75 relations: Absorbed dose, Alpha particle, Atomic nucleus, Becquerel, Beta particle, Bone, Bone marrow, Brain, Breast, Calorimetry, Chernobyl, Committed dose, Computational human phantom, Cosmic ray, Curie, Dose area product, Dose profile, Dosimeter, Effective dose (radiation), Equivalent dose, Esophagus, European Union, European units of measurement directives, Film badge dosimeter, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gamma ray, Gel dosimetry, Gonad, Gray (unit), Health effects of radon, Health physics, Heat capacity, Internal dosimetry, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, International Commission on Radiological Protection, International System of Units, Ionization chamber, Ionizing radiation, Isotope, Joule, Kerma (physics), Large intestine, Linear no-threshold model, Linear particle accelerator, Liver, Lung, Medical physics, Muon, National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom), Neutron, ..., Nuclear fission product, Optically stimulated luminescence, Percentage depth dose curve, Photon, Pion, Proton, Rad (unit), Radiation dose reconstruction, Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Radiation protection, Radiation therapy, Radioactive contamination, Radon, Relative biological effectiveness, Roentgen (unit), Roentgen equivalent man, Salivary gland, Sievert, Skin, Stomach, Thermoluminescent dosimeter, Three Mile Island accident, Thyroid, Urinary bladder, X-ray. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
The committed dose in radiological protection is a measure of the stochastic health risk due to an intake of radioactive material into the human body.
Photo courtesy of Dr.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
Dose area product (DAP) is a quantity used in assessing the radiation risk from diagnostic X-ray examinations and interventional procedures.
In External Beam Radiotherapy, transverse and longitudinal dose measurements are taken by a radiation detector in order to characterise the radiation beams from medical linear accelerators.
A radiation dosimeter is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation.
Effective dose is a dose quantity in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
As of 2009, the European Union had issued two units of measurement directives: In 1971 it issued Directive 71/354/EEC which required EU member states to standardise on the International System of Units (SI) rather than use a variety of CGS and MKS units then in use.
The film badge dosimeter or film badge is a personal dosimeter used for monitoring cumulative radiation dose due to ionizing radiation.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gel dosimeters are manufactured from radiation sensitive chemicals that, upon irradiation with ionising radiation, undergo a fundamental change in their properties as a function of the absorbed radiation dose.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
Radon is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as the decay product of radium.
Health physics is the applied physics of radiation protection for health and health care purposes.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Internal dosimetry is the science and art of internal ionising radiation dose assessment due to radionuclides incorporated inside the human body.
The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) is a standardization body set up in 1925 by the International Congress of Radiology, originally as the X-Ray Unit Committee until 1950.
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent, international, non-governmental organization, with the mission to provide recommendations and guidance on radiation protection.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Kerma is an acronym for "kinetic energy released per unit mass", defined as the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all the charged particles liberated by uncharged ionizing radiation (i.e., indirectly ionizing radiation such as photons and neutrons) in a sample of matter, divided by the mass of the sample.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Medical physics (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine) is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
In physics, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is a method for measuring doses from ionizing radiation.
In radiotherapy, a percentage depth dose curve (PDD) (sometimes percent depth dose curve) relates the absorbed dose deposited by a radiation beam into a medium as it varies with depth along the axis of the beam.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad.
Radiation dose reconstruction refers to the process of estimating radiation doses that were received by individuals or populations in the past as a result of particular exposure situations of concern.
Radiation Exposure Monitoring (REM) is a framework developed by Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), for utilizing existing technical standards, such as DICOM, to provide information about the dose delivered to patients in radiology procedures, in an interoperable format.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
In radiobiology, the relative biological effectiveness (often abbreviated as RBE) is the ratio of biological effectiveness of one type of ionizing radiation relative to another, given the same amount of absorbed energy.
The roentgen or röntgen (symbol R) is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays.
The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
A thermoluminescent dosimeter, or TLD, is a type of radiation dosimeter.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.