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# Downforce

Downforce is a downwards thrust created by the aerodynamic characteristics of a car. [1]

## Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

## Airfoil

An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).

## Angle of attack

In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.

## Aspect ratio (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, the aspect ratio of a wing is the ratio of its span to its mean chord.

## Bernoulli's principle

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

## Body kit

A body kit or bodykit is a set of modified body parts or additional components that install on a stock car.

## Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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## Champ Car

Champ Car is the general name for a class and specification of American professional top-level open wheel cars used in American open-wheel car racing for many decades, associated primarily with the Indianapolis 500.

## DeltaWing

The DeltaWing is a racing car designed by Ben Bowlby and debuted at the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans.

## Density of air

The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.

## Diffuser (automotive)

A diffuser, in an automotive context, is a shaped section of the car underbody which improves the car's aerodynamic properties by enhancing the transition between the high-velocity airflow underneath the car and the much slower freestream airflow of the ambient atmosphere.

## Drafting (aerodynamics)

Drafting or slipstreaming is a technique where two vehicles or other moving objects are caused to align in a close group reducing the overall effect of drag due to exploiting the lead object's slipstream.

## Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

## Enrico Benzing

Enrico Benzing (born June 17, 1932) is an Italian engineer and journalist, son of the writer Mario Benzing.

## Formula One car

A Formula One car is a single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel racing car with substantial front and rear wings, and an engine positioned behind the driver, intended to be used in competition at Formula One racing events.

## Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

## Grip (auto racing)

Grip is a term describing the total cornering envelope of a race car by the friction component of the tire, the mass of the machine and the downforce generated.

## Ground effect (cars)

In car design, ground effect is a series of aerodynamic effects which have been exploited to create downforce, particularly in racing cars.

## Lift (force)

A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.

## Lift coefficient

The lift coefficient (CL, CN or Cz) is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and an associated reference area.

## Mercedes-Benz CLR

The Mercedes-Benz CLR was a set of racing cars developed for Mercedes-Benz through a collaboration with in-house tuning division Mercedes-AMG and motorsports specialists HWA GmbH.

## Newton (unit)

The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.

## Panoz DP01

The Panoz DP01 is an open-wheel car that was produced by Élan Motorsport Technologies at Braselton, Georgia, United States.

## Peter Dumbreck

Peter Dumbreck (born 13 October 1973) is a British professional racing driver.

## Pit stop

In motorsports, a pit stop is where a racing vehicle stops in the pits during a race for refuelling, new tyres, repairs, mechanical adjustments, a driver change, as a penalty, or any combination of the above.

## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

## Wind tunnel

A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.

## Wingspan

The wingspan (or just span) of a bird or an airplane is the distance from one wingtip to the other wingtip.

## 1999 24 Hours of Le Mans

The 1999 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 67th 24 Hours of Le Mans, and took place on 12 and 13 June 1999.

## 2007 Monaco Grand Prix

The 2007 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 27 May 2007 at the Circuit de Monaco.

## References

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