95 relations: Active transport, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Alcoholism, Allele, Allosteric modulator, Alpha-synuclein, Amphetamine, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autoreceptor, Binding site, Bipolar disorder, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, CAMK2A, Cav1.2, Cav1.3, Cell membrane, Chemical synapse, Chloride, Cytosol, Depolarization, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Dopamine transporter, Drosophila melanogaster, Effective dose (pharmacology), Electrophysiology, Endocytosis, Exon, Florida State University, Gene, Glutamate transporter, Golgi apparatus, HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, Hydrophilicity plot, Immunocytochemistry, In vitro, In vivo, Integral membrane protein, Intron, Ion, Kinase, Ligand (biochemistry), Major depressive disorder, Membrane potential, Mesocortical pathway, Mesolimbic pathway, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, ..., Monoamine releasing agent, Monoamine transporter, Na+/K+-ATPase, Neurotransmitter, Nigrostriatal pathway, Norepinephrine transporter, Nuclear receptor, Nuclear receptor related-1 protein, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Nucleus accumbens, Pars compacta, Phosphorylation, PICK1, Polymorphism (biology), Promoter (genetics), Protease, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase C, Protein–protein interaction, Reuptake, Reverse transport, Rs28363170, Science Daily, Serotonin transporter, Sodium, Soma (biology), Sp1 transcription factor, Striatum, Substantia nigra, Substrate (chemistry), Symporter, Synapse, TAAR1, Tat (HIV), TGFB1I1, Transcription factor, Transmembrane domain, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Variable number tandem repeat, Ventral tegmental area, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Voltage-gated calcium channel, X-ray crystallography, Zinc, Zinc sulfate (medical use). Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the SNCA gene.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II or CaMKII) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is regulated by the /calmodulin complex.
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain (CAMKIIα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2A gene.
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA1C gene.
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit (also known as Cav1.3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA1D gene.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a class of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT).
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
An effective dose (ED) in pharmacology is the dose or amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response or desired effect in some fraction of the subjects taking it.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
Florida State University (Florida State or FSU) is a public space-grant and sea-grant research university with its primary campus on a campus in Tallahassee, Florida.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glutamate transporters are a family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that move glutamate – the principal excitatory neurotransmitter – across a membrane.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS.
A hydrophilicity plot is a quantitative analysis of the degree of hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of amino acids of a protein.
Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a common laboratory technique that is used to anatomically visualize the localization of a specific protein or antigen in cells by use of a specific primary antibody that binds to it.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
The mesocortical pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the ventral tegmentum to the prefrontal cortex.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
The Nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1) also known as NR4A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR4A2 gene.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The pars compacta is a portion of the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Protein Interacting with C Kinase - 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PICK1 gene.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 18.104.22.168), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter.
In genetics, rs28363170 (DAT1-VNTR) is a genetic variation at SLC6A3, the gene that encodes the dopamine transporter.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
Transcription factor Sp1, also known as specificity protein 1* is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SP1 gene.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
A symporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.
Transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFB1I1 gene.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transmembrane domain usually denotes a transmembrane segment of single alpha helix of a transmembrane protein.
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
A variable number tandem repeat (or VNTR) is a location in a genome where a short nucleotide sequence is organized as a tandem repeat.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc sulfate is used medically as a dietary supplement.