84 relations: Added mass, Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant, Aerodynamic force, Aerodynamics, Aircraft, Angle of attack, Aristotle, Asymptote, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Barometric formula, Boundary layer, Busemann's Biplane, Cambridge University Press, Carnot cycle, Claude-Louis Navier, Coandă effect, Cricket (insect), Cross section (geometry), Density, Differential equation, Dimensionless quantity, Drag coefficient, Drag crisis, Drag equation, Endurance (aeronautics), Euler equations (fluid dynamics), Flow separation, Fluid, Fluid dynamics, Force, Freestream, Friction, Gliding flight, Gravity drag, Hull (watercraft), Hyperbolic function, Inviscid flow, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Keulegan–Carpenter number, Laminar flow, Landing gear, Laurence Joseph Clancy, Lift (force), Lift coefficient, Lift-induced drag, Lifting body, Limit of a function, Louis Charles Breguet, ..., Ludwig Prandtl, Melvill Jones, Morison equation, Navier–Stokes equations, Net force, Nose cone design, Order of magnitude, Orthographic projection, Parasitic drag, Potential flow, Power (physics), Pressure, Ram pressure, Reynolds number, Royal Aeronautical Society, Shock wave, Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet, Solid, Speed of sound, Square–cube law, Stall (fluid mechanics), Stokes radius, Stokes's law, Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines, Terminal velocity, Transonic, Turbulence, Viscosity, Wave drag, Wave-making resistance, Wind wave, Windage, Wing, Work (physics). Expand index (34 more) »

## Added mass

In fluid mechanics, added mass or virtual mass is the inertia added to a system because an accelerating or decelerating body must move (or deflect) some volume of surrounding fluid as it moves through it.

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## Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant

Adhémar Jean Claude Barré de Saint-Venant (23 August 1797, Villiers-en-Bière, Seine-et-Marne – 6 January 1886, Saint-Ouen, Loir-et-Cher) was a mechanician and mathematician who contributed to early stress analysis and also developed the unsteady open channel flow shallow water equations, also known as the Saint-Venant equations that are a fundamental set of equations used in modern hydraulic engineering.

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## Aerodynamic force

The aerodynamic force is the force exerted on a body by the air (or some other gas) in which the body is immersed, and is due to the relative motion between the body and the gas.

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## Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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## Aircraft

An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

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## Angle of attack

In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.

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## Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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## Asymptote

In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.

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## Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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## Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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## Barometric formula

The barometric formula, sometimes called the exponential atmosphere or isothermal atmosphere, is a formula used to model how the pressure (or density) of the air changes with altitude.

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## Boundary layer

In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.

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## Busemann's Biplane

Busemann's Biplane is a conceptual airframe design invented by Adolf Busemann which avoids the formation of N-type shock waves and thus does not create a sonic boom.

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## Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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## Carnot cycle

The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s.

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## Claude-Louis Navier

Claude-Louis Navier (born Claude Louis Marie Henri Navier;; 10 February 1785 – 21 August 1836), was a French engineer and physicist who specialized in mechanics.

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## Coandă effect

The Coandă effect is the tendency of a fluid jet to stay attached to a convex surface.

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## Cricket (insect)

Crickets (also known as "true crickets"), of the family Gryllidae, are insects related to bush crickets, and, more distantly, to grasshoppers.

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## Cross section (geometry)

In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.

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## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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## Dimensionless quantity

In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.

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## Drag coefficient

In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: \scriptstyle C_\mathrm d\,, \scriptstyle C_\mathrm x\, or \scriptstyle C_\mathrm w\) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.

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## Drag crisis

In fluid dynamics, drag crisis is a phenomenon in which drag coefficient drops off suddenly as Reynolds number increases.

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## Drag equation

In fluid dynamics, the drag equation is a formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully enclosing fluid.

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## Endurance (aeronautics)

In aviation, endurance is the maximum length of time that an aircraft can spend in cruising flight.

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## Euler equations (fluid dynamics)

In fluid dynamics, the Euler equations are a set of quasilinear hyperbolic equations governing adiabatic and inviscid flow.

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## Flow separation

All solid objects traveling through a fluid (or alternatively a stationary object exposed to a moving fluid) acquire a boundary layer of fluid around them where viscous forces occur in the layer of fluid close to the solid surface.

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## Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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## Fluid dynamics

In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.

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## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

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## Freestream

The freestream is the air far upstream of an aerodynamic body, that is, before the body has a chance to deflect, slow down or compress the air.

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## Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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## Gliding flight

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.

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## Gravity drag

In astrodynamics and rocketry, gravity drag (or gravity losses) is a measure of the loss in the net performance of a rocket while it is thrusting in a gravitational field.

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## Hull (watercraft)

The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.

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## Hyperbolic function

In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular, functions.

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## Inviscid flow

Inviscid flow is the flow of an inviscid fluid, in which the viscosity of the fluid is equal to zero.

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## Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

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## John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.

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## Keulegan–Carpenter number

In fluid dynamics, the Keulegan–Carpenter number, also called the period number, is a dimensionless quantity describing the relative importance of the drag forces over inertia forces for bluff objects in an oscillatory fluid flow.

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## Laminar flow

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.

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## Landing gear

Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.

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## Laurence Joseph Clancy

Laurence Joseph Clancy (15 March 1929 to 16 October 2014) was an Education Officer in aerodynamics at Royal Air Force College Cranwell whose textbook became standard.

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## Lift (force)

A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.

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## Lift coefficient

The lift coefficient (CL, CN or Cz) is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and an associated reference area.

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## Lift-induced drag

In aerodynamics, lift-induced drag, induced drag, vortex drag, or sometimes drag due to lift, is an aerodynamic drag force that occurs whenever a moving object redirects the airflow coming at it.

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## Lifting body

A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.

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## Limit of a function

Although the function (sin x)/x is not defined at zero, as x becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin x)/x becomes arbitrarily close to 1.

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## Louis Charles Breguet

Louis Charles Breguet (2 January 1880 in Paris – 4 May 1955 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France) was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers.

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## Ludwig Prandtl

Ludwig Prandtl (4 February 1875 – 15 August 1953) was a German engineer.

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## Melvill Jones

Sir Bennett Melvill Jones, (28 January 1887 – 31 October 1975) was Francis Mond Professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Cambridge from 1919 to 1952.

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## Morison equation

In fluid dynamics the Morison equation is a semi-empirical equation for the inline force on a body in oscillatory flow.

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## Navier–Stokes equations

In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.

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## Net force

possible to determine the torque associated with the point of application of a net force so that it maintains the movement of jets of the object under theassociated torque, the net force, becomes the resultant force and has the same effect on the rotational mott as all actual forces taken together.

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## Nose cone design

Given the problem of the aerodynamic design of the nose cone section of any vehicle or body meant to travel through a compressible fluid medium (such as a rocket or aircraft, missile or bullet), an important problem is the determination of the nose cone geometrical shape for optimum performance.

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## Order of magnitude

An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.

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## Orthographic projection

Orthographic projection (sometimes orthogonal projection), is a means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions.

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## Parasitic drag

Parasitic drag is drag that results when an object is moved through a fluid medium.

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## Potential flow

In fluid dynamics, potential flow describes the velocity field as the gradient of a scalar function: the velocity potential.

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## Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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## Ram pressure

In physics, ram pressure is a pressure exerted on a body moving through a fluid medium, caused by relative bulk motion of the fluid rather than random thermal motion.

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## Reynolds number

The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.

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## Royal Aeronautical Society

The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a British multi-disciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community.

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## Shock wave

In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.

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## Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet

Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, (13 August 1819 – 1 February 1903), was an Irish physicist and mathematician.

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## Solid

Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

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## Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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## Square–cube law

The square–cube law (or cube–square law) is a mathematical principle, applied in a variety of scientific fields, which describes the relationship between the volume and the surface area as a shape's size increases or decreases.

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## Stall (fluid mechanics)

In fluid dynamics, a stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of attack increases.

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## Stokes radius

The Stokes radius or Stokes-Einstein radius of a solute is the radius of a hard sphere that diffuses at the same rate as that solute.

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## Stokes's law

In 1851, George Gabriel Stokes derived an expression, now known as Stokes's law, for the frictional force – also called drag force – exerted on spherical objects with very small Reynolds numbers in a viscous fluid.

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## Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines

Streamlines, streaklines and pathlines are field lines in a fluid flow.

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## Terminal velocity

Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common example).

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## Transonic

In aeronautics, transonic (or transsonic) flight is flying at or near the speed of sound (at sea level under average conditions), relative to the air through which the vehicle is traveling.

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## Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

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## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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## Wave drag

In aeronautics, wave drag is a component of the aerodynamic drag on aircraft wings and fuselage, propeller blade tips and projectiles moving at transonic and supersonic speeds, due to the presence of shock waves.

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## Wave-making resistance

Wave-making resistance is a form of drag that affects surface watercraft, such as boats and ships, and reflects the energy required to push the water out of the way of the hull.

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## Wind wave

In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).

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## Windage

Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object.

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## Wing

A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.

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## Work (physics)

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

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## Redirects here:

Aerial resistance, Aerodynamic drag, Aerodynamic resistance, Air drag, Air friction, Air resistance, Air resistance force, Air-resistance, Atmospheric drag, Drag (aerodynamics), Drag (fluid mechanics), Drag (force), Drag Force, Drag force, Drag power, Fluid Friction, Fluid friction, Fluid resistance, Hydrodynamic drag, Linear drag, Resistance of fluids, Reynold's drag equation, Viscous resistance, Wind resistance.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics)