48 relations: Allen Forte, Arabic, Arabic maqam, Bass note, Bayati, Cadence (music), Charles Rosen, Common tone (chord), Dastgah, Degree (music), Diatonic function, Diatonic scale, Dominant seventh chord, François-Joseph Fétis, Gregorian chant, Harmony, Key (music), Kurdish music, Leading-tone, Major scale, Makam, Minor scale, Modulation (music), Music, Music theory, Musical analysis, Natural (music), Nondominant seventh chord, Perfect fifth, Perfect fourth, Pitch (music), Predominant chord, Primary triad, Reciting tone, Resolution (music), Roman numeral analysis, Root (chord), Rudolph Reti, Secondary chord, Solfège, Sonata form, Subdominant, Supertonic, The Classical Style, Tonality, Tonic (music), Tonicization, Triad (music).
Allen Forte (December 23, 1926 – October 16, 2014) was an American music theorist and musicologist.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic maqam (maqām, literally "place"; مقامات) is the system of melodic modes used in traditional Arabic music, which is mainly melodic.
In music theory, the bass note of a chord or sonority is the lowest note played or notated.
Bayati (Bayatı) is one of the oldest forms of Azerbaijani folk poetry.
In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution."Don Michael Randel (1999).
Charles Welles Rosen (May 5, 1927December 9, 2012) was an American pianist and writer on music.
In music, a common tone is a pitch class that is a member of, or common to (shared by) two or more chords or sets). For example, a note shared between two chords in a chord progression. Common tones are a consideration in voice leading and voicing. For example, common tones between chords may influence the inversions used, with common tones often "preserved" or "retained", as this is in agreement with voice leading principles such as smoothest and least possible movement. "The note...contained in both chords is called the common tone". A common tone is a, "tone shared by both triads". Abbé Vogler (1749–1814), Weber (1779–1839), Hauptmann (1792–1868), A. B. Marx (1795–1866), and earlier theorists have emphasized, "common-tone retention and smooth voice leading in... treatment of harmonic succession ". It may be considered a guideline or a rule. Common-tone diminished seventh chords resolve to a chord whose root is common to both chords (ii resolves to I, in C: D# F A C resolves to C E G).
Dastgāh (دستگاه) is a musical modal system in traditional Persian art music.
In music theory, scale degree refers to the position of a particular note on a scale relative to the tonic, the first and main note of the scale from which each octave is assumed to begin.
In tonal music theory, a function (often called harmonic function, tonal function or diatonic function, or also chord area) is the relationship of a chord to a tonal center.
In western music theory, a diatonic scale is a heptatonic scale that includes five whole steps (whole tones) and two half steps (semitones) in each octave, in which the two half steps are separated from each other by either two or three whole steps, depending on their position in the scale.
In music theory, a dominant seventh chord, or major minor seventh chord, is a chord composed of a root, major third, perfect fifth, and minor seventh.
François-Joseph Fétis (25 March 1784 – 26 March 1871) was a Belgian musicologist, composer, teacher, and one of the most influential music critics of the 19th century.
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
In music theory, the key of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale, that forms the basis of a music composition in classical, Western art, and Western pop music.
Kurdish music (مۆسیقای کوردی Mûzîka Kurdî) refers to music performed in Kurdish language.
In music theory, a leading-note (also subsemitone, and called the leading-tone in the US) is a note or pitch which resolves or "leads" to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively.
The major scale (or Ionian scale) is one of the most commonly used musical scales, especially in Western music.
Makam (pl. makamlar; from the Arabic word مقام) is a system of melody types used in Arabic, Persian and Turkish classical music.
In music theory, the term minor scale refers to three scale formations – the natural minor scale (or Aeolian mode), the harmonic minor scale, and the melodic minor scale (ascending or descending) – rather than just one as with the major scale.
In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
Musical analysis is the study of musical structure in either compositions or performances.
In music theory, a natural is an accidental which cancels previous accidentals and represents the unaltered pitch of a note.
In music theory, a nondominant seventh chord is both a diatonic chord and a seventh chord, but it does not possess dominant function, and thus it is not a dominant seventh chord.
In music theory, a perfect fifth is the musical interval corresponding to a pair of pitches with a frequency ratio of 3:2, or very nearly so.
In classical music from Western culture, a fourth spans exactly four letter names (staff positions), while a perfect fourth (harmonic series) always involves the same interval, regardless of key (sharps and flats) between letters. A perfect fourth is the relationship between the third and fourth harmonics, sounding neither major nor minor, but consonant with an unstable quality (additive synthesis). In the key of C, the notes C and F constitute a perfect fourth relationship, as they're separated by four semitones (C, C#, D, D#, E, F). Up until the late 19th century, the perfect fourth was often called by its Greek name, diatessaron. A perfect fourth in just intonation corresponds to a pitch ratio of 4:3, or about 498 cents, while in equal temperament a perfect fourth is equal to five semitones, or 500 cents. The perfect fourth is a perfect interval like the unison, octave, and perfect fifth, and it is a sensory consonance. In common practice harmony, however, it is considered a stylistic dissonance in certain contexts, namely in two-voice textures and whenever it appears above the bass. If the bass note also happens to be the chord's root, the interval's upper note almost always temporarily displaces the third of any chord, and, in the terminology used in popular music, is then called a suspended fourth. Conventionally, adjacent strings of the double bass and of the bass guitar are a perfect fourth apart when unstopped, as are all pairs but one of adjacent guitar strings under standard guitar tuning. Sets of tom-tom drums are also commonly tuned in perfect fourths. The 4:3 just perfect fourth arises in the C major scale between G and C.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
In music theory, a predominant chord (also pre-dominant) is any chord which normally resolves to a dominant chord.
In music, a primary triad is one of the three triads, or three-note chords built from major or minor thirds, most important in tonal and diatonic music, as opposed to an auxiliary triad or secondary triad.
In chant, a reciting tone (also called a recitation tone) can refer to either a repeated musical pitch or to the entire melodic formula for which that pitch is a structural note.
Resolution in western tonal music theory is the move of a note or chord from dissonance (an unstable sound) to a consonance (a more final or stable sounding one).
In music, Roman numeral analysis uses Roman numerals to represent chords.
In music theory, the concept of root is the idea that a chord can be represented and named by one of its notes.
Rudolph Reti, also Réti (translit; November 27, 1885 – February 7, 1957), was a musical analyst, composer and pianist.
A secondary chord is an analytical label for a specific harmonic device that is prevalent in the tonal idiom of Western music beginning in the common practice period, the use of diatonic functions for tonicization. In the tonal idiom, a song or piece of music has a tonic note and chord, which is based on the root of the key that the piece is in. The most important chords in a tonal song or piece are the tonic chord (labeled as I in harmonic analysis) and the dominant chord (V). A piece or song is said to be in the key of the tonic. In the key of C major, the tonic chord is C major and the dominant chord is G. Chords are named after the function they serve and their position (for example, the "dominant" is considered the most important after the tonic and the "subdominant" is the same distance from the tonic as the dominant but below rather than above) and numbered by the scale step of the chord's base note (the root of the vi chord is the sixth scale step). Secondary chords are altered or borrowed chords, chords which are not in the key. Secondary chords are referred to as the function they are serving of the key or chord to which they function and written "function/key". Thus, the dominant of the dominant is written "V/V" and read as, "five of five," or, "dominant of the dominant". Any scale degree with a major or minor chord on it may have any secondary function applied to it; secondary functions may be applied to diminished triads in some special circumstances. Secondary chords were not used until the Baroque period and are found more frequently and freely in the Classical period, even more so in the Romantic period, and, although they began to be used less frequently with the breakdown of conventional harmony in modern classical music, secondary dominants are a "cornerstone," of popular music and jazz of the 20th century.Benward & Saker (2003), p.273-7.
In music, solfège or solfeggio, also called sol-fa, solfa, solfeo, among many names, is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music.
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.
In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale.
In music, the supertonic is the second degree or note of a diatonic scale, one step above the tonic.
The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven is a book by the American pianist and author Charles Rosen.
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality.
In music, the tonic is the first scale degree of a diatonic scale (the first note of a scale) and the tonal center or final resolution tone that is commonly used in the final cadence in tonal (musical key-based) classical music, popular music and traditional music.
In music, tonicization is the treatment of a pitch other than the overall tonic (the "home note" of a piece) as a temporary tonic in a composition.
In music, a triad is a set of three notes (or "pitches") that can be stacked vertically in thirds.