185 relations: Afghanistan, Alexander Hamilton, American Revolution, Anachronism, Antarctican dollar, Australian dollar, Australian pound, £sd, Bahamian dollar, Bahamian pound, Bank of England, Barbadian dollar, BBC News, Belize dollar, Bermudian dollar, Bolivia, Botswana pula, Bretton Woods system, British North Borneo dollar, British West Indies dollar, Brunei, Brunei dollar, Cambodia, Canada, Canadian dollar, Canadian pound, Canadian Tire money, Caribbean Netherlands, Cayman Islands dollar, Cent (currency), Chinese cash (currency unit), Chop marks on coins, Coinage Act of 1873, Continental Congress, Costa Rica, Crown (British coin), Currency, Currency of Ecuador, Czech language, Danish krone, Danish language, De facto, Denmark, Disney dollar, Dollar sign, Dollar, Clackmannanshire, Dominion of Newfoundland, Dutch East Indies, Dutch language, Dutch Republic, ..., Dutch rijksdaalder, East Timor, Eastern Caribbean dollar, Ecuadorian sucre, El Salvador, English language, Ethiopian Semitic languages, Euro, Eurodollar, Far East, Federated States of Micronesia, Federation of Malaya, Fiat money, Fijian dollar, Fijian pound, Florian Cajori, France, Franco-Prussian War, Geometric mean, Grain (unit), Greek language, Guatemala, Guyanese dollar, History of Newfoundland and Labrador, Hong Kong, Hong Kong dollar, Icelandic language, Indian rupee, ISO 4217, Italian language, Jamaican dollar, Jamaican pound, Japan, Japanese yen, Jáchymov, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kiribati dollar, Latin America, Lebanon, Legal tender, Liberian dollar, List of circulating currencies, Macau, Macbeth, Macbeth, King of Scotland, Malaya and British Borneo dollar, Malayan dollar, Malaysia, Malaysian ringgit, Marshall Islands, Middle East, Myanmar, Namibian dollar, Napoleonic Wars, Netherlands, New Netherland, New Taiwan dollar, New York (state), New Zealand dollar, New Zealand pound, Newfoundland dollar, North American monetary union, North Borneo, North Korea, Norwegian language, Norwegian rigsdaler, Old Taiwan dollar, Overstrike (numismatics), Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Pennyweight, Persian language, Peru, Peso, Petrodollar recycling, Philippines, Polish language, Popular Science, Pound sterling, Realm of New Zealand, Renminbi, Rhodesia, Rhodesian dollar, Rhodesian pound, Rupee, Salvadoran colón, Samoan language, Samoan tālā, Sarawak, Sarawak dollar, Scotland, Scribal abbreviation, Shilling, Silver standard, Singapore, Singapore dollar, Slovene language, Slovenian tolar, Solomon Islands dollar, South African rand, Southeast Asia, Sovereign (British coin), Spain, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish dollar, Spanish real, States and territories of Australia, Straits dollar, Surinamese dollar, Surinamese guilder, Swedish language, Swedish riksdaler, Territories of the United States, Thaler, Thirteen Colonies, Tolar, Trade dollar, Trinidad and Tobago dollar, Troy weight, Tuvaluan dollar, United Kingdom, United States Constitution, United States dollar, United States Mint, United States one hundred-dollar bill, United States Secretary of the Treasury, University of St Andrews, Uruguay, Virginia, Western History Association, William Shakespeare, World War II, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwean dollar. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
An anachronism (from the Greek ἀνά ana, "against" and χρόνος khronos, "time") is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods of time.
Antarctican dollars are collectors' items produced by the "Antarctica Overseas Exchange Office" in the appearance of a national money for the continent of Antarctica.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The Australian pound (symbol £) was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar.
£sd (pronounced /ɛlɛsˈdiː/ ell-ess-dee and occasionally written Lsd) is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe, especially in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth.
The dollar (sign: $; code: BSD) has been the currency of The Bahamas since 1966.
The Pound was the currency of the Bahamas until 1966.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The dollar has been the currency of Barbados since 1935.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Belize dollar is the official currency in Belize (currency code BZD).
The Bermudian dollar (symbol: $; code: BMD; also abbreviated BD$; informally called the Bermuda dollar) is the official currency of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
The pula is the currency of Botswana.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
The British North Borneo dollar was the currency of British North Borneo from 1882 to 1953.
The British West Indies dollar (BWI$) was the currency of British Guiana and the Eastern Caribbean territories of the British West Indies from 1935 to 1965, when it was largely replaced by the East Caribbean dollar, and was one of the currencies used in Jamaica from 1954 to 1964.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
The Brunei dollar (Malay: ringgit Brunei, currency code: BND), has been the currency of the Sultanate of Brunei since 1967.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian dollar (symbol: $; code: CAD; dollar canadien) is the currency of Canada.
The pound (symbol £ or C£) was the unit of account for currency of the Canadas until 1858.
Canadian Tire money, officially Canadian Tire 'money', (CTM) is a loyalty program operated by the Canadian retail chain Canadian Tire.
The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.
The Cayman Islands Dollar (currency code KYD) is the currency of the Cayman Islands.
In many national currencies, the cent, commonly represented by the cent sign (a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢; or a simple "c") is a monetary unit that equals of the basic monetary unit.
The cash was a currency denomination used in China in imperial times.
Chop marks on coins are Chinese characters stamped onto coins by merchants in order to validate the weight, authenticity and silver content of the coin.
The Coinage Act of 1873 or Mint Act of 1873, 17 Stat. 424, was a general revision of the laws relating to the Mint of the United States.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The British crown, the successor to the English crown and the Scottish dollar, came into being with the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
The article provides a historical summary of the currency used in Ecuador.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Disney dollars are a form of corporate scrip sold by The Walt Disney Company and redeemable for goods or services at many Disney facilities.
The dollar sign ($ or) is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world.
Dollar (Dolair) is a small town in Clackmannanshire, Scotland.
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The rijksdaalder (Dutch, "dollar of the realm") was a Dutch coin first issued by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the late 16th century during the Dutch Revolt.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Eastern Caribbean dollar (symbol: $; code: XCD) is the currency of all seven full members and one associate member of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).
The Sucre was the currency of Ecuador between 1884 and 2000.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ethiopian Semitic (also known as Ethiosemitic or Ethiopic, or in the past by a few linguists as Abyssinian due to geographyIgor Mikhailovich Diakonov: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, (1965) pp 12) is a language group which forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Eurodollars are time deposits denominated in U.S. dollars at banks outside the United States, and thus are not under the jurisdiction of the Federal Reserve.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
The Federated States of Micronesia (abbreviated FSM and also known simply as Micronesia) is an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosraethat are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean.
The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
The Fijian dollar (currency sign: FJ$, $; currency code: FJD) has been the currency of Fiji since 1969 and was also the currency between 1867 and 1873.
The pound was the currency of Fiji between 1873 and 1969.
Florian Cajori (February 28, 1859 – August 14 or 15, 1930) was a Swiss-American historian of mathematics.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum).
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
The Guyanese dollar (currency sign: $, G$ and GY$; ISO: GYD) has been the unit of account in Guyana (formerly British Guiana) since 29 January 1839.
The first brief European contact with Newfoundland and Labrador came about 1000 AD when the Vikings briefly settled in L'Anse aux Meadows.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hong Kong dollar (sign: HK$; code: HKD) is the official currency of Hong Kong.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The dollar has been the currency of Jamaica since 1969.
The Jamaican pound was the official currency of Jamaica between 1840 and 1969.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is the official currency of Japan.
Jáchymov, until 1945 known by its German name of Sankt Joachimsthal or Joachimsthal (meaning "Saint Joachim's Valley"; Thal, or Tal in modern orthography) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The dollar is the currency of Kiribati.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
The dollar (currency code LRD) has been the currency of Liberia since 1943.
This list contains the 180 currencies recognized as legal tender in United Nations (UN) member states, UN observer states, partially recognized or unrecognized states, and their dependencies.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606.
Macbeth (Medieval Gaelic: Mac Bethad mac Findlaích; Modern Gaelic: MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh; nicknamed Rí Deircc, "the Red King"; – 15 August 1057) was King of Scots from 1040 until his death.
The Malaya and British Borneo dollar (known as the ringgit in Malay, Jawi: رڠڬيت) was the currency of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo, Brunei and Riau archipelago from 1953 to 1967 and was the successor of the Malayan dollar and Sarawak dollar, replacing them at par.
The Malayan dollar (Malay: ringgit, Jawi: ريڠڬيت) was the currency of the British colonies and protectorates in Malaya and Brunei until 1953.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian ringgit (plural: ringgit; symbol: RM; currency code: MYR; formerly the Malaysian dollar) is the currency of Malaysia.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Namibian dollar (symbol: $; code: NAD; Namibiese dollar) has been the currency of Namibia since 1993.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Taiwan dollar (sign: NT$; code: TWD) is the official currency of Taiwan.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The New Zealand dollar (sign: $; code: NZD, also abbreviated NZ$) (Tāra o Aotearoa) is the currency and legal tender of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency, Tokelau, and a British territory, the Pitcairn Islands.
The pound (symbol £, or NZ£ for distinction) was the currency of New Zealand from 1840 until 1967, when it was replaced by the New Zealand dollar.
The dollar was the currency of the colony and dominion of Newfoundland from 1865 until 1949, when Newfoundland became a province of Canada.
The North American monetary union is a theoretical economic and monetary union of three North American countries: Canada, the United States of America and Mexico.
North Borneo (usually known as British North Borneo, also known as the State of North Borneo) was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The rigsdaler was the unit of currency used in Norway until 1816 and in Denmark until 1873.
The Old Taiwan dollar was in use from 1946 to 1949, beginning shortly after Taiwan's handover from the Japanese Empire to Nationalist China.
In Numismatics overstrike refers to the image on a coin which has been coined more than once.
Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
A pennyweight (abbreviated dwt, from denarius weight) is a unit of mass that is equal to 24 grains, of a troy ounce, of a troy pound, approximately 0.054857 avoirdupois ounce and exactly 1.55517384 grams.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The peso (meaning weight in Spanish, or more loosely pound) was a coin that originated in Spain and became of immense importance internationally.
Petrodollar recycling is the international spending or investment of a country's revenues from petroleum exports ("petrodollars").
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The Realm of New Zealand is the entire area (or realm) in which the Queen of New Zealand is head of state.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.
The dollar (R$) was the currency of Rhodesia between 1970 and 1980.
The pound was the currency of Southern Rhodesia from 1964 to 1965 and Rhodesia from 1965 until 1970.
The rupee is the common name for the currencies of India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Mauritius, Nepal, Bhutan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and formerly those of Afghanistan, Tibet, Burma and British East Africa, German East Africa and Trucial States.
The colón was the currency of El Salvador between 1892 and 2001, until it was replaced by the U.S. Dollar.
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
The tālā is the currency of Samoa.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
The dollar was the currency of Sarawak from 1858 to 1953.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.
The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The tolar was the currency of Slovenia from 8 October 1991 until the introduction of the euro on 1 January 2007.
The Solomon Islands dollar (ISO 4217 code: SBD) is the currency of Solomon Islands since 1977.
The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight (peso de ocho or real de a ocho), is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after 1598.
The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century, but changed in value relative to other units introduced.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
The Straits dollar was the currency of the Straits Settlements from 1898 until 1939.
The Surinamese dollar (ISO 4217 code SRD) has been the currency of Suriname since 2004.
The guilder (gulden; ISO 4217 code: SRG) was the currency of Suriname until 2004, when it was replaced by the Surinamese dollar.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
The riksdaler was the name of a Swedish coin first minted in 1604.
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States (U.S.) federal government.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Tolar (Thaler) is the Czech name for the silver coin mined in Kingdom of Bohemia in the 16th century in Jáchymov (German: Joachimsthal).
Trade dollars are silver coins minted as trade coins by various countries to facilitate trade with China and the Orient.
The dollar (currency code TTD) is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
The dollar is the currency of Tuvalu.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Mint is the agency that produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion.
The United States one hundred-dollar bill ($100) is a denomination of United States currency.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
The Western History Association (WHA), a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, was founded in 1961 at Santa Fe, New Mexico by Ray Allen Billington et al., with the following mission: "The Western History Association strives to be a congenial home for the study and teaching of all aspects of North American Wests, frontiers, homelands, and borderlands.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009.