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Dominance (genetics)

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Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus. [1]

86 relations: ABO (gene), ABO blood group system, Albinism, Allele, Alloenzyme, Anemia, Aneuploidy, Antirrhinum, Apoptosis, ATM serine/threonine kinase, Autosome, Blood type, CEBPA, Central dogma of molecular biology, Central nervous system, Chromosome, Classical genetics, Dihybrid cross, DNA, Egg cell, Enzyme, Epistasis, Evolution of dominance, Fertilisation, Gamete, Gel electrophoresis of proteins, Gene, Genetic disorder, Genetics, Genotype, Globin, Glycoprotein, Gregor Mendel, Haploinsufficiency, Hardy–Weinberg principle, HBB, Hemoglobin, Huntington's disease, Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford, Hybrid (biology), Hyperphenylalaninemia, Intellectual disability, Locus (genetics), Mammal, Meiosis, Melanin, Mendelian inheritance, Mendelian traits in humans, Mirabilis jalapa, Mitochondrial DNA, ..., Mutation, Natural selection, Nucleobase, Nucleotide, P53, Partial dominance hypothesis, Pea, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Phenotype, Phenylalanine, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylketonuria, Protein, Protein isoform, Punnett square, Quantitative genetics, Red blood cell, RNA, Seed, Sequencing, Sex chromosome, Sex-determination system, Sexual reproduction, Siamese cat, Sickle cell disease, Sickle cell trait, Sperm, Testis-determining factor, Transcription (biology), Translation, Trinucleotide repeat disorder, Tyrosinase, X chromosome, Y chromosome, Zygosity, Zygote. Expand index (36 more) »

ABO (gene)

Histo-blood group ABO system transferase is an enzyme with glycosyltransferase activity, which is encoded by the ABO gene in humans.

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ABO blood group system

The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.

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Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Alloenzymes (or also called allozymes) are variant forms of an enzyme which differs structurally but not functionally from other allozymes coded for by different alleles at the same locus.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.

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Antirrhinum is a genus of plants commonly known as dragon flowers or snapdragons because of the flowers' fancied resemblance to the face of a dragon that opens and closes its mouth when laterally squeezed.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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ATM serine/threonine kinase

ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.

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An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).

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Blood type

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).

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CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a protein encoded by the CEBPA gene in humans.

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Central dogma of molecular biology

The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Classical genetics

Classical genetics is the branch of genetics based solely on visible results of reproductive acts.

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Dihybrid cross

Dihybrid cross is a cross between two different lines/genes that differ in two observed traits.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.

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Evolution of dominance

The evolution of dominance concerns the evolution of genetic dominance.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gel electrophoresis of proteins

Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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The globins are a superfamily of heme-containing globular proteins, involved in binding and/or transporting oxygen.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Gregor Mendel

Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.

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Haploinsufficiency is a mechanism of action to explain a phenotype when a diploid organism has lost one copy of a gene and is left with a single functional copy of that gene.

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Hardy–Weinberg principle

The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.

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Beta globin (also referred to as HBB, β-globin, haemoglobin beta, hemoglobin beta, or preferably haemoglobin subunit beta) is a globin protein, which along with alpha globin (HBA), makes up the most common form of haemoglobin in adult humans, the HbA.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.

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Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford

The Huntington’s disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford (HOPES) is a student-run project at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington's disease (HD) more readily accessible to patients and the public.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hyperphenylalaninemia is a medical condition characterized by mildly or strongly elevated concentrations of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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Mendelian traits in humans

Mendelian traits in humans concerns how, in Mendelian inheritance, a child receiving a dominant allele from either parent will have the dominant form of the phenotypic trait or characteristic.

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Mirabilis jalapa

Mirabilis jalapa, the marvel of Peru or four o'clock flower, is the most commonly grown ornamental species of Mirabilis plant, and is available in a range of colours.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

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Partial dominance hypothesis

The partial dominance hypothesis in genetics states that inbreeding depression is the result of the frequency increase of homozygous deleterious recessive or partially recessive alleles.

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The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.

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Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.

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Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein isoform

A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.

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Punnett square

The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.

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Quantitative genetics

Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.

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Sex chromosome

An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.

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Sex-determination system

A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Siamese cat

The Siamese cat is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Asian cat.

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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.

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Sickle cell trait

Sickle cell trait describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle-cell disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous).

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Testis-determining factor

Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

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Trinucleotide repeat disorder

Trinucleotide repeat disorders (also known as trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders, triplet repeat expansion disorders or codon reiteration disorders) are a set of genetic disorders caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion, a kind of mutation where trinucleotide repeats in certain genes or intronsDavid W. Sanders & Clifford P. Brangwynne (2017), Nature, 546, 215–216 (08 June 2017) exceed the normal, stable threshold, which differs per gene.

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Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.

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X chromosome

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominance_(genetics)

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