animals, mostly dogs and cats, and sometimes sick or wounded wildlife are kept and rehabilitated.

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Animal track

An animal track is an imprint left behind in soil, snow, or mud, or on some other ground surface, by an animal walking across it.

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Animal welfare

Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.

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Annwn, Annwfn, or Annwfyn (in Middle Welsh, Annwvn, Annwyn, Annwyfn, Annwvyn, or Annwfyn) was the Otherworld in Welsh mythology.

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The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.

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Argos (dog)

In Homer's Odyssey, Argos (Ἄργος) is Odysseus' faithful dog.

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Artificial insemination

Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.

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Assistance dog

In general, an assistance dog is trained to aid or assist an individual with a disability.

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Athabaskan languages

Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Basset Hound

The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Begonia is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae.

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Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Bernese Mountain Dog

The Bernese Mountain Dog (Berner Sennenhund) is a large-sized breed of dog, one of the four breeds of Sennenhund-type dogs from the Swiss Alps.

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BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

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Bite inhibition

Bite inhibition, sometimes referred to as a soft mouth (a term which also has a distinct meaning), is a behavior in carnivorans (dogs, cats, etc.) whereby the animal learns to moderate the strength of its bite.

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The Bloodhound is a large scent hound, originally bred for hunting deer, wild boar and, since the Middle Ages, for tracking people.

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Bluey (dog)

Bluey (7 June 1910 – 14 November 1939) was an Australian cattle dog owned by Les and Esma Hall of Rochester, Victoria, Australia.

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Border Terrier

The Border Terrier is a small, rough-coated breed of dog in the terrier group.

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Bosintang (boshintang) or gaejangguk, called dangogiguk in North Korea, is a Korean soup that includes dog meat as its primary ingredient.

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Braque du Bourbonnais

The Braque du Bourbonnais is a breed of gundog, of rustic appearance, sometimes born with a short tail, with a coat ticked with liver or fawn.

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Brittany dog

The Brittany is a breed of gun dog bred primarily for bird hunting.

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Brygos was an ancient Greek potter, active in Athens between 490 and 470 BC.

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Cairn Terrier

The Cairn Terrier is one of the oldest terrier breeds, originating in the Scottish Highlands and recognized as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs.

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Canine reproduction

Canine reproduction is the process of sexual reproduction in domestic dogs.

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Canis is a genus of the Canidae containing multiple extant species, such as wolves, coyotes, jackals, dingoes, and dogs.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carnivora (from Latin carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Cŵn Annwn

In Welsh mythology and folklore, Cŵn Annwn ("hounds of Annwn") were the spectral hounds of Annwn, the otherworld of Welsh myth.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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In Greek mythology, Cerberus (Κέρβερος Kerberos), often called the "hound of Hades", is the monstrous multi-headed dog that guards the gates of the Underworld to prevent the dead from leaving.

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Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.

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Chatham Islands

The Chatham Islands form an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about east of the South Island of New Zealand.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Chihuahua (dog)

The Chihuahua (chihuahueño) is the smallest breed of dog and is named after the state of Chihuahua in Mexico.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinvat Bridge

The Chinvat Bridge (Avestan Cinvatô Peretûm, "bridge of judgement" or "beam-shaped bridge") or the Bridge of the Requiter in Zoroastrianism is the sifting bridge which separates the world of the living from the world of the dead.

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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church grim

The church grim is a guardian spirit in English and Scandinavian folklore that oversees the welfare of a particular Christian church and protects the churchyard from those who would profane and commit sacrilege against it.

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A churchyard is a patch of land adjoining or surrounding a church, which is usually owned by the relevant church or local parish itself.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cleft lip and cleft palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).

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Coat (dog)

The coat of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) refers to the hair that covers its body.

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Coefficient of relationship

The coefficient of relationship is a measure of the degree of consanguinity (or biological relationship) between two individuals.

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Colin Groves

Colin Peter Groves (24 June 1942 – 30 November 2017) was Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia.

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The collie is a distinctive type of herding dog, including many related landraces and standardised breeds.

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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Conserved name

A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda, abbreviated as nom. cons.) is a scientific name that has specific nomenclatural protection.

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Control of fire by early humans

The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution.

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Cook Islands

The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.

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Countershading, or Thayer's law, is a method of camouflage in which an animal's coloration is darker on the upper side and lighter on the underside of the body.

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The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.

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Cruciate ligament

Cruciate ligaments (also cruciform ligaments) are pairs of ligaments arranged like a letter X. They occur in several joints of the body, such as the knee.

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Cultural depictions of the dog

Cultural depictions of dogs extend back thousands of years to when dogs were portrayed on the walls of caves.

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Cutaneous larva migrans

Cutaneous larva migrans (abbreviated CLM) is a skin disease in humans, caused by the larvae of various nematode parasites of the hookworm family (Ancylostomatidae).

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Cynanthropy (sometimes spelled kynanthropy) is, in medicine, the pathological delusion of real persons that they are dogs and in anthropology and folklore, the supposed magical practice of shape-shifting alternately between dog and human form, or the possession of combined canine and human anatomical features, a form of therianthropy.

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The dachshund (UK: /ˈdakshʊnd/ or or) (badger dog; also known as the sausage dog or wiener dog) is a short-legged, long-bodied, hound-type dog breed.

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Detection dog

A detection dog or sniffer dog is a dog that is trained to use its senses to detect substances such as explosives, illegal drugs, wildlife scat, currency, blood, and contraband electronics such as illicit mobile phones.

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A dewclaw is a digit – vestigial in some animals – on the foot of many mammals, birds, and reptiles (including some extinct orders, like certain theropods).

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Diabetes in dogs

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas either stop producing insulin or can no longer produce it in enough quantity for the body's needs.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.

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A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

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The dingo (Canis familiaris or Canis familiaris dingo or Canis lupus dingo or Canis dingo) is a type of feral dog native to Australia.

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Dirofilaria immitis

Dirofilaria immitis, the heartworm or dog heartworm, is a parasitic roundworm that is spread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes.

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In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Docking (dog)

Docking is the removal of portions of an animal's tail.

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Dog (zodiac)

The Dog (狗) is eleventh of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.

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Dog anatomy

Dog anatomy comprises the anatomical studies of the visible parts of the body of a canine.

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Dog behavior

Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses of individuals or groups of domestic dogs to internal and external stimuli.

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Dog bite

A dog bite is a bite inflicted upon a person or another animal by a dog.

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Dog breed

Dog breeds are dogs that have relatively uniform physical characteristics developed under controlled conditions by humans, with breeding animals selected for phenotypic traits such as size, coat color, structure, and behavior.

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Dog in Chinese mythology

Dogs are an important motif in Chinese mythology.

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Dog odor

Dogs, as with all mammals, have natural odors.

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Dog training

Dog training is the application of behavior analysis which uses the environmental events of antecedents and consequences to modify the behavior of a dog, either for it to assist in specific activities or undertake particular tasks, or for it to participate effectively in contemporary domestic life.

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Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan

Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan is a reality television series that featured dog trainer Cesar Millan's work with problem dogs.

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Doga (Dog Yoga)

Doga (a portmanteau of "Dog Yoga") is the practice of yoga with pet dogs.

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Dog–cat relationship

Dogs and cats have a range of interactions.

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Dognapping is the crime of taking a dog from its owner with the intention of demanding a ransom.

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Dogs in the United States

Dogs in the United States have significant popularity and status – they are often treated as family members.

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Dogs in warfare

Dogs in warfare have a long history starting in ancient times.

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Dogue de Bordeaux

The Dogue de Bordeaux, Bordeaux Mastiff, French Mastiff or Bordeauxdog is a large French Mastiff breed—and one of the most ancient French dog breeds.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Dominance (ethology)

Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals.

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Dominican Order

The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.

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Ecclesiastical Latin

Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Liturgical Latin or Church Latin, is the form of Latin that is used in the Roman and the other Latin rites of the Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Churches, Lutheran Churches, Methodist Churches, and the Western Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church, for liturgical purposes.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Elbow dysplasia

Elbow dysplasia is a condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow-joint in the dog, specifically the growth of cartilage or the structures surrounding it.

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Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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English Mastiff

The English Mastiff is a breed of extremely large dog (often known simply as the Mastiff) perhaps descended from the ancient Alaunt and Pugnaces Britanniae, with a significant input from the Alpine Mastiff in the 19th century.

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Ensembl genome database project

Ensembl genome database project is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Estrous cycle

The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.

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Ethnocynology, is a neologism coined by anthropologist Bryan Cummins in his book First Nations, First Dogs: Canadian Aboriginal Ethnocynology (2002).

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Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.

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Evolutionary developmental biology

Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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A feral animal or plant (from Latin fera, "a wild beast") is one that lives in the wild but is descended from domesticated individuals.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Food and drink prohibitions

Some people abstain from consuming various foods and beverages in conformity with various religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions.

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Free-ranging dog

A free-ranging dog is a dog that is not confined to a yard or house.

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French Bulldog

The French Bulldog, also known as Frenchie, is a small breed of domestic dog.

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French Polynesia

French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).

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Fuegian dog

The Fuegian dog (perro yagán, perro fueguino) (Lycalopex culpaeus domesticus), also known as the Yaghan dog, is an extinct domesticated canid.

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Fuegians are one of the three tribes of indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America.

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Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.

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Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.

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In Norse mythology, Garmr or Garm (Old Norse "rag"Orchard (1997:52).) is a wolf or dog associated with both Hel and Ragnarök, and described as a blood-stained guardian of Hel's gate.

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Gastric dilatation volvulus

Gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), also known as gastric dilation, twisted stomach, or gastric torsion, is a medical condition that affects dogs in which the stomach becomes overstretched and rotated by excessive gas content.

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Genetic divergence

Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geocentric orbit

A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.

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German Shepherd

The German Shepherd (Deutscher Schäferhund) is a breed of medium to large-sized working dog that originated in Germany.

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Gheorghe Benga

Gheorghe Benga (born January 26, 1944 in Timişoara, Romania) is a professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Haţieganu" of Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

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Gilbert Islands

The Gilbert Islands (Tungaru;Reilly Ridgell. Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. 3rd. Ed. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1995. p. 95. formerly Kingsmill or King's-Mill IslandsVery often, this name applied only to the southern islands of the archipelago, the northern half being designated as the Scarborough Islands. Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam Webster, 1997. p. 594) are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean about halfway between Papua New Guinea and Hawaii.

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A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Great Dane

The Great Dane is a German breed of domestic dog known for its giant size.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Guard dog

A guard dog or watch dog (not to be confused with the attack dog) is a dog used to guard against, and watch for unwanted or unexpected people or animals.

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Guide dog

Guide dogs (also known as service animals, assistance animals or colloquially as seeing eye dogs), are assistance dogs trained to lead blind and visually impaired people around obstacles.

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Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.

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was an Akita dog born on a farm near the city of Ōdate, Akita Prefecture, Japan.

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Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Hearing dog

A hearing dog is a type of assistance dog specifically selected and trained to assist people who are deaf or hard of hearing by alerting their handler to important sounds, such as doorbells, smoke alarms, ringing telephones, or alarm clocks.

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Hearing loss

Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.

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Hel (location)

In Norse mythology, Hel, the location, shares a name with Hel, a being who rules over the location.

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Hemangiosarcoma is a rapidly growing, highly invasive variety of cancer that occurs almost exclusively in dogs, and only rarely in cats, horses, mice, or humans.

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Herding dog

A herding dog, also known as a stock dog or working dog, is a type of pastoral dog that either has been trained in herding or belongs to breeds developed for herding.

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Hindu mythology

Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.

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Hip dysplasia (canine)

In dogs, hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling lameness and painful arthritis of the joints.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Hookworm infection

Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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A hound is a type of dog used by hunters to track or chase prey.

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Human–canine bond

Human–canine bonding is the relationship between dogs and people.

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Humane Society of the United States

The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), based in Washington, D.C., is an American nonprofit organization founded by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, and Marcia Glaser in 1954, to address what they saw as animal-related cruelties of national scope, and to resolve animal welfare problems by applying strategies beyond the resources or abilities of local organizations.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.

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Hunting dog

A hunting dog refers to a canine that hunts with or for humans.

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Hygiene hypothesis

In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis states a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (such as the gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases susceptibility to allergic diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system.

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Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.

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In the context of transmedia storytelling, hypersociability is the encouraged involvement of media consumers in a story through ordinary social interaction.

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Illegal drug trade

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.

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Inbreeding depression

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals".

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The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Irish Wolfhound

The Irish Wolfhound (Cú Faoil) is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a very large sighthound from Ireland.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese Spitz

The is a small to medium breed of dog of the Spitz type.

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Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist.

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Juliet Clutton-Brock

Juliet Clutton-Brock, FSA, FZS (6 September 1933 – 21 September 2015) was an English zooarchaeologist and curator, specialising in domesticated mammals.

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Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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Khaled Abou El Fadl

Khaled Abou el Fadl (خالد أبو الفضل) (born 1963 in Kuwait) is the Omar and Azmeralda Alfi Distinguished Professor of Law at the UCLA School of Law where he has taught courses on International Human Rights, Islamic jurisprudence, National Security Law, Law and Terrorism, Islam and Human Rights, Political Asylum, and Political Crimes and Legal Systems.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.

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Late Pleistocene

The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.

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The Leonberger is a giant dog breed.

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The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.

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Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.

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List of dog sports

Dog sports are sports in which dogs participate.

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List of fictional dogs

This list of fictional dogs is subsidiary to the list of fictional animals.

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List of individual dogs

This is a list of famous dogs.

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List of mammalian gestation durations

No description.

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Litter (animal)

A litter is the live birth of multiple offspring at one time in animals from the same mother and usually from one set of parents, particularly from three to eight offspringThe word is most often used for the offspring of mammals, but can be used for any animal that gives birth to multiple young.

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Luxating patella

Luxating patella (or trick knee, subluxation of patella, floating patella, or floating kneecap) is a condition in which the patella, or kneecap, dislocates or moves out of its normal location.

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Macadamia is a genus of four species of trees indigenous to Australia, and constituting part of the plant family Proteaceae.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Mammal Species of the World

Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals.

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Man's best friend (phrase)

"Man's best friend" is a common phrase about domestic dogs, referring to their millennia-long history of close relations, loyalty, and companionship with humans.

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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mangaia (traditionally known as A'ua'u Enua, which means terraced) is the most southerly of the Cook Islands and the second largest, after Rarotonga.

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Marquesas Islands

The Marquesas Islands (Îles Marquises or Archipel des Marquises or Marquises; Marquesan: Te Henua (K)enana (North Marquesan) and Te FenuaEnata (South Marquesan), both meaning "the land of men") are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean.

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Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.

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Mastiff type means a large molosser dog.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Miniature Bull Terrier

The Bull Terrier (Miniature) is a breed with origins in the extinct English White Terrier, the Dalmatian and the Bulldog.

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Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).

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Mobility assistance dog

A mobility assistance dog is a service dog trained to assist a physically disabled person who has mobility issues, which may include being wheelchair-dependent.

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A mongrel, mixed-breed dog or mutt is a dog that does not belong to one officially recognized breed and is not the result of intentional breeding.

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In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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Mountain dog

Mountain dog is a generic form of dog, a group of similar or related dog breeds or landraces typically from mountain environs of central Eurasia.

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Musical canine freestyle

Musical canine freestyle, also known as musical freestyle, freestyle dance, and canine freestyle, is a modern dog sport that is a mixture of obedience training, tricks, and dance that allows for creative interaction between dogs and their owners.

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Sree Muthappan is a Malabar Thiyya deity commonly worshiped in the North Malabar region of Kerala and Coorg region of Karnataka, India.

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Muthappan Temple

Muthappan Temple, also called Parassinikadavu Muthappan temple is a Hindu temple, located at Anthoor Municipality on the banks of the Valapattanam river about 10 km from Taliparamba and 16 km from Kannur City in Kannur District, Kerala.

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Mutiny on the Bounty

The mutiny on the Royal Navy vessel took place in the south Pacific on 28 April 1789.

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Naraka (नरक) is the Sanskrit word for the underworld; literally, of man.

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Natufian culture

The Epipaleolithic Natufian culture existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.

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Neo-Babylonian Empire

The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Neutering, from the Latin neuter ('of neither sex'), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part.

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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Nintinugga was a Babylonian goddess of healing, the consort of Ninurta.

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Norse mythology

Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.

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North Malabar

North Malabar refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod and Kannur Districts, the Mananthavady taluk of Wayanad District, the taluks of Koyilandy and Vatakara in the Kozhikode District of Kerala and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry.

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The Nureongi or Korean Yellow Spitz or Korean Edible Dog is a landrace dog native to Korea.

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Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, Ὀdysseús), also known by the Latin variant Ulysses (Ulixēs), is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.

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The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.

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Opinion 2027

Opinion 2027 is a ruling of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) concerning the conservation of 17 species names of wild animals with domestic derivatives.

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An osteosarcoma (OS) or osteogenic sarcoma (OGS) is a cancerous tumor in a bone.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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Overpopulation in domestic pets

Overpopulation in domestic pets is the surplus of pets, such as cats, dogs, and exotic animals.

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Pack animal

A pack animal or beast of burden is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.

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Pack hunter

A pack hunter or social predator is a predator belonging to the animal kingdom which hunts its prey by working together with other members of its species.

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Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Persian mythology

Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings.

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A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.

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Pet adoption

Pet adoption is the process of taking responsibility for a pet that a previous owner has abandoned or released to a shelter or rescue organization.

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Pet recovery service

A pet recovery service is a service that has been created for the specific purpose of reuniting lost or stolen pets with their owners.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Philippine mythology

Philippine mythology is the body of myths, tales, and superstitions held by Filipinos, mostly originating from beliefs held during the pre-Hispanic era.

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A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.

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Pitcairn Islands

The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the South Pacific.

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The poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is a commercially important plant species of the diverse spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).

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Police dog

A police dog, known in some English-speaking countries as a "K-9" or "K9" (a homophone of "canine"), is a dog that is specifically trained to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel.

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Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

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The poodle is a group of formal dog breeds, the Standard Poodle, Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle.

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Pre-Columbian Mexico

The pre-Columbian history of the territory now comprising contemporary Mexico is known through the work of archaeologists and epigraphers, and through the accounts of the conquistadors, clergymen, and indigenous chroniclers of the immediate post-conquest period.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Proto-Indo-European religion

Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.

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Psychiatric service dog

A psychiatric service dog is a specific type of service dog trained to assist their handler with a psychiatric disability or a mental disability, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.

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Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.

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Pulmonary valve stenosis

Pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS) is a heart valve disorder in which outflow of blood from the right ventricle of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve.

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A puppy is a juvenile dog.

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Pusuke (プースケ in katakana or ぷうすけ in hiragana, 1 April 1985 – 5 December 2011) was a Japanese Shiba Inu who, according to the Guinness World Records, was the world's oldest dog from December 2010 until his death in December 2011.

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Pyometra or pyometrea is a uterine infection.

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In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.

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A raisin is a dried grape.

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Rapa Iti

Rapa, sometimes called Rapa Iti (Little Rapa, to distinguish it from "Rapa Nui" (Big Rapa), a name for Easter Island), is the largest and only inhabited island of the Bass Islands in French Polynesia.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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A rhyton (plural rhytons or, following the Greek plural, rhyta) is a roughly conical container from which fluids were intended to be drunk or to be poured in some ceremony such as libation, or merely at table.

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Richard H. Tedford

Richard Hall Tedford (April 25, 1929 – July 15, 2011) was Curator Emeritus in the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, having been named as curator in 1969.

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Rico (dog)

Rico (December 13, 1994 – 2008) was a border collie dog who made the news after being studied by animal psychologists Juliane Kaminski and colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig after his owners reported that he understood more than 200 simple words.

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Sacrilege is the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object or person.

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Saint Dominic

Saint Dominic (Santo Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma and Dominic of Caleruega, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo Félix de Guzmán (8 August 1170 – 6 August 1221), was a Castilian priest and founder of the Dominican Order.

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Scallions (green onion, spring onion and salad onion) are vegetables of various Allium onion species.

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Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.

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Search and rescue dog

The use of dogs in search and rescue (SAR) is a valuable component in wilderness tracking, natural disasters, mass casualty events, and in locating missing people.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Service dog

A service dog is a type of assistance dog specifically trained to help people who have disabilities, such as visual impairment, hearing impairments, mental disorders (such as post traumatic stress disorder), seizures, mobility impairment, and diabetes.

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Sheep dog

A sheep dog or sheepdog is generally a dog or breed of dogs historically used in connection with the raising of sheep.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Sled dog

Sled dogs were important for transportation in arctic areas, hauling supplies in areas that were inaccessible by other methods.

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A sobriquet or soubriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another.

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Soviet space program

The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species problem

The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.

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Sputnik 2

Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.

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Striped hyena

The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.

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A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl (SO) functional group attached to two carbon atoms.

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In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus frequently encounter one another.

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Synonym (taxonomy)

In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICN'', "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.

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Temporal muscle

The temporal muscle, also known as the temporalis, is one of the muscles of mastication.

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Theobromine poisoning

Theobromine poisoning, also incorrectly called chocolate poisoning, is an overdosage reaction to the xanthine alkaloid theobromine, found in chocolate, tea, cola beverages, açaí berries, and some other foods.

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Theory of mind

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

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Therapy dog

A therapy dog is a dog that might be trained to provide affection, comfort and love to people in hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes, schools, hospices, disaster areas, and are defined but not covered or protected under the Federal Housing Act or Americans with Disabilities act.

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Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibetan Spaniel

The Tibetan Spaniel is a breed of assertive, small, intelligent dogs originating over 2,500 years ago in the Himalayan mountains of Tibet.

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Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.

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The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.

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Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.

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Toxocara canis

Toxocara canis (also known as dog roundworm) is worldwide-distributed helminth parasite of dogs and other canids.

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Toxocariasis is an illness of humans caused by larvae (immature worms) of either the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis), the cat roundworm (Toxocara cati) or the fox roundworm (Toxocara canis).

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Toy dog

Toy dog traditionally refers to a very small dog or a grouping of small and very small breeds of dog.

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Toy group

Toy Group is the name of a breed group of the smallest kinds of dogs, used by kennel clubs to classify a defined collection of dog breeds.

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Tympanic part of the temporal bone

The tympanic part of the temporal bone is a curved plate of bone lying below the squamous part of the temporal bone, in front of the mastoid process, and surrounding the external part of the ear canal.

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Type species

In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Violet gland

A Rhodesian Ridgeback (sex unknown) with "stud tail": the violet gland lost hair and appears as a dark dimple The violet gland or supracaudal gland is an important gland located on the upper surface of the tail of certain mammals, including European badgers and canids such as foxes, wolves, and the domestic dog, as well as the domestic cat.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Walter de Gruyter

Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.

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Welsh mythology

Welsh mythology consists of both folk traditions developed in Wales, and traditions developed by the Celtic Britons elsewhere before the end of the first millennium.

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West Highland White Terrier

The West Highland White Terrier, commonly known as the Westie, is a breed of dog from Scotland with a distinctive white harsh coat with a somewhat soft white undercoat.

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Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder that affects many parts of the body.

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The withers is the ridge between the shoulder blades of an animal, typically a quadruped.

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A wolfdog (also called a wolf–dog hybrid or wolf hybrid) is a canid hybrid resulting from the hybridization of a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to one of four other Genus Canis taxa, the gray (Canis lupus), eastern timber (Canis lycaon), red (Canis rufus), or ethiopian (Canis simensis).

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Working dog

A working dog is a canine working animal, i.e., a type of dog that is not merely a pet but learns and performs tasks to assist and/or entertain its human companions, or a breed of such origin.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Xiaoming Wang (paleontologist)

Xiaoming Wang is a noted vertebrate paleontologist and geologist born in People's Republic of China and now living and teaching in the United States.

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Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener.

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Yama or Yamarāja is a god of death, the south direction, and the underworld, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic Hindu deities.

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Yorkshire Terrier

The Yorkshire Terrier is a small dog breed of terrier type, developed during the 19th century in Yorkshire, England, to catch rats in clothing mills.

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10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog

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