280 relations: Aerospace manufacturer, Alan Greenspan, Alcoa, Algerian War, Alternative financial service, Altria, American Express, American International Group, American Sugar Refining Company, American Tobacco Company, Angolan Civil War, Apple Inc., Arithmetic, Arms industry, Assets under management, Associated Press, AT&T, AT&T Corporation, Bank, Bank of America, Barrel of oil equivalent, Battles of Khalkhin Gol, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Berkshire Hathaway, Biotechnology, Birmingham, Alabama, Black Monday (1987), Black Wednesday, Boeing, Broadcasting, Capitalization-weighted index, Caterpillar Inc., Central Pacific Railroad, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code, Charles Dow, Chemical industry, Chevron Corporation, Chicago Board of Trade, Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Chinese Civil War, Chinese stock bubble of 2007, Cisco Systems, Citigroup, Civil rights movement, Closing milestones of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Clothing, Cold War, Colombian conflict, Competition law, ..., Computer, Computer network, Conglomerate (company), Consumer electronics, Cuba, Cuban Revolution, Decolonisation of Africa, Depression of 1920–21, Derivative (finance), Dirk Helbing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dividend, Divisor, Domino Foods, Donald Trump, Dot-com bubble, Dow 36,000, Dow Chemical Company, Dow Jones & Company, Dow Jones Transportation Average, DowDuPont, Drink, Dubai World, DuPont, Early 1980s recession, Early 1990s recession, Early 2000s recession, Edward Jones (statistician), Electric utility, Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, Entertainment, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Esso, Ethiopian Civil War, European debt crisis, Exchange-traded fund, Extended-hours trading, ExxonMobil, Falklands War, Fast food, Fast-moving consumer goods, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal Reserve System, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial services, First Chechen War, First Intifada, Friday the 13th mini-crash, FTSE 100 Index, Futures contract, General Electric, Gold standard, Goldman Sachs, Goodrich Corporation, Google Finance, Great Depression, Great Recession, Greek Civil War, Gulf War, H. Eugene Stanley, Heavy equipment, Hellmann's and Best Foods, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Hewlett-Packard, High-yield debt, Holding company, Home improvement, Honeywell, HP Inc., IBM, Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Information Age, Insurance, Integrys Energy Group, Intel, Interest rate, International Paper, Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iranian Revolution, Iraq War, Irish Civil War, Irrational exuberance, James K. Glassman, Japanese asset price bubble, Johnson & Johnson, JPMorgan Chase, Kevin Hassett, Kodak, Korean War, Kraft Foods, Kraft Foods Inc., Laclede Gas Company, Lebanese Civil War, Lehman Brothers, List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Long-Term Capital Management, LyondellBasell, Managed care, Market capitalization, Market trend, MarketWatch, McDonald's, Medication, Merck & Co., Mergers and acquisitions, Michelin, Microsoft, Millennium Chemicals, Mining, Mondelez International, Monetary policy, Motors Liquidation Company, NASDAQ, New York Stock Exchange, Nike, Inc., Nikkei 225, NL Industries, North American Company, October 27, 1997, mini-crash, Open outcry, Option (finance), Panic of 1896, Panic of 1901, Panic of 1907, Panic of 1910–11, Peoples Energy, Percentage, Petroleum industry, Pfizer, Pharmaceutical industry, Polish–Soviet War, Portuguese Colonial War, Post–World War I recession, Price-weighted index, Procter & Gamble, Program trading, Recession of 1937–38, Recession of 1949, Recession of 1953, Recession of 1958, Recession of 1960–61, Recession of 1969–70, Renminbi, Retail, Retail banking, Revolutions of 1989, Ric Edelman, Roaring Twenties, Russian ruble, Rwandan genocide, S&P 500 Index, S&P Dow Jones Indices, S&P Global, Scientific Reports, Second Chechen War, Second Congo War, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Second Sino-Japanese War, Second Sudanese Civil War, Security (finance), Semiconductor, September 11 attacks, Short (finance), Silver Thursday, Software, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Spanish Civil War, Spire Inc, SSE Composite Index, Stagflation, Stock market, Stock market downturn of 2002, Stock market index, Stock split, Subprime lending, Takeover, Technology, Telecommunication, Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, The Coca-Cola Company, The Home Depot, The New York Times, The Travelers Companies, The Wall Street Journal, The Walt Disney Company, Tobias Preis, Turkish War of Independence, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, U.S. Steel, Unilever, United States debt-ceiling crisis of 2011, United States Department of the Treasury, United States housing bubble, United States Leather Company, United States Rubber Company, United Technologies, UnitedHealth Group, Verizon Communications, Vietnam War, Visa Inc., Walgreens Boots Alliance, Wall Street Crash of 1929, Walmart, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Warren Buffett, Weighted arithmetic mean, William Gibbs McAdoo, Wilshire 5000, World War I, World War II, Yahoo! Finance, Yom Kippur War, Yugoslav Wars, 1906 San Francisco earthquake, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1970s energy crisis, 1973 oil crisis, 1973–74 stock market crash, 1973–75 recession, 1979 energy crisis, 1980s oil glut, 1990 oil price shock, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 1998 Russian financial crisis, 2010 Flash Crash, 3M. Expand index (230 more) » « Shrink index
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.
Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.
Alcoa Corporation (from Aluminum Company of America) is an American industrial corporation.
An alternative financial service (AFS) is a financial service provided outside traditional banking institutions, on which many low-income individuals depend.
Altria Group, Inc. (renamed from Philip Morris Companies Inc. on January 27, 2003) is an American corporation and one of the world's largest producers and marketers of tobacco, cigarettes and related products.
The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City.
American International Group, Inc., also known as AIG, is an American multinational finance and insurance corporation with operations in more than 80 countries and jurisdictions.
The American Sugar Refining Company (ASR) was the largest American business unit in the sugar refining industry in the early 1900s.
The American Tobacco Company was a tobacco company founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke through a merger between a number of U.S. tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter and Goodwin & Company.
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
In finance, assets under management (AUM), sometimes called funds under management (FUM), measures the total market value of all the financial assets which a financial institution such as a mutual fund, venture capital firm, or brokerage house manages on behalf of its clients and themselves.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
Bank of America Corporation (abbreviated as BofA) is an American multinational financial services company headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.
The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 U.S. gallons or 158.9873 litres) of crude oil.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Birmingham is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the seat of Jefferson County.
In finance, Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed.
Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
A capitalization-weighted (or "cap-weighted") index, also called a market-value-weighted index is a stock market index whose components are weighted according to the total market value of their outstanding shares.
Caterpillar Inc. is an American Fortune 100 corporation which designs, develops, engineers, manufactures, markets and sells machinery, engines, financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network.
The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) was a rail route between California and Utah built eastwards from the West Coast in the 1860s, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America.
The Central Railroad of New Jersey, also known as the Jersey Central or Jersey Central Lines, was a Class I railroad with origins in the 1830s.
Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States.
Charles Henry Dow (November 6, 1851 – December 4, 1902) was an American journalist who co-founded Dow Jones & Company with Edward Jones and Charles Bergstresser.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established on April 3, 1848, is one of the world's oldest futures and options exchanges.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) (often called "the Chicago Merc", or "the Merc") is an American financial and commodity derivative exchange based in Chicago and located at 20 S. Wacker Drive.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese stock bubble of 2007() was the global stock market plunge of February 27, and November 2007 which wiped out hundreds of billions of market value.
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.
Citigroup Inc. or Citi (stylized as citi) is an American multinational investment bank and financial services corporation headquartered in New York City.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
This article is a summary of the closing milestones of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, a United States stock market index.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Colombian conflict began in the mid-1960s and is a low-intensity asymmetric war between Colombian governments, paramilitary groups, crime syndicates, and far-left guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the National Liberation Army (ELN), fighting each other to increase their influence in Colombian territory.
Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.
The Depression of 1920–21 was a sharp deflationary recession in the United States and other countries, 14 months after the end of World War I. It lasted from January 1920 to July 1921.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
Dirk Helbing is Professor of Computational Social Science at the Department of Humanities, Social and Political Sciences and affiliate of the Computer Science Department at ETH Zurich.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n. In this case, one also says that n is a multiple of m. An integer n is divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n; this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder.
Domino Foods, Inc. is a US company owned by American Sugar Refining Inc.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.
Dow 36,000: The New Strategy for Profiting From the Coming Rise in the Stock Market is a 1999 book by syndicated columnist, James K. Glassman and American Enterprise Institute scholar and former Federal Reserve economist, Kevin A. Hassett.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.
The Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA, also called the "Dow Jones Transports") is a U.S. stock market index from S&P Dow Jones Indices of the transportation sector, and is the most widely recognized gauge of the American transportation sector.
DowDuPont Inc. is an American company formed after the merger of Dow Chemical and DuPont on August 31, 2017.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
Dubai World (دبي العالمية) is an investment company that manages and supervises a portfolio of businesses and projects for the Government of Dubai across a wide range of industry segments and projects that promote Dubai as a hub for commerce and trading.
The early 1980s recession was a severe global economic recession that affected much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The early 1990s recession describes the period of economic downturn affecting much of the Western world in the early 1990s.
The early 2000s recession was a decline in economic activity which mainly occurred in developed countries.
Edward Davis Jones (7 October 185616 February 1920) a Welsh descendant, was a U.S. statistician, mostly known for being the "Jones" in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.
The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Division A of), commonly referred to as a bailout of the U.S. financial system, is a law enacted subsequently to the subprime mortgage crisis authorizing the United States Secretary of the Treasury to spend up to $700 billion to purchase distressed assets, especially mortgage-backed securities, and supply cash directly to banks.
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
Eshel Ben-Jacob (full name Eshel Refael Ben-Jacob Breslav; אשל רפאל בן-יעקב 13 April 1952 – 5 June 2015), was a theoretical and experimental physicist at Tel Aviv University, holder of the Maguy-Glass Chair in Physics of Complex Systems, and Fellow of the Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) at Rice University.
Esso is a trading name for ExxonMobil and its related companies.
The Ethiopian Civil War began on 12 September 1974 when the Marxist-Leninist Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is an investment fund traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks.
Extended-hours trading (or electronic trading hours, ETH) is stock trading that happens either before or after the regular trading hours (RTH) of a stock exchange, i.e., pre-market trading or after-hours trading.
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.
Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) or consumer packaged goods (CPG) are products that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost.
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in U.S. commercial banks and savings institutions.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
The Friday the 13th mini-crash was a stock market crash that occurred on Friday, October 13, 1989.
The Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 Index, also called the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 100, FTSE, or, informally, the "Footsie", is a share index of the 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange with the highest market capitalisation.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
The Goodrich Corporation, formerly the B.F. Goodrich Company, was an American aerospace manufacturing company based in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Google Finance was a website launched on March 21, 2006, by Google.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Harry Eugene Stanley (born March 28, 1941) is an American physicist and University Professor at Boston University.
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.
Hellmann's and Best Foods are brand names that are used for the same line of mayonnaise and other food products.
Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company (commonly referred to as HPE) is an American multinational enterprise information technology company based in Palo Alto, California, founded on 1 November 2015 as part of splitting of the Hewlett-Packard company.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
In finance, a high-yield bond (non-investment-grade bond, speculative-grade bond, or junk bond) is a bond that is rated below investment grade.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
Home improvement, home renovation, or remodelling is the process of renovating or making additions to one's home.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
HP (also known as HP Inc. and stylized as hp) is an American technology company which develops personal computers (PCs), printers and related supplies, as well as 3D Printing solutions.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
Integrys Energy Group, Inc. was an American energy company headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
The International Paper Company is an American pulp and paper company, the largest such company in the world.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.
"Irrational exuberance" is a phrase used by the then-Federal Reserve Board chairman, Alan Greenspan, in a speech given at the American Enterprise Institute during the dot-com bubble of the 1990s.
James Kenneth Glassman (born January 1, 1947) is the founding executive director of the George W. Bush Institute, a public policy development institution focused on creating independent, nonpartisan solutions to America's most pressing public policy problems through the principles that guided President George W. Bush and his wife Laura in public life.
The was an economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991 in which real estate and stock market prices were greatly inflated.
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Kevin Allen Hassett is an American economist and the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Kraft Foods Group, Inc. is an American grocery manufacturing and processing conglomerate headquartered in the Chicago suburb of Northfield, Illinois, part of the Kraft Heinz Company.
Kraft Foods Inc. was an American multinational confectionery, food and beverage conglomerate.
Laclede Gas Company is the largest natural gas distribution utility in Missouri, serving approximately 632,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers in the city of St. Louis and ten counties in eastern Missouri.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker symbol LEH) was a global financial services firm.
This is a list of the largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
Long-Term Capital Management L.P. (LTCM) was a hedge fund management firmA financial History of the United States Volume II: 1970–2001, Jerry W. Markham, Chapter 5: "Bank Consolidation", M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2002 based in Greenwich, Connecticut that used absolute-return trading strategies combined with high financial leverage.
LyondellBasell Industries N.V. is a public multinational chemical company with American and European roots, incorporated in the Netherlands, with U.S. operations headquarters in Houston, Texas, and global operations in London, UK.
The term "managed care" or "managed healthcare" is used in the United States to describe a group of activities ostensibly intended to reduce the cost of providing for profit health care while improving the quality of that care ("managed care techniques").
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
A market trend is a perceived tendency of financial markets to move in a particular direction over time.
MarketWatch operates a financial information website that provides business news, analysis, and stock market data.
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Michelin (full name: SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Millennium Inorganic Chemicals is a Hunt Valley, MD based chemical company.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mondelēz International, Inc., is an American multinational confectionery, food, and beverage company based in Illinois which employs about 107,000 people around the world.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
Motors Liquidation Company (MLC), formerly General Motors Corporation, was the company left to settle past liability claims from Chapter 11 reorganization of American car manufacturer General Motors.
The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
Nike, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories, and services.
The, more commonly called the Nikkei, the Nikkei index, or the Nikkei Stock Average, is a stock market index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE).
NL Industries, formerly known as the National Lead Company, is a lead smelting company currently based in Houston, Texas.
The North American Company was a holding company incorporated in New Jersey on June 14, 1890, and controlled by Henry Villard, to succeed to the assets and property of the Oregon and Transcontinental Company.
The October 27, 1997, mini-crash is the name of a global stock market crash that was caused by an economic crisis in Asia or Tom Yum Goong crisis; Thai: วิกฤตต้มยำกุ้ง.
Open outcry is the name of a method of communication between professionals on a stock exchange or futures exchange typically on a trading floor.
In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.
The Panic of 1896 was an acute economic depression in the United States that was less serious than other panics of the era, precipitated by a drop in silver reserves, and market concerns on the effects it would have on the gold standard.
The Panic of 1901 was the first stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange, caused in part by struggles between E. H. Harriman, Jacob Schiff, and J. P. Morgan/James J. Hill for the financial control of the Northern Pacific Railway.
The Panic of 1907 – also known as the 1907 Bankers' Panic or Knickerbocker Crisis – was a United States financial crisis that took place over a three-week period starting in mid-October, when the New York Stock Exchange fell almost 50% from its peak the previous year.
The Panic of 1910–1911 was a slight economic depression that followed the enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
Peoples Energy was the former name of a holding company whose main revenues came from its regulated gas utility subsidiaries, Peoples Gas (formerly Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company) and the North Shore Gas Company.
In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974.
The post–World War I recession was an economic recession that hit much of the world in the aftermath of World War I. In many nations, especially in North America, this growth continued during World War I as nations mobilized their economies to fight the war in Europe.
A price-weighted index is a stock market index where each constituent makes up a fraction of the index that is proportional to its component, the value would be.
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble.
Program trading is a type of trading in securities, usually consisting of baskets of fifteen stocks or more that are executed by a computer program simultaneously based on predetermined conditions.
The recession of 1937–1938 was an economic downturn that occurred during the Great Depression in the United States.
The Recession of 1949 was a downturn in the United States lasting for 11 months.
In the United States the Recession of 1953 began in the second quarter of 1953 and lasted until the first quarter of 1954.
The Recession of 1958, also known as the Eisenhower Recession, was a sharp worldwide economic downturn in 1958.
The Recession of 1960–1961 was a recession in the United States.
The Recession of 1969–1970 was a relatively mild recession in the United States.
The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Retail banking, also known as consumer banking, is the provision of services by a bank to the general public, rather than to companies, corporations or other banks, which are often described as wholesale banking.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Fredric Mark "Ric" Edelman is the chairman and co-founder of Edelman Financial Services, LLC, the author of several personal finance books and the host of a weekly personal finance talk radio show called The Ric Edelman Show, syndicated by Syndicated Solutions.
The Roaring Twenties was the period in Western society and Western culture that occurred during and around the 1920s.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.
The Standard & Poor's 500, often abbreviated as the S&P 500, or just the S&P, is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE or NASDAQ.
S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC is a joint venture between S&P Global, the CME Group, and News Corp that was announced in 2011 and later launched in 2012.
S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.
Scientific Reports is an online open access scientific mega journal published by the Nature Publishing Group, covering all areas of the natural sciences.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
The Second Congo War (also known as the Great War of Africa or the Great African War, and sometimes referred to as the African World War) began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, little more than a year after the First Congo War, and involved some of the same issues.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army.
A security is a tradable financial asset.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
In finance, a short sale (also known as a short, shorting, or going short) is the sale of an asset (securities or other financial instrument) that the seller does not own.
Silver Thursday was an event that occurred in the United States in the silver commodity markets on Thursday, March 27, 1980, following the Hunt brothers' attempt at cornering the silver market.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spire Inc. is a public utility holding company based in St. Louis, Missouri, providing natural gas service through its regulated core utility operations while engaging in non-regulated activities that provide business opportunities.
The SSE Composite Index also known as SSE Index is a stock market index of all stocks (A shares and B shares) that are traded at the Shanghai Stock Exchange.
In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
In 2001, stock prices took a sharp downturn (some say "stock market crash" or "the Internet bubble bursting") in stock markets across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe.
A stock index or stock market index is a measurement of a section of the stock market.
A stock split or stock divide increases the number of shares in a company.
In finance, subprime lending (also referred to as near-prime, subpar, non-prime, and second-chance lending) means making loans to people who may have difficulty maintaining the repayment schedule, sometimes reflecting setbacks, such as unemployment, divorce, medical emergencies, etc.
In business, a takeover is the purchase of one company (the target) by another (the acquirer, or bidder).
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company (1852–1952), also known as TCI and the Tennessee Company, was a major American steel manufacturer with interests in coal and iron ore mining and railroad operations.
The Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.
The Home Depot Inc. or Home Depot is an American home improvement supplies retailing company that sells tools, construction products, and services.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Travelers Companies, Inc. is an American insurance company.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California.
Tobias Preis is Professor of Behavioral Science and Finance at Warwick Business School and a fellow of the Alan Turing Institute.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
United States Steel Corporation, more commonly known as U.S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe.
Unilever () is a British-Dutch transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in London, United Kingdom and Rotterdam, Netherlands.
The United States debt-ceiling crisis of 2011 was a stage in the ongoing political debate in the United States Congress about the appropriate level of government spending and its effect on the national debt and deficit.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States housing bubble was a real estate bubble affecting over half of the U.S. states.
The United States Leather Company (1893"The Big Sole Leather Trust," The New York Times, May 3, 1893, pg. 2-1952), was one of the largest corporations in the United States circa 1900, and one of the original companies in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
The United States Rubber Company (Uniroyal) is an American manufacturer of tires and other synthetic rubber-related products, as well as variety of items for military use, such as ammunition, explosives and operations and maintenance activities (O&MA) at the government-owned contractor-operated facilities.
United Technologies Corporation (UTC) is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Farmington, Connecticut.
UnitedHealth Group Inc. is an American for-profit managed health care company based in Minnetonka, Minnesota.
Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Visa Inc. (also known as Visa, stylized as VISA) is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Foster City, California, United States.
Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc. is an American holding company headquartered in Deerfield, Illinois, that owns Walgreens, Boots, and a number of pharmaceutical manufacturing, wholesale, and distribution companies.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.
The weighted arithmetic mean is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than others.
William Gibbs McAdoo, Jr.McAdoo is variously differentiated from family members of the same name.
The Wilshire 5000 Total Market Index, or more simply the Wilshire 5000, is a market-capitalization-weighted index of the market value of all stocks actively traded in the United States.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yahoo! Finance is a media property that is part of Yahoo!'s network.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme).
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1970s energy crisis was a period when the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, faced substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1973–74 stock market crash caused a bear market between January 1973 and December 1974.
The 1973–75 recession or 1970s recession was a period of economic stagnation in much of the Western world during the 1970s, putting an end to the overall Post–World War II economic expansion.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
The 1990 oil price shock occurred in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, Saddam Hussein's second invasion of a fellow OPEC member.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The May 6, 2010, Flash Crash, also known as the Crash of 2:45, the 2010 Flash Crash or simply the Flash Crash, was a United States trillion-dollar stock market crash, which started at 2:32 p.m. EDT and lasted for approximately 36 minutes.
The 3M Company, formerly known as the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation based in Maplewood, Minnesota, a suburb of St. Paul.
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