128 relations: A Proper Marriage, A Ripple from the Storm, Adoration (2013 film), Alfred A. Knopf, Alfred and Emily, Alfred Toepfer Stiftung F.V.S., Amputation, André Gide, Apartheid, Austrian State Prize for European Literature, BBC, Ben, in the World, Blood Music (novel), British literature, Canopus in Argos, Charlie Adlard, Children of Violence, Cologne, Communist Party of Great Britain, Convent, Dame, David Cohen Prize, Dominican Convent High School, Doris Lessing, Dystopia, Edwardian era, English PEN, Feminism, Front Row (radio), George Gurdjieff, Girls High School, Harare, Golden PEN Award, Gottfried Lessing, Graphic novel, Greg Bear, Grinzane Cavour Prize, Harare, HarperCollins, Harry Ransom Center, HIV/AIDS, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Idries Shah, Imperial Bank of Persia, Iran, James Tait Black Memorial Prize, Joan Rodker, John Leonard (critic), John Rodker, Katharine Whitehorn, Kermanshah, ..., Killing Heat, Kuusankoski, Landlocked (novel), Leeds, Left Book Club, Leonid Hurwicz, Libretto, List of female Nobel laureates, List of people who have declined a British honour, List of poker hands, Literary criticism, London, Los Angeles Times Book Prize, Martha Quest, Memoirs of a Survivor, MI5, Michael Joseph (publisher), Modern Language Association, Modernism, New Orleans, Newsweek, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nuclear disarmament, Nursemaid, Order of the Companions of Honour, Philip Glass, Philosophical skepticism, Postmodernism, Princess of Asturias Awards, Prisons We Choose to Live Inside, Prix Médicis, Psychology, Qajar dynasty, Raymond Davis Jr., Robert M. McFarlin, Royal Free Hospital, Royal Society of Literature, Secret Intelligence Service, Shikasta, Single-sex education, Social science fiction, Somerset Maugham Award, Southern Rhodesia, Stroke, Sufism, Swedish Academy, Switchboard operator, TASS, The Cleft, The Daily Telegraph, The Fifth Child, The Four-Gated City, The Golden Notebook, The Good Terrorist, The Grandmothers: Four Short Novels, The Grass Is Singing, The Guardian, The Making of the Representative for Planet 8, The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 (opera), The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five, The National Archives (United Kingdom), The New York Times, The Sentimental Agents in the Volyen Empire, The Sirian Experiments, The Sweetest Dream, The Times, Through the Tunnel, Time Bites: Views and Reviews, Under My Skin (book), University of Texas at Austin, University of Tulsa, Useful idiot, Viking Press, Vladimir Lenin, WH Smith Literary Award, Worldcon, Zimbabwe, 45th World Science Fiction Convention. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
A Proper Marriage (1954) is the second novel in British Nobel Prize in Literature-winner Doris Lessing five volume, semi-autobiographical, series, Children of Violence.
A Ripple in the Storm (1958) is the third novel in British Nobel Prize in Literature-winner Doris Lessing five volume, semi-autobiographical, series, Children of Violence.
Adoration (also known as Adore (North America, UK), and internationally as Two Mothers and Perfect Mothers) is a 2013 Australian-French drama film directed by Anne Fontaine.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
Alfred and Emily is a book by Doris Lessing in a new hybrid form.
The Alfred Toepfer Stiftung F.V.S. is a German foundation established in 1931 by the Hamburg merchant Alfred Toepfer.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
André Paul Guillaume Gide (22 November 1869 – 19 February 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The Austrian State Prize for European Literature (Österreichischer Staatspreis für Europäische Literatur), also known in Austria as the European Literary Award (Europäischer Literaturpreis), is an Austrian literary prize awarded by the Federal Chancellery for Arts, Culture, and Media to European writers.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Ben, in the World is a novel written by Doris Lessing, published in 2000, in which she stages a parody of the 'objectivity' of the narrator's voice.
Blood Music is a science fiction novel by American writer Greg Bear.
British literature is literature in the English language from the United Kingdom, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands.
Canopus in Argos: Archives is a sequence of five science fiction novels by Nobel Prize in Literature-winning author Doris Lessing which portray a number of societies at different stages of development, over a great period of time.
Charles Adlard (born 4 August 1966) is a British comic book artist, known for his work on books such as The Walking Dead and Savage.
The Children of Violence is a series of five semi-autobiographical novels by British Nobel Prize in Literature-winner Doris Lessing: Martha Quest (1952), A Proper Marriage (1954), A Ripple from the Storm (1958), Landlocked (1965), and The Four-Gated City (1969).
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
Dame is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of knighthood in the British honours system and the systems of several other Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, with the masculine form of address being Sir.
The David Cohen Prize for Literature (est. 1993) is a biennial British literary award given to a writer, novelist, short-story writer, poet, essayist or dramatist in recognition of an entire body of work, written in the English language.
Dominican Convent High School (commonly referred to as Convent) is a private Catholic day school for girls in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Doris May Lessing (22 October 1919 – 17 November 2013) was a British novelist, poet, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer.
A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 19th century works kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War.
English PEN is the founding centre of PEN International, the worldwide writers’ association.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Front Row is a radio programme broadcast on BBC Radio 4 that has been broadcast since 1998.
George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (31 March 1866/ 14 January 1872/ 28 November 1877 – 29 October 1949) commonly known as G. I. Gurdjieff, was a mystic, philosopher, spiritual teacher, and composer of Armenian and Greek descent, born in Alexandrapol (now Gyumri), Armenia.
Girls High School Harare, commonly referred to as "GHSH", was the first public school for girls founded in 1898 in the then city of Salisbury, Rhodesia, which is now Harare, Zimbabwe.
The Golden PEN Award is a literary award established in 1993 by English PEN given annually to a British writer for "a Lifetime's Distinguished Service to Literature".
Gottfried Anton Nicolai Lessing (14 December 1914 – 11 April 1979) was a German lawyer, political activist, and diplomat.
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content.
Gregory Dale "Greg" Bear (born August 20, 1951) is an American writer and illustrator best known for science fiction.
The Grinzane Cavour Prize was an Italian literary award established in 1982 by Francesco Meotto.
Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
The Harry Ransom Center is an archive, library and museum at the University of Texas at Austin, USA, specializing in the collection of literary and cultural artifacts from the United States and Europe for the purpose of advancing the study of the arts and humanities.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Idries Shah (ادريس شاه, ادریس شاه; 16 June 1924 – 23 November 1996), also known as Idris Shah, né Sayed Idries el-Hashimi (Arabic: سيد إدريس هاشمي) and by the pen name Arkon Daraul, was an author and teacher in the Sufi tradition who wrote over three dozen books on topics ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies.
The Imperial Bank of Persia (بانک شاهنشاهی ایران; Bank-e Šâhanšâhi-ye Irân) was a British bank that operated as the state bank and bank of issue in Iran (formerly known as Persia until the 1935) between 1889 and 1929.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The James Tait Black Memorial Prizes are literary prizes awarded for literature written in the English language.
Joan M Rodker (1 May 1915, Kensington, London – 27 December 2010) was an English political activist and television producer.
John Leonard (February 25, 1939 – November 5, 2008) was an American literary, television, film, and cultural critic.
John Rodker (18 December 1894 – 6 October 1955) was an English writer, modernist poet, and publisher of modernist writers.
Katharine Elizabeth Whitehorn CBE (born 1928) is a British journalist, writer, and columnist who is known for her wit and humour and as a keen observer of the changing role of women.
Kermanshah (کرمانشاه, کرماشان, Kirmashan; Kermānshāh; also known as Bākhtarān or Kermānshāhān), the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located from Tehran in the western part of Iran.
Killing Heat (released in Sweden as Gräset sjunger) is a 1981 film based on Doris Lessing's 1950 novel The Grass Is Singing.
Kuusankoski is a neighborhood of city of Kouvola, former industrial town and municipality of Finland, located in the region of Kymenlaakso in the province of Southern Finland.
Landlocked (1965) is the fourth novel in British Nobel Prize in Literature-winner Doris Lessing five volume, semi-autobiographical, series, Children of Violence.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
The Left Book Club was a publishing group that exerted a strong left-wing influence in Great Britain from 1936 to 1948.
Leonid "Leo" Hurwicz (August 21, 1917 – June 24, 2008) was a Polish American economist and mathematician.
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.
As of 2017, Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 844 men, 48 women (Marie Curie won it twice), and 27 organizations.
The following is a partial list of people who have declined a British honour, such as a knighthood or other grade of honour.
In poker, players construct sets of five playing cards, called hands, according to the rules of the game being played.
Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Since 1980, the Los Angeles Times has awarded a set of annual book prizes.
Martha Quest (1952) is the second novel of British Nobel Prize in Literature-winner Doris Lessing, and the first of the five-volume semi-autobiographical The Children of Violence series, which traces Martha Quest’s life to middle age.
The Memoirs of a Survivor is a dystopian novel by Nobel Prize-winner Doris Lessing.
The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).
Michael Joseph (26 September 1897 – 15 March 1958) was a British publisher and writer.
The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
A nursemaid (or nursery maid) is a mostly historical term for a female domestic worker who cares for children within a large household.
The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms.
Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
The Princess of Asturias Awards (Premios Princesa de Asturias, Premios Princesa d'Asturies), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981–2014 (Premios Príncipe de Asturias) are a series of annual prizes awarded in Spain by the Princess of Asturias Foundation (previously the Prince of Asturias Foundation) to individuals, entities or organizations from around the world who make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, and public affairs.
Prisons We Choose to Live Inside is a collection of five essays by the British writer Doris Lessing, which were previously delivered as the 1985 Massey Lectures.
The Prix Médicis is a French literary award given each year in November.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Raymond "Ray" Davis Jr. (October 14, 1914 – May 31, 2006) was an American chemist and physicist.
Robert M. McFarlin (July 27, 1866 – August 11, 1942) was an American oilman, cattle rancher, philanthropist, and businessman who is best known for amassing a fortune by drilling for oil near Glenpool, Oklahoma with his nephew and son-in-law, James A. Chapman.
The Royal Free Hospital (also known simply as the Royal Free) is a major teaching hospital in Hampstead, London.
The Royal Society of Literature (RSL) is a learned society founded in 1820, by King George IV, to "reward literary merit and excite literary talent".
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Re: Colonised Planet 5, Shikasta (often shortened to Shikasta) is a 1979 science fiction novel by Doris Lessing, and is the first book in her five-book Canopus in Argos series.
Single-sex education, also known as single-gender education, is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools.
Social science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, usually (but not necessarily) soft science fiction, concerned less with technology/space opera and more with speculation about society.
The Somerset Maugham Award is a British literary prize given each year by the Society of Authors.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
In the early days of telephony, through roughly the 1960s, companies used manual telephone switchboards, and switchboard operators connected calls by inserting a pair of phone plugs into the appropriate jacks.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
The Cleft (2007) is a novel by Doris Lessing.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Fifth Child is a short novel by the British writer Doris Lessing, first published in the United Kingdom in 1988, and since translated into several languages.
The Four-Gated City, published in 1969, is the concluding novel in British Nobel Prize-winning author Doris Lessing's five-volume, semi-autobiographical series The Children of Violence, which she began, in 1952, with Martha Quest.
The Golden Notebook is a 1962 novel by Doris Lessing.
The Good Terrorist is a 1985 political novel written by the British novelist Doris Lessing.
The Grandmothers: Four Short Novels is collection of four short stories published in 2003 by 2007 Nobel laureate Doris Lessing.
The Grass Is Singing is the first novel, published in 1950, by British Nobel Prize-winning author Doris Lessing.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 is a 1982 science fiction novel by Doris Lessing.
The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 is a full-scale opera by Philip Glass with a libretto by Doris Lessing based on her novel of the same name, first performed in 1988.
The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five is a 1980 science fiction novel by Doris Lessing.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
(Documents Relating to) The Sentimental Agents in the Volyen Empire is a 1983 science fiction novel by Doris Lessing. It is the fifth book in her five-book Canopus in Argos series and comprises a set of documents that describe the final days of the Volyen Empire, located at the edge of our galaxy and under the influence of three other galactic empires, the benevolent Canopus, the tyrannical Sirius, and the malicious Shammat of Puttiora. It was first published in the United States in March 1983 by Alfred A. Knopf, and in the United Kingdom in May 1983 by Jonathan Cape. The Sentimental Agents in the Volyen Empire is a social satire written in the tradition of Jonathan Swift and George Orwell, and focuses on the debasement of language in political rhetoric. In Lessing's fictional universe it is propaganda that keeps the fragile empires afloat, and when language becomes too distorted, some of her characters succumb to a condition called "undulant rhetoric" and are placed in a Hospital for Rhetorical Diseases. Because of its focus on characterisation and social/cultural issues, and the de-emphasis of technological details, this book is not strictly science fiction but soft science fiction, or "space fiction" as Lessing calls her Canopus in Argos series. While The Sentimental Agents can be read as a stand-alone book, Lessing does continue with the history of the Sirian Empire, picking up from where she left off in The Sirian Experiments (1980), the third book in the Canopus series.
The Sirian Experiments is a 1980 science fiction novel by Doris Lessing.
The Sweetest Dream is a 2001 novel by British Nobel Prize in Literature-winner Doris Lessing.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
"Through the Tunnel" is a short story written by British author Doris Lessing, originally published in the American weekly magazine The New Yorker in 1955.
Time Bites: Views and Reviews is a 2004 collection of essays by Doris Lessing.
Under My Skin: Volume I of my Autobiography, to 1949 (1994) was the first volume of Doris Lessing's autobiography, covering the period of her life from birth in 1919 to leaving Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 1949.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University of Tulsa (TU) is a private research university located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States.
In political jargon, a useful idiot is a derogatory term for a person perceived as a propagandist for a cause of whose goals they are not fully aware and who is used cynically by the leaders of the cause.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The WH Smith Literary Award was an award founded in 1959 by British high street retailer W H Smith.
Worldcon, or more formally the World Science Fiction Convention, the annual convention of the World Science Fiction Society (WSFS), is a science fiction convention.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The 45th World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon), also known as Conspiracy '87, was held 27 August–1 September 1987 at the Metropole Hotel and The Brighton Centre in Brighton, England.