234 relations: Aachen, Accident, Aesthetics, Agrigento, Air draft, Aix Cathedral, Aix-en-Provence, Allegory, Aluminium, Amalfi, American Airlines Flight 96, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian architecture, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andrea Pisano, Animal, Apollo program, Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Architectural design values, Architrave, Archivolt, Atmosphere, Automatic door, Balawat, Bank vault, Basalt, Beauvais Cathedral, Bethlehem, Biometrics, Black Rod, Blast shelter, Bolection, British Museum, Cairo, Canosa di Puglia, Car door, Casement window, CE marking, Cedrus, Ceiling, China, Church of the Nativity, Climate, Closed-circuit television, Closet, Coal hole, Coffeehouse, Constantinople, Convenience, ..., Copper in architecture, Copts, Corrugated fiberboard, Counterweight, Crash bar, Curtain, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Diabase, Donna Leon, Door breaching, Door closer, Door furniture, Door handle, Door knocker, Door security, Dooring, Doorstop, Double margin doors, Dutch door, Egypt (Roman province), Electronic lock, Emergency service, Emperor Yang of Sui, Energy conservation, Energy Star, Espagnolette, Etruria, Eumachia, Fiberglass, Fire, Floor, Florence Baptistery, Foam, Folding, Folding door, Fontainebleau, Frame and panel, Gandantegchinlen Monastery, Garage door, Garden, Gate, General Services Administration, Germany, Gisors, Glass, Gniezno Doors, Gothic architecture, Granite, Great Mosque of Kairouan, Grillwork, Grue Church fire, Hagia Sophia, Hauran, Hero of Alexandria, Hexagonal lattice, High-speed door, Hildesheim, Hinge, Homer, Horse, Identity document, Infrared, IP camera, Ismail al-Jazari, Jamb, Janus, Key (lock), Keycard lock, Ladder, Lawsuit, Libya, Light, Lincoln Cathedral, Lintel, Literature, Lock (security device), Lock picking, Logical security, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louver, Masonite, Mat, Medium-density fibreboard, Metaphor, Michelangelo, Middle Ages, Millwork (building material), Molding (decorative), Monreale, Mortise and tenon, Mortise lock, Motion detector, Mullion, NASA, National Safety Council, Natural rubber, Niche (architecture), Nippur, Noise, Normans, Notre-Dame de Paris, Ornament (art), Palermo, Pantheon, Rome, Particle board, Passive house, Passive solar building design, People, Pet door, Pisa Cathedral, Plywood, Pocket door, Polyurethane, Polyvinyl chloride, Pressure, Pressure sensor, Privacy, R-value (insulation), Rabbet, Radar, Ravello, Relief, Remote control, Renaissance, Revolving door, Risk assessment, Ritual, Roller shutter, Rouen, Safe room, Safety, Salerno, Santi Cosma e Damiano, Saturn V, Security, Sensor, Shakers, Sheet metal, Sill plate, Sliding door, Sliding Doors, Sliding glass door, Solomon's Temple, Spring (device), Square lattice, St Mark's Basilica, Steel, Sticker, Stile, Sustainable energy, Switch, Switzerland, Symbol, Tambour door, The arts, Thermal insulation, Threshold (door), Ton, Torsion spring, Trani, Trapdoor, Troia, Apulia, Turkish Airlines Flight 981, United Airlines Flight 811, United States, University of Texas Press, Vehicle Assembly Building, Venice, Ventilation (architecture), Verona, Vitruvius, Wardrobe, Water taxi, Weatherstripping, Western saloon, Westminster Abbey, Wicket gate, Window, Window shutter, Wood, Wood veneer, Zero-energy building. Expand index (184 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
An accident, also known as an unintentional injury, is an undesirable, incidental, and unplanned event that could have been prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its occurrence.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Agrigento (Sicilian: Girgenti or Giurgenti) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy and capital of the province of Agrigento.
Air draft (or air draught) is the distance from the surface of the water to the highest point on a vessel.
Aix Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Sauveur d'Aix-en-Provence) in Aix-en-Provence in southern France is a Roman Catholic church and the seat of the Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence and Arles.
Aix-en-Provence (Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm,, Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix (medieval Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in the south of France, about north of Marseille.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno.
American Airlines Flight 96 was a regular domestic flight operated by American Airlines from Los Angeles to New York via Detroit and Buffalo.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, including pyramids and temples.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrea Pisano (Pontedera 12901348 Orvieto) also known as Andrea da Pontedera, was an Italian sculptor and architect.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St.
Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions.
An architrave (from architrave "chief beam", also called an epistyle; from Greek ἐπίστυλον epistylon "door frame") is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns.
An archivolt (or voussure) is an ornamental molding or band following the curve on the underside of an arch.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
An automatic door is a door that opens automatically, usually on sensing the approach of a person.
Balawat (ܒܝܬ ܠܒܬ) is an archaeological site of the ancient Assyrian city of Imgur-Enlil, and modern village in Nineveh Province (Iraq).
A bank vault is a secure space where money, valuables, records, and documents are stored.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
The Cathedral of Saint Peter of Beauvais (Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais) is a Roman Catholic church in the northern town of Beauvais, France.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, or Lady Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of several Commonwealth countries.
A blast shelter is a place where people can go to protect themselves from blasts and explosions, like those from bombs, or in hazardous worksites, such as on oil and gas refineries or petrochemical facilities.
A bolection is a decorative moulding which projects beyond the face of a panel or frame in raised panel walls, doors, and fireplaces.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Canosa di Puglia, generally known simply as Canosa (Apulian: Canaus), is a town and comune in Apulia in southern Italy, between Bari and Foggia, located in the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani.
A car door is a type of door, typically hinged, but sometimes attached by other mechanisms such as tracks, in front of an opening which is used for entering and exiting a vehicle.
A casement is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges at the side.
CE marking is a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA).
Cedrus (common English name cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae (subfamily Abietoideae).
A ceiling is an overhead interior surface that covers the upper limits of a room.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
A closet (especially in North American usage) is an enclosed space used for storage, particularly that of clothes.
A coal hole is a hatch in the pavement (sidewalk, in US usage) above an underground coal bunker.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Convenient procedures, products and services are those intended to increase ease in accessibility, save resources (such as time, effort and energy) and decrease frustration.
Copper has earned a respected place in the related fields of architecture, building construction, and interior design.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards.
A counterweight is a weight that, by exerting an opposite force, provides balance and stability of a mechanical system.
Crash bar (also known as a panic exit device, panic bar, or push bar)American National Standards Institute, ANSI/BHMA A156.3-2001, American National Standard for Exit Devices is a type of door opening mechanism which allows users to open a door by pushing a bar.
A curtain (sometimes known as a drape, mainly in the United States) is a piece of cloth intended to block or obscure light, or drafts, or (in the case of a shower curtain) water.
Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.
Diabase or dolerite or microgabbro is a mafic, holocrystalline, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro.
Donna Leon (born September 28, 1942, in Montclair, New Jersey) is the American author of a series of crime novels set in Venice, Italy featuring the fictional hero Commissario Guido Brunetti.
Door breaching is a process used by military, police, or emergency services to force open closed and/or locked doors.
A door closer is a mechanical device that closes a door, in general after someone opens it, or after it was automatically opened.
Door furniture (British and Australian English) or door hardware (North American English) refers to any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance.
A door handle is an attached object or mechanism used to manually open or close a door.
A door knocker is an item of door furniture that allows people outside a house to alert those inside to their presence.
The term door security may refer to any of a range of measures used to strengthen doors against door breaching, Ram-raiding and lock picking, and prevent crimes such as burglary and home invasions.
Dooring is a traffic collision in which a cyclist rides into a car door or is struck by a car door that was opened quickly without checking the side mirror for cyclists.
A doorstop (also door stopper, door stop or door wedge) is an object or device used to hold a door open or closed, or to prevent a door from opening too widely.
Peter Brett (in his book - Purpose Made Joinery) describes this door as a pair of narrow doors joined together at the meeting stile to make a single door with the appearance of a pair.
A Dutch door (American English), stable door (British English), or half door (Hiberno English), is a door divided horizontally in such a fashion that the bottom half may remain shut while the top half opens.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
An electronic lock (or electric lock) is a locking device which operates by means of electric current.
Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies.
Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (隋炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty. Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang. Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji. Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.
Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.
Energy Star (trademarked ENERGY STAR) is a voluntary program launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and now managed by the EPA and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that helps businesses and individuals save money and protect the environment through superior energy efficiency.
An espagnolette is a locking device, normally mounted on the vertical frame of a French door or casement window.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
Eumachia was the public priestess of the Imperial cult in Pompeii during the middle of the 1st century AD as well as the matron of the Concordia Augusta.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
A floor is the bottom surface of a room or vehicle or even possibly the surface on which people dance, commonly referred to as a 'dance floor'.
The Florence Baptistery (Battistero di San Giovanni), also known as the Baptistery of Saint John, is a religious building in Florence, Italy, and has the status of a minor basilica.
Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
Fold or folding may refer to.
A folding door is a type of door which opens by folding back in sections or so-called panels.
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.
Frame and panel construction, also called rail and stile, is a woodworking technique often used in the making of doors, wainscoting, and other decorative features for cabinets, furniture, and homes.
The Gandantegchinlen Monastery (Гандантэгчинлэн хийд, Gandantegchinlen khiid, short name: Gandan Гандан) is a Mongolian Buddhist monastery in the Mongolian capital of Ulaanbaatar that has been restored and revitalized since 1990.
A garage door is a large door on a garage that opens either manually or by an electric motor (a garage door opener).
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.
A gate or gateway is a point of entry to a space which is enclosed by walls.
The General Services Administration (GSA), an independent agency of the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gisors is a commune of Normandy, France.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The Gniezno Doors (Drzwi Gnieźnieńskie) are a pair of bronze doors at the entrance to Gniezno Cathedral in Gniezno, Poland, a Gothic building which the doors pre-date, having been carried over from an earlier building.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (جامع القيروان الأكبر), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.
Grillwork is decorative grating of metal, wood, stone, or other material used as a screen, divider, barrier, or as a purely decorative element.
On 26 May 1822, during the Pentecost service, the church at Grue, Norway caught fire and at least 113 people were killed.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
Hauran (حوران / ALA-LC: Ḥawrān), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans as Auranitis, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan.
Hero of Alexandria (ἭρωνGenitive: Ἥρωνος., Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt.
The hexagonal lattice or triangular lattice is one of the five 2D lattice types.
High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications.
Hildesheim (Eastphalian: Hilmessen) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with 103,804 inhabitants.
A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An Internet Protocol camera, or IP camera, is a type of digital video camera commonly employed for surveillance, and which, unlike analog closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras, can send and receive data via a computer network and the Internet.
Badīʿ az-Zaman Abū l-ʿIzz ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ar-Razāz al-Jazarī (1136–1206, بديع الزمان أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري) was a Muslim polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, artisan, artist and mathematician.
A jamb (from French jambe, "leg"), in architecture, is the side-post or lining of a doorway or other aperture.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (IANVS (Iānus)) is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, and endings.
A key is a device that is used to operate a lock (such as to lock or unlock it).
A keycard lock is a lock operated by a keycard, a flat, rectangular plastic card with identical dimensions to that of a credit card or American and EU driver's license.
A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lincoln Cathedral or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, and sometimes St.
A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
A lock is a mechanical or electronic fastening device that is released by a physical object (such as a key, keycard, fingerprint, RFID card, security token, coin etc.), by supplying secret information (such as a keycode or password), or by a combination thereof.
Although lock picking can be associated with criminal intent, it is an essential skill for the legitimate profession of locksmithing, and is also pursued by law-abiding citizens as a useful skill to learn, or simply as a hobby (locksport).
Logical Security consists of software safeguards for an organization’s systems, including user identification and password access, authenticating, access rights and authority levels.
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery, called by Michelangelo the Gates of Paradise.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
A louver (American English) or louvre (British English) is a window blind or shutter with horizontal slats that are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain and direct sunshine.
Masonite is a type of hardboard, another kind of engineered wood, which is made of steam-cooked and pressure-molded wood fibres in a process patented by William H. Mason.
A mat is a piece of fabric material that generally is placed on a floor or other flat surface.
Medium-density fibreboard (MDF) is an engineered wood product made by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibres, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Millwork building materials are historically any woodmill-produced building construction interior-finish, exterior-finish, or decorative components.
Moulding (also spelled molding in the United States though usually not within the industry), also known as coving (United Kingdom, Australia), is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration.
Monreale (Sicilian: Murriali) is a town and comune in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy.
A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint is a type of joint that connects two pieces of wood or other material.
A mortise lock (mortice lock in British English) is a lock that requires a pocket—the mortise—to be cut into the door or piece of furniture into which the lock is to be fitted.
A motion detector is a device that detects moving objects, particularly people.
A mullion is a vertical element that forms a division between units of a window, door, or screen, or is used decoratively.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, nongovernmental public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
A niche (CanE, or) in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
Particle board – also known as particleboard, low-density fibreboard (LDF), and chipboard – is an engineered wood product manufactured from wood chips, sawmill shavings, or even sawdust, and a synthetic resin or other suitable binder, which is pressed and extruded.
Passive house (Passivhaus) is a rigorous, voluntary standard for energy efficiency in a building, which reduces the building's ecological footprint.
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, reflect, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer.
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
A pet door or pet flap (also referred to in more specific terms, such as cat flap, cat door, dog door, or doggy door) is a small portal in a wall, window or human door to allow pets to enter and exit a house (or other structure) on their own without needing a person to open the door.
Pisa Cathedral (Cattedrale Metropolitana Primaziale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Pisa) is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy.
Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.
A pocket door is a sliding door that disappears, when fully open, into a compartment in the adjacent wall.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A pressure sensor is a device for pressure measurement of gases or liquids.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
In building and construction, the R-value is a measure of how well an object, per unit of its exposed area, resists conductive flow of heat: the greater the R-value, the greater the resistance, and so the better the thermal insulating properties of the object.
A rabbet or rebate is a recess or groove cut into the edge of a piece of machinable material, usually wood.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Ravello (Campanian: Raviello) is a town and comune situated above the Amalfi Coast in the province of Salerno, Campania, southern Italy, with approximately 2,500 inhabitants.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
In electronics, a remote control or clicker is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
A revolving door typically consists of three or four doors that hang on a central shaft and rotate around a vertical axis within a cylindrical enclosure.
Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative estimate of risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard).
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
A roller shutter, roller door or sectional overhead door is a type of door or window shutter consisting of many horizontal slats (or sometimes bars or web systems) hinged together.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
A safe room or panic room is a fortified room that is installed in a private residence or business to provide a safe shelter, or hiding place, for the inhabitants in the event of a break in, home invasion, tornado, terror attack, or other threat.
Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes.
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is a church in the Roman Forum, parts of which incorporate original Roman buildings.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, is a millenarian restorationist Christian sect founded in the 18th century in England.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.
A sill plate or sole plate in construction and architecture is the bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached.
A sliding door is a type of door which opens horizontally by sliding, usually parallel to a wall.
Sliding Doors is a 1998 British-American romantic drama film written and directed by Peter Howitt and starring Gwyneth Paltrow and John Hannah, while also featuring John Lynch, Jeanne Tripplehorn, and Virginia McKenna.
A sliding glass door or patio door, is a type of sliding door in architecture and construction, is a large glass window opening in a structure that provide door access from a room to the outdoors, fresh air, and copious natural light.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
In mathematics, the square lattice is a type of lattice in a two-dimensional Euclidean space.
The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark (Basilica Cattedrale Patriarcale di San Marco), commonly known as Saint Mark's Basilica (Basilica di San Marco; Baxéłega de San Marco), is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A sticker is a type of label: a piece of printed paper, plastic, vinyl, or other material with pressure sensitive adhesive on one side.
A stile is a structure which provides people a passage through or over a fence or boundary via steps, ladders, or narrow gaps.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
A tambour door can be an up-and-over or side closing-opening door, which can consist of narrow or wider horizontal slats and "rolls" up and down, or to the side by sliding along vertical or horizontal tracks.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
A threshold is the sill of a door.
The ton is a unit of measure.
A torsion spring is a spring that works by torsion or twisting; that is, a flexible elastic object that stores mechanical energy when it is twisted.
Trani is a seaport of Apulia, in southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea, by railway West-Northwest of Bari.
A trapdoor is a sliding or hinged door, flush with the surface of a floor, roof, or ceiling, or in the stage of a theatre.
Troia (translit or Aikai or Ece; Aecae or Æcæ; Pugliese: Troië; also formerly Troja) is a town and comune in the province of Foggia and region of Apulia in southern Italy.
Turkish Airlines Flight 981 was a regularly scheduled flight from Istanbul Yesilköy Airport to London Heathrow Airport with an intermediate stop at Orly Airport in Paris.
United Airlines Flight 811 was a regularly scheduled airline flight from Los Angeles to Sydney, with intermediate stops at Honolulu, and Auckland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a building designed to assemble large space vehicles, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Ventilation is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space and is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
A wardrobe or armoire is a standing closet used for storing clothes.
A water taxi or a water bus, also known as a sightseeing boat, is a watercraft used to provide public or private transport, usually, but not always, in an urban environment.
Weatherstripping is the process of sealing openings such as doors, windows, and trunks from the elements.
A Western saloon is a kind of bar particular to the Old West.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
A wicket gate, or simply a wicket, is a pedestrian door or gate, particularly one built into a larger door or into a wall or fence.
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.
A window shutter is a solid and stable window covering usually consisting of a frame of vertical stiles and horizontal rails (top, centre and bottom).
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that typically are glued onto core panels (typically, wood, particle board or medium-density fiberboard) to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets, parquet floors and parts of furniture.
A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy (ZNE) building, net-zero energy building (NZEB), or net zero building, is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site, or in other definitions by renewable energy sources elsewhere.
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