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# Dot product

In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space. 

89 relations: Academic Press, Algebraic operation, Angle, Antilinear map, Associative property, Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms, Bilinear form, Bracket, Cancellation property, Cartesian coordinate system, Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Commutative property, Complex conjugate, Complex number, Complex-valued function, Continuous function, Coordinate vector, Cross product, Definite quadratic form, Determinant, Displacement (vector), Distributive property, Domain of a function, Dyadics, Euclidean distance, Euclidean geometry, Euclidean space, Euclidean vector, Field (mathematics), Force, Frobenius inner product, Function (mathematics), Geometry, If and only if, Inner product space, Interpunct, Interval (mathematics), Isotropic quadratic form, Kahan summation algorithm, Kronecker delta, Law of cosines, Loss of significance, Magnetic field, Magnetic flux, Mathematics, Matrix (mathematics), Matrix multiplication, Metric tensor, Mnemonic, Normed vector space, ... Expand index (39 more) »

## Algebraic operation

In mathematics, a basic algebraic operation is any one of the traditional operations of arithmetic, which are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to an integer power, and taking roots (fractional power).

## Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

## Antilinear map

In mathematics, a mapping f:V\to W from a complex vector space to another is said to be antilinear (or conjugate-linear) if for all a, \, b \, \in \mathbb and all x, \, y \, \in V, where \bar and \bar are the complex conjugates of a and b respectively.

## Associative property

In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.

## Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms

Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) is a specification that prescribes a set of low-level routines for performing common linear algebra operations such as vector addition, scalar multiplication, dot products, linear combinations, and matrix multiplication.

## Bilinear form

In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map, where K is the field of scalars.

## Bracket

A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.

## Cancellation property

In mathematics, the notion of cancellative is a generalization of the notion of invertible.

## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

## Cauchy–Schwarz inequality

In mathematics, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, also known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality, is a useful inequality encountered in many different settings, such as linear algebra, analysis, probability theory, vector algebra and other areas.

## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

## Complex conjugate

In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Complex-valued function

In mathematics, a complex-valued function (not to be confused with complex variable function) is a function whose values are complex numbers.

## Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

## Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

## Cross product

In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.

In mathematics, a definite quadratic form is a quadratic form over some real vector space that has the same sign (always positive or always negative) for every nonzero vector of.

## Determinant

In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.

## Displacement (vector)

A displacement is a vector whose length is the shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point P. It quantifies both the distance and direction of an imaginary motion along a straight line from the initial position to the final position of the point.

## Distributive property

In abstract algebra and formal logic, the distributive property of binary operations generalizes the distributive law from boolean algebra and elementary algebra.

## Domain of a function

In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the domain of definition (or simply the domain) of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined.

In mathematics, specifically multilinear algebra, a dyadic or dyadic tensor is a second order tensor, written in a notation that fits in with vector algebra.

## Euclidean distance

In mathematics, the Euclidean distance or Euclidean metric is the "ordinary" straight-line distance between two points in Euclidean space.

## Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

## Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

## Frobenius inner product

In mathematics, the Frobenius inner product is a binary operation that takes two matrices and returns a number.

## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity.

## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

## If and only if

In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.

## Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

## Interpunct

An interpunct (&middot), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.

## Interval (mathematics)

In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.

In mathematics, a quadratic form over a field F is said to be isotropic if there is a non-zero vector on which the form evaluates to zero.

## Kahan summation algorithm

In numerical analysis, the Kahan summation algorithm (also known as compensated summation) significantly reduces the numerical error in the total obtained by adding a sequence of finite precision floating point numbers, compared to the obvious approach.

## Kronecker delta

In mathematics, the Kronecker delta (named after Leopold Kronecker) is a function of two variables, usually just non-negative integers.

## Law of cosines

In trigonometry, the law of cosines (also known as the cosine formula or cosine rule) relates the lengths of the sides of a triangle to the cosine of one of its angles.

## Loss of significance

Loss of significance is an undesirable effect in calculations using finite-precision arithmetic such as floating-point arithmetic.

## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

## Magnetic flux

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

## Matrix multiplication

In mathematics, matrix multiplication or matrix product is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices with entries in a field, or, more generally, in a ring or even a semiring.

## Metric tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.

## Mnemonic

A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.

## Normed vector space

In mathematics, a normed vector space is a vector space over the real or complex numbers, on which a norm is defined.

## Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.

## Orthogonality

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

## Orthonormal basis

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthonormal basis for an inner product space V with finite dimension is a basis for V whose vectors are orthonormal, that is, they are all unit vectors and orthogonal to each other.

## Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

## Physical quantity

A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

## Product (mathematics)

In mathematics, a product is the result of multiplying, or an expression that identifies factors to be multiplied.

## Product rule

In calculus, the product rule is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more functions.

## Pseudo-Euclidean space

In mathematics and theoretical physics, a pseudo-Euclidean space is a finite-dimensional ''n''-space together with a non-degenerate quadratic form.

## Real coordinate space

In mathematics, real coordinate space of dimensions, written R (also written with blackboard bold) is a coordinate space that allows several (''n'') real variables to be treated as a single variable.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Row and column vectors

In linear algebra, a column vector or column matrix is an m &times; 1 matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single column of m elements, Similarly, a row vector or row matrix is a 1 &times; m matrix, that is, a matrix consisting of a single row of m elements Throughout, boldface is used for the row and column vectors.

## Scalar (mathematics)

A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.

## Scalar (physics)

A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.

## Scalar multiplication

In mathematics, scalar multiplication is one of the basic operations defining a vector space in linear algebra (or more generally, a module in abstract algebra).

## Scalar projection

In mathematics, the scalar projection of a vector \mathbf on (or onto) a vector \mathbf, also known as the scalar resolute of \mathbf in the direction of \mathbf, is given by: where the operator \cdot denotes a dot product, \hat is the unit vector in the direction of \mathbf, |\mathbf| is the length of \mathbf, and \theta is the angle between \mathbf and \mathbf.

## Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

## Sesquilinear form

In mathematics, a sesquilinear form is a generalization of a bilinear form that, in turn, is a generalization of the concept of the dot product of Euclidean space.

## Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

## Standard basis

In mathematics, the standard basis (also called natural basis) for a Euclidean space is the set of unit vectors pointing in the direction of the axes of a Cartesian coordinate system.

## Summation

In mathematics, summation (capital Greek sigma symbol: ∑) is the addition of a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total.

## Symmetric bilinear form

A symmetric bilinear form on a vector space is a bilinear map from two copies of the vector space to the field of scalars such that the order of the two vectors does not affect the value of the map.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## Tensor contraction

In multilinear algebra, a tensor contraction is an operation on a tensor that arises from the natural pairing of a finite-dimensional vector space and its dual.

## Ternary operation

In mathematics, a ternary operation is an ''n''-ary operation with n.

## Three-dimensional space

Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).

## Transpose

In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal, that is it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix denoted as AT (also written A′, Atr, tA or At).

## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

## Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

## Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

## Vector (mathematics and physics)

When used without any further description, vector usually refers either to.

## Vector area

In 3-dimensional geometry, for a finite planar surface of scalar area and unit normal, the vector area is defined as the unit normal scaled by the area: For an orientable surface composed of a set of flat facet areas, the vector area of the surface is given by where is the unit normal vector to the area.

## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

## Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

## Weight function

A weight function is a mathematical device used when performing a sum, integral, or average to give some elements more "weight" or influence on the result than other elements in the same set.

## Wolfram Demonstrations Project

The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, open-source collection of small (or medium-size) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields.

## Work (physics)

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

## References

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