87 relations: ABO (gene), ABO blood group system, Albinism, Allele, Alloenzyme, Allosome, Anemia, Aneuploidy, Antirrhinum, Apoptosis, Ataxia telangiectasia mutated, Autosome, Blood type, CEBPA, Central dogma of molecular biology, Central nervous system, Chromosome, Classical genetics, Dihybrid cross, DNA, Egg cell, Enzyme, Epistasis, Evolution of dominance, Fertilisation, Gamete, Gel electrophoresis of proteins, Gene, Genetic disorder, Genetics, Genotype, Globin, Glycoprotein, Gregor Mendel, Haploinsufficiency, Hardy–Weinberg principle, HBB, Hemoglobin, Huntington's disease, Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford, Hybrid (biology), Hyperphenylalaninemia, Intellectual disability, Locus (genetics), Mammal, Meiosis, Melanin, Mendelian inheritance, Mendelian traits in humans, Mirabilis jalapa, ..., Mitochondrial DNA, Mutation, Natural selection, Nucleobase, Nucleotide, P53, Partial dominance hypothesis theory, Pea, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Phenotype, Phenylalanine, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylketonuria, Protein, Protein isoform, Punnett square, Quantitative genetics, Red blood cell, RNA, Seed, Sequencing, Sex-determination system, Sexual reproduction, Siamese cat, Sickle cell trait, Sickle-cell disease, Sperm, Subscript and superscript, Testis determining factor, Transcription (genetics), Translation, Trinucleotide repeat disorder, Tyrosinase, X chromosome, Y chromosome, Zygosity, Zygote. Expand index (37 more) » « Shrink index
Histo-blood group ABO system transferase is an enzyme with glycosyltransferase activity which in humans is encoded by the ABO gene.
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The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system (or blood group system) in human blood transfusion.
Albinism in humans (from the Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology, also called achromia, achromasia, or achromatosis) is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin.
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An allele, or allel, is one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene or same genetic locus.
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Alloenzymes (or also called allozymes) are variant forms of an enzyme that are coded by different alleles at the same locus.
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An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
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Anemia or anaemia (also spelled anæmia) is usually defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood.
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Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, such as having 45 or 47 chromosomes when 46 is expected.
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Antirrhinums are a genus of plants commonly known as dragon flowers or snapdragons because of the flowers' fancied resemblance to the face of a dragon that opens and closes its mouth when laterally squeezed.
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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.
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Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (i.e., not a sex chromosome).
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A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
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CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPA gene.
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The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.
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Classical genetics is the branch of genetics based solely on visible results of reproductive acts.
Dihybrid cross is a cross between two pure lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed traits.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
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The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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Epistasis is a phenomenon that consists of the effect of one gene being dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes' (genetic background).
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The evolution of dominance concerns the evolution of genetic dominance.
Fertilisation (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy) is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
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Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract.
A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.
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A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital).
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.
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The Genotype is that part (DNA sequence) of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic (phenotype) of that cell/organism/individual.
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The globins are a family of globular proteins, which are thought to share a common ancestor.
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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.
Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the modern science of genetics.
Haploinsufficiency occurs when a diploid organism has only a single functional copy of a gene (with the other copy inactivated by mutation) and the single functional copy does not produce enough of a gene product (typically a protein) to bring about a wild-type condition, leading to an abnormal or diseased state.
The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.
Beta globin (also referred to as HBB, β-globin, haemoglobin beta, hemoglobin beta, or preferably haemoglobin subunit beta) is a globin protein, which along with alpha globin (HBA), makes up the most common form of haemoglobin in adult humans, the HbA.
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Hemoglobin; also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
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Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to mental decline and behavioral symptoms.
The Huntington’s disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford (HOPES) is a student-run project at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington's disease (HD) more readily accessible to patients and the public.
In biology a hybrid, also known as cross breed, is the result of mixing, through sexual reproduction, two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera.
Hyperphenylalaninemia is a medical condition characterized by mildly or strongly elevated levels of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood.
Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
A locus (plural loci) is the specific location or position of a gene, DNA sequence, on a chromosome, in the field of genetics.
Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).
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Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half.
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Melanin (μέλας - melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms (arachnids are one of the few groups in which it has not been detected).
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Mendelian inheritance is inheritance of biological features that follows the laws proposed by Gregor Johann Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
Mendelian traits in humans concerns how, in Mendelian inheritance, a child receiving a dominant allele from either parent will have the dominant form of the phenotypic trait or characteristic.
Mirabilis jalapa (the four o'clock flower or marvel of Peru) is the most commonly grown ornamental species of Mirabilis, and is available in a range of colours.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
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Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype; it is a key mechanism of evolution.
Nucleobases are nitrogen-containing biological compounds (nitrogenous bases) found linked to a sugar within nucleosides—the basic building blocks of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA.
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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
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The partial dominance hypothesis theory in genetics states that inbreeding depression is the result of the frequency increase of homozygous deleterious recessive or partially recessive alleles.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
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Phenylalanine (abbreviated as Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheOH, alternatively PheH or PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) (phenyl + ketone + -uria) is an inborn error of metabolism involving impaired metabolism of phenylalanine, one of the amino acids.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
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A protein isoform is any of several different forms of the same protein.
The Punnett square is a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).
Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering known as the seed coat.
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In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.
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A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The Siamese cat (วิเชียรมาศ,,, meaning "moon diamond") is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Oriental cat.
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Sickle cell trait (or sicklemia) describes a condition in which a person has one abnormal allele of the hemoglobin beta gene (is heterozygous), but does not display the severe symptoms of sickle cell disease that occur in a person who has two copies of that allele (is homozygous).
Sickle-cell disease (SCD), also known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) and drepanocytosis, is a hereditary blood disorder, characterized by an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying haemoglobin molecule in red blood cells.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
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A subscript or superscript is a number, figure, symbol, or indicator that is smaller than the normal line of type and is set slightly below or above it.
Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
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Trinucleotide repeat disorders (also known as trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders, triplet repeat expansion disorders or codon reiteration disorders) are a set of genetic disorders caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion, a kind of mutation where trinucleotide repeats in certain genes exceed the normal, stable threshold, which differs per gene.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
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The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke"), is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
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