384 relations: Acid, Acid–base reaction, Action potential, Action selection, Adderall, Addiction, Adenylyl cyclase, Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Agonist, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Algal bloom, Alkaloid, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Amacrine cell, Amine, Amino acid, Amphetamine, Amygdala, Anhedonia, Animal locomotion, Annica Dahlström, Anterior pituitary, Antiemetic, Antipsychotic, Apomorphine, Appetite, Archaea, Arcuate nucleus, Area postrema, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Arousal, Arthropod, Arvid Carlsson, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attentional control, Atypical antipsychotic, Autoreceptor, Awakenings, Axon, Axon terminal, Bacteria, Basal ganglia, Base (chemistry), Bauhinia, Behavioral addiction, ..., Benserazide, Benzene, Beta cell, Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Bioadhesive, Biological target, Biosensor, Biosynthesis, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood–brain barrier, Bone marrow, Bradycardia, Brain, Brain stimulation reward, Brainstem, Bromocriptine, Burning mouth syndrome, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cambrian, Carbidopa, Carboxylic acid, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac output, Carotid body, Cassia (genus), Catechol, Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Catecholamine, Cavendish banana, Cell surface receptor, Central nervous system, Chemical synapse, Chemoreceptor trigger zone, Chlorpromazine, Cingulate cortex, Circulatory system, Classical conditioning, Cnidaria, Cocaine, Cofactor (biochemistry), Concussion, Cone cell, Coral, Craving (withdrawal), Cue reactivity, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytosol, D1-like receptor, D2-like receptor, Decarboxylation, Dementia, Dendrite, Digestive enzyme, Dissociative, Domperidone, Dopamine (medication), Dopamine agonist, Dopamine antagonist, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine receptor D3, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopamine receptor D5, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic, Dopaminergic cell groups, Dopaminergic pathways, Drosophila melanogaster, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Dyskinesia, Dysphoria, Echinoderm, Edema, Encephalitis, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Essential amino acid, Ethyl group, Eukaryote, Executive functions, Exocrine gland, Exocytosis, Extrastriate cortex, Female reproductive system, Ferric, Ferrous, Fibromyalgia, Flatworm, Fluorine, Fluorodopa, Food, Forebrain, Free base, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal physiology, Gastrointestinal tract, George Barger, Gi alpha subunit, Glutamic acid, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gq alpha subunit, Green algae, Gs alpha subunit, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heart rate, Herbivore, Hippocampus, Homology (biology), Homovanillic acid, Horizontal gene transfer, Hydra (genus), Hydrochloric acid, Hydrochloride, Hydroxy group, Hypertension, Hypophyseal portal system, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Idiopathic disease, Immune system, Impulsivity, Indirect agonist, Infant, Inhibitory control, Insulin, Intraperitoneal injection, Intravenous therapy, Invertebrate, Isopoda, Jellyfish, Kathleen Montagu, Ketamine, Kidney, L-DOPA, Lactotropic cell, Learning, Leech, Ligand (biochemistry), Lymphocyte, Machine learning, Male reproductive system, MDMA, Median eminence, Median lethal dose, Medication, Medulla oblongata, Melanin, Mesentery, Mesocortical pathway, Mesolimbic pathway, Meta-Tyramine, Metabolic pathway, Metabolite, Metabotropic receptor, Methamphetamine, Methylphenidate, Metoclopramide, Microelectrode, Midbrain, Mitochondrion, Model organism, Mollusca, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase B, Motivation, Motivational salience, Motor control, Motor skill, Motor system, Movement disorders, MPTP, Mucuna, Mucuna pruriens, Mussel, Nanoparticle, Narcolepsy, Nausea, Nematode, Nephron, Neurochemistry, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuromelanin, Neuromodulation, Neuron, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nigrostriatal pathway, Nils-Åke Hillarp, NMDA receptor, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-competitive inhibition, Norepinephrine, Nucleus accumbens, Octopamine (neurotransmitter), Olfactory bulb, Operant conditioning, Opiate, Opioid, Orbitofrontal cortex, Organic base, Organic compound, Orgasm, Oxidative stress, Oxidizing agent, Oxidoreductase, Oxygen, Pain, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Parabrachial nuclei, Paracrine signalling, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Pars compacta, Pars reticulata, Pergolide, Periaqueductal gray, Periventricular nucleus, PH, Phencyclidine, Phenethylamine, Phenylalanine, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, Pituitary gland, Plasma membrane monoamine transporter, Pleasure, Positron emission tomography, Potassium channel, Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Prolactin, Protein, Protein isoform, Protonation, Protozoa, Psychoactive drug, Psychological dependence, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Pyridoxal phosphate, Quinone, Radical (chemistry), Receptor antagonist, Red banana, Redox, Reinforcement, Renal function, Restless legs syndrome, Retina, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Reverse transport, Reward system, Rod cell, S-Adenosyl methionine, Salience (neuroscience), Salt (chemistry), Schizophrenia, Seawater, Second messenger system, Serotonin, Shock (circulatory), Side effect, Small intestine, Sodium channel, Solute carrier family, Soma (biology), Spasticity, Spinal cord, Spleen, Sponge, Stereotypy, Stimulant, Striatum, Stroke volume, Substantia nigra, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Sulfate, SULT1A3, Sweden, Symbiosis, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathomimetic drug, TAAR1, Tardive dyskinesia, Temporal difference learning, Tetrahydrobiopterin, Tetrahymena, Thalamus, Torpor, Trace amine, Trace amine-associated receptor, Tranquilizer, Tris, Tuberoinfundibular pathway, Tubular fluid, Typical antipsychotic, Tyrosinase, Tyrosine, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Ulvaria obscura, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Ventral pallidum, Ventral tegmental area, Vertebrate, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vesicular monoamine transporter, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Vicia faba, Vitamin C, Vomiting, Wellcome Trust, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Working memory, Worm, Zona incerta, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-Methoxytyramine. 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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Action selection is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems: what to do next.
Adderall, Adderall XR, and Mydayis are combination drugs containing four salts of the two enantiomers of amphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.
Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of aldehydes.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.
Annica Dahlström (born 1941) is a Swedish physician and Professor Emerita of Histology and Neuroscience at the Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology at Gothenburg University.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Apomorphine (brand names Apokyn, Ixense, Spontane, Uprima) is a type of aporphine having activity as a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D2-like and, to a much lesser extent, D1-like receptors.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, is a lyase enzyme.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Arvid Carlsson (25 January 1923 — 29 June 2018) was a Swedish neuropharmacologist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Attentional control refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
Awakenings is a 1990 American drama film based on Oliver Sacks's 1973 memoir of the same title.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bauhinia is a genus of more than 500 species of flowering plants in the subfamily Cercidoideae and tribe Bauhinieae, in the large flowering plant family Fabaceae, with a pantropical distribution.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Benserazide (also called Serazide or Ro 4-4602) is a peripherally-acting aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) or DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor, which is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
Bioadhesives are natural polymeric materials that act as adhesives.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain stimulation reward (BSR) is a pleasurable phenomenon elicited via direct stimulation of specific brain regions, originally discovered by James Olds and Peter Milner.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Bromocriptine (originally marketed as Parlodel, subsequently under many names) is an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease (PD), hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning sensation in the mouth with no underlying dental or medical cause.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Carbidopa (Lodosyn) is a drug given to people with Parkinson's disease in order to inhibit peripheral metabolism of levodopa.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).
Cassia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
Catechol, also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4(OH)2.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of several enzymes that degrade catecholamines (such as dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), catecholestrogens, and various drugs and substances having a catechol structure.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
A Cavendish banana is the fruit of a banana cultivar belonging to the Cavendish subgroup of the AAA cultivar group.
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
When going through withdrawal, craving is a psychological urge to administer a discontinued medication or recreational drug.
Cue reactivity is a type of learned response which is observed in individuals with an addiction and involves significant physiological and subjective reactions to presentations of drug-related stimuli (i.e., drug cues).
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
The D1-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
The D2-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
Domperidone, sold under the brand name Motilium among others, is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that was developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica and is used as an antiemetic, gastroprokinetic agent, and galactagogue.
Dopamine, sold under the brandname Intropin among others, is a medication most commonly used in the treatment of very low blood pressure, a slow heart rate that is causing symptoms, and, if epinephrine is not available, cardiac arrest.
A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors.
A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time.
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia or the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis is a model that attributes symptoms of schizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene.
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Dopaminergic cell groups are collections of neurons in the central nervous system that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Exocrine glands are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
The extrastriate cortex is the region of the occipital cortex of the mammalian brain located next to the primary visual cortex, which is also named striate cortex because of its striped appearance in the microscope.
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.
In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fluorodopa, also known as FDOPA, is a fluorinated form of L-DOPA primarily synthesized as its fluorine-18 isotopologue for use as a radiotracer in positron emission tomography (PET).
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
George Barger FRS FRSE FCS LLD (4 April 1878 – 5 January 1939) was a British chemist.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major catecholamine metabolite that is produced by a consecutive action of monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase on dopamine.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The hypophyseal portal system is a system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
In pharmacology, an indirect agonist or indirect-acting agonist is a substance that enhances the release or action of an endogenous neurotransmitter but has no specific agonist activity at the neurotransmitter receptor itself.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Isopoda is an order of crustaceans that includes woodlice and their relatives.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Kathleen Montagu (estimated birth between 1847 and 1907 – 28 March 1966) was the first researcher to identify dopamine in human brains.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
A lactotropic cell (also known as prolactin cell, epsilon acidophil, lactotrope, lactotroph, mammatroph, mammotroph) is a cell in the anterior pituitary which produces prolactin in response to hormonal signals including dopamine which is inhibitory and thyrotropin-releasing hormone which is stimulatory.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
The median eminence, part of the inferior boundary of the hypothalamus in the brain, is attached to the infundibulum.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
The mesocortical pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the ventral tegmentum to the prefrontal cortex.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
meta-Tyramine, also known as m-tyramine and 3-tyramine, is an endogenous trace amine neuromodulator and a structural analog of phenethylamine.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
This article about application of microelectrodes in electrophysiology.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.
Motor control is the systematic regulation of movement in organisms that possess a nervous system.
A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
The motor system is the part of the central nervous system that is involved with movement.
Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a prodrug to the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease by destroying dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain.
Mucuna is a genus of around 100 accepted species of climbing lianas (vines) and shrubs of the family Fabaceae and typically found in tropical woodlands.
Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
Nils-Åke Hillarp (4 July 1916 – 17 March 1965) was a Swedish scientist and a prominent force in research on the brain's monoamines.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Octopamine is an organic chemical closely related to norepinephrine, and synthesized biologically by a homologous pathway.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.
An organic base is an organic compound which acts as a base.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
The parabrachial nuclei, also known as the parabrachial complex, are a group of nuclei in the dorsolateral pons that surrounds the superior cerebellar peduncle as it enters the brainstem from the cerebellum.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
The pars compacta is a portion of the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain.
The pars reticulata is a portion of the substantia nigra.
Pergolide (trade names Permax, Prascend) is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used in some countries for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure of the hypothalamus.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.
Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found primarily in the adrenal medulla that converts norepinephrine (noradrenaline) to epinephrine (adrenaline).
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a low-affinity monoamine transporter protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC29A4 gene.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Red bananas are a group of varieties of banana with reddish-purple skin.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
The salience (also called saliency) of an item – be it an object, a person, a pixel, etc.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
The solute carrier (SLC) group of membrane transport proteins include over 400 members organized into 65 families.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfotransferase 1A3/1A4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SULT1A3 gene.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
Temporal difference (TD) learning refers to a class of model-free reinforcement learning methods which learn by bootstrapping from the current estimate of the value function.
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, THB), also known as sapropterin, is a naturally occurring essential cofactor of the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes, used in the degradation of amino acid phenylalanine and in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), melatonin, dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and is a cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases.
Tetrahymena is a genus of free-living ciliates that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), sometimes referred to as trace amine receptors (TAs or TARs), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that were discovered in 2001.
A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.
Tris, or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, or known during medical use as tromethamine or THAM, is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2)3CNH2.
The tuberoinfundibular pathway refers to a population of dopamine neurons that project from the arcuate nucleus (the "infundibular nucleus") in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus to the median eminence.
Tubular fluid is the fluid in the tubules of the kidney.
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
Ulvaria obscura is an intertidal and subtidal benthic marine algae found in temperate and Arctic ocean waters around the world.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The Wellcome Trust is a biomedical research charity based in London, United Kingdom.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.
The zona incerta is a horizontally elongated region of gray matter in the subthalamus below the thalamus.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is an important metabolite of the major brain neurotransmitter, dopamine.
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) is a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT), also known as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylamine, is a human trace amine that occurs as a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine, 3-hydroxytyramine, 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol, ATC code C01CA04, ATCvet code QC01CA04, DOPAMINE, Dopamine Hydrochloride, Dopamine agents, Dopamine hydrochloride, Dopamine-melanin, Dopaminergic function, Dopaminergic mind, Dopaminergic mind theory, Dopaminergic nerve fibre, Dopaminergic system, Dopaminergic systems, Dopastat, Dopermine, Intropin, Oxytyramine, PRIH, Polydopamine, Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone, Prolactin inhibiting factor, Prolactin release-inhibiting factor, Prolactin-inhibiting hormone, Prolactostatin, Revimine, Revivan.