381 relations: Aśvaghoṣa, Acting, Action (philosophy), Actor, Adam de la Halle, Aeschylus, Agon, Al-Andalus, Alcestis (play), Allegory, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek comedy, Antitheatricality, Anton Chekhov, Aphra Behn, Applied Drama, Aristocracy, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Arthur Miller, Athenian democracy, Athenian festivals, Audience, August Strindberg, Augustan drama, Awadh, Émile Zola, Étienne Decroux, Śūdraka, Ben Jonson, Bengali language, Bertolt Brecht, Bharata Muni, Bhāsa, Bollywood, British Empire, British Raj, Burlesque, Caryl Churchill, Character (arts), Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Chester Mystery Plays, Chinese opera, Christian drama, Christmas, Christopher Marlowe, Classical Athens, Classical Greece, ..., Classical music, Classics, Closet drama, Clown, Collaboration, Collective, Comedy, Comedy (drama), Comedy of manners, Comedy-drama, Commedia dell'arte, Corporeal mime, Coryphaeus, Costume design, Crime film, Daṇḍin, Dance, Dara Shukoh, Dario Fo, David Bevington, David Hare (playwright), Demography, Devil, Dialogue, Dialogue in writing, Dionysia, Dionysus, Dithyramb, Domestic drama, Double entendre, Drama (film and television), Drama annotation, Drama school, Dramatic structure, Dramatic theory, Dramaturgy, Dumbshow, Early Middle Ages, Easter, Eavesdropping, Edward Bond, Elizabethan era, England, English drama, English Renaissance theatre, Ennius, Entertainment, Epic poetry, Episode, Ernst Toller, Ethical dilemma, Eugène Ionesco, Eugene O'Neill, Euripides, Everyman, Experimental theatre, Extant literature, Fable, Fabula palliata, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Farce, Federico García Lorca, Fiction, Film, Film genre, Film studies, Flash drama, Folk play, Folklore, Fop, France, Francis Fergusson, Frank Wedekind, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Genre, George Bernard Shaw, George Etherege, Germany, Gesamtkunstwerk, Glorious Revolution, Glynne Wickham, Gnaeus Naevius, Goethe's Faust, Grammar, Greek chorus, Greek mythology, Guild, Gujarati language, Hamlet, Harlequinade, Harold Pinter, Harsha, Heiner Müller, Henrik Ibsen, Henry VIII of England, Heroic drama, Hildegard of Bingen, Hindi, Hindu mythology, Hippolytus (play), Historical period drama, Historicization, History of India, History of theatre, Horestes, House of Lords, House of Tudor, Howard Brenton, Hrotsvitha, Human sexual activity, Hymn, Hyperdrama, Iambic pentameter, Improvisational theatre, Incidental music, Inder Sabha, India, Indian classical drama, Institution, Italy, Ivanov (play), Jacques Copeau, Jacques Lecoq, James VI and I, Jean Genet, Jean-Gaspard Deburau, Jeremy Collier, Jeu de Robin et Marion, Joan Littlewood, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Arden, John Dryden, John Still, John Vanbrugh, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, Kabuki, Kālidāsa, Keith Johnstone, Kolkata, Kunqu, Kyōgen, Lascivious behavior, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Latin literature, Lazzi, Legal drama, Literature, Liturgical drama, Livius Andronicus, London theatre closure 1642, Long Day's Journey into Night, Lord Byron, Love for Love, Lucius Accius, Luigi Pirandello, Lyric poetry, M. S. Sathyu, Machismo, Mahābhāṣya, Mahesh Dattani, Manfred, Marathi language, Mary II of England, Masque, Maurice Maeterlinck, Mṛcchakatika, Mālavikāgnimitram, Medical drama, Medieval theatre, Melodrama, Melpomene, Menander, Metatheatre, Metre (poetry), Middle Ages, Mime artist, Mimesis, Mode (literature), Modernism, Monodrama, Morality play, Mumbai, Mummers play, Muses, Music, Music hall, Musical theatre, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Mystery play, N-Town Plays, Nagananda, Nativity of Jesus, Naturalism (theatre), Natya Shastra, Nineteenth-century theatre, Noh, Obscenity, Octavia (play), Oedipus Rex, Old English, One-act play, Opera, Orestes, Pacuvius, Pantomime, Paris, Pastoral, Patanjali, Peking opera, Peloponnesian War, Performance, Peter Hacks, Peter Weiss, Phaedra (Seneca), Physical theatre, Plautus, Play (theatre), Playwright, Plot (narrative), Poetics (Aristotle), Poetry, Polis, Political drama, Postmodernism, Priyadarsika, Problem play, Prometheus Bound, Protagonist, Pun, Puritans, Rabindranath Tagore, Radio, Radio drama, Rake (stock character), Ralph Roister Doister, Ratnavali, Rawalpindi conspiracy, Realism (theatre), Renaissance, Restoration (England), Restoration comedy, Revenge play, Richard Wagner, Ritual, Roman Empire, Roman mythology, Roman Republic, Rush Rehm, Russia, Sahir, Samuel Beckett, Satyr play, Scandinavia, Secularity, Semiotics, Seneca the Younger, Sentimental comedy, Shakuntala (play), Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage, Slapstick, Soap opera, Social criticism, Society for the Reformation of Manners, Song, Sophocles, Stage (theatre), Stock character, Stoicism, Taledanda, Television, Tennessee Williams, Terence, Tetralogy, Thalia (Muse), Thérèse Raquin, The Boy and the Blind Man, The Castle of Perseverance, The Country Wife, The Interlude of the Student and the Girl, The Man of Mode, The Persians, The Post Office (play), The Provoked Wife, The Relapse, The Second Shepherds' Play, The Theatre, The Way of the World, Theater (structure), Theatre, Theatre of ancient Greece, Theatre of ancient Rome, Theatre of India, Theatre practitioner, Theatrical makeup, Theatrical property, Thespis, Thomas Middleton, Tony Kushner, Tragedy, Twentieth-century theatre, Two-hander, Urdu, Vedas, Vedic and Sanskrit literature, Vedic period, Vernacular, Verse drama and dramatic verse, Vice (character), Vijay Tendulkar, Vikramōrvaśīyam, Villain, Viola Spolin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, W. H. Auden, Wajid Ali Shah, Wakefield Mystery Plays, Webster's New World Dictionary, Well-made play, Western culture, William Congreve, William III of England, William Shakespeare, William Wycherley, Winifred Ward, Wit, Yakshagana, York Mystery Plays, Zaju, 1873 in literature, 1887 in literature. Expand index (331 more) » « Shrink index
or Ashvaghosha was a Buddhist philosopher, dramatist, poet and orator from India.
Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the mimetic mode.
In philosophy, an action is something which is done by an agent.
An actor (often actress for women; see terminology) is a person who portrays a character in a performance.
Adam de la Halle, also known as Adam le Bossu (Adam the Hunchback) (1245–50 – 1285–88?, or after 1306) was a French-born trouvère, poet and musician.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
Agon (Classical Greek ἀγών) is an ancient Greek term for a struggle or contest.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Alcestis (Ἄλκηστις, Alkēstis) is an Athenian tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek comedy was one of the final three principal dramatic forms in the theatre of classical Greece (the others being tragedy and the satyr play).
Antitheatricality is any form of opposition or hostility to theater.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.
Aphra Behn (14 December 1640? (baptismal date)–16 April 1689) was a British playwright, poet, translator and fiction writer from the Restoration era.
Applied Drama, also known as Applied Theatre, Interactive Theatre or Applied Drama and Theatre (ADT) is an umbrella term for the use of drama practice in an educational, community or therapeutic context.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright, essayist, and figure in twentieth-century American theater.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
The festival calendar of Classical Athens involved the staging of a large number of festivals each year.
An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature (in which they are called "readers"), theatre, music (in which they are called "listeners"), video games (in which they are called "players"), or academics in any medium.
Johan August Strindberg (22 January 184914 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.
Augustan drama can refer to the dramas of Ancient Rome during the reign of Caesar Augustus, but it most commonly refers to the plays of Great Britain in the early 18th century, a subset of 18th-century Augustan literature.
Awadh (Hindi: अवध, اوَدھ),, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5.
Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.
Étienne Decroux (19 July 1898 in Paris, France – 12 March 1991 in Boulogne-Billancourt, France) was a French actor who studied at Jacques Copeau's Ecole du Vieux-Colombier, where he saw the beginnings of what was to become his life's obsession–corporeal mime.
Shudraka (IAST) was an Indian king and playwright.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht (10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956), known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner, playwright, and poet.
Bharata Muni was an ancient Indian theatrologist and musicologist who wrote the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics, especially Sanskrit theatre.
Bhāsa is one of the earliest and most celebrated Indian playwrights in Sanskrit.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects.
Caryl Churchill (born 3 September 1938, London) is a British playwright known for dramatising the abuses of power, for her use of non-naturalistic techniques, and for her exploration of sexual politics and feminist themes.
A character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, play, television series, film, or video game).
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The Chester Mystery Plays is a cycle of mystery plays dating back to at least the early part of the 15th century.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
Christian drama is based on Christian religious themes.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage, but read by a solitary reader or sometimes out loud in a small group.
Clowns are comic performers who employ slapstick or similar types of physical comedy, often in a mime style.
Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.
A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective.
In a modern sense, comedy (from the κωμῳδία, kōmōidía) refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment.
A comedy is entertainment consisting of jokes intended to make an audience laugh.
The comedy of manners is a form of comedy that satirizes the manners and affectations of contemporary society and questions societal standards.
Comedy-drama, also known as dramedy (portmanteau of words drama and comedy), is a genre in film and television works in which plot elements are a combination of comedy and drama.
(comedy of the profession) was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, that was popular in Europe from the 16th through the 18th century.
Corporeal mime is an aspect of physical theater whose objective is to place drama inside the moving human body, rather than to substitute gesture for speech as in pantomime.
In Attic drama, the coryphaeus, corypheus, or koryphaios (Greek κορυφαῖος koryphaîos, from κορυφή koryphḗ́, the top of the head) was the leader of the chorus.
Costume design is the investing of clothing and the overall appearance of a character or performer.
Crime cinema, in the broadest sense, is a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre.
Daṇḍin Sanskrit grammarian and author of prose romances, and 'is one of the best-known writers in all of Asian history'.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (دارا شِکوہ), (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Dario Fo (24 March 1926 – 13 October 2016) was an Italian actor–playwright, comedian, singer, theatre director, stage designer, songwriter, painter, political campaigner for the Italian left-wing and the recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Literature.
David Martin Bevington (born May 13, 1931) is an American literary scholar.
Sir David Hare (born 5 June 1947) is an English playwright, screenwriter and theatre and film director.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
Dialogue, in fiction, is a verbal exchange between two or more characters.
The Dionysia was a large festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central events of which were the theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and, from 487 BC, comedies.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
The dithyramb (διθύραμβος, dithyrambos) was an ancient Greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility; the term was also used as an epithet of the god: Plato, in The Laws, while discussing various kinds of music mentions "the birth of Dionysos, called, I think, the dithyramb." Plato also remarks in the Republic that dithyrambs are the clearest example of poetry in which the poet is the only speaker.
Domestic drama expresses and focuses on the realistic everyday lives of middle or lower classes in a certain society, generally referring to the post-Renaissance eras.
A double entendre is a figure of speech or a particular way of wording that is devised to be understood in two ways, having a double meaning.
In reference to film and television, drama is a genre of narrative fiction (or semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humorous in tone.
Drama annotation is the process of annotating the metadata of a drama.
A drama school, stage school or theatre school is an undergraduate and/or graduate school or department at a college or university; or a free-standing institution (such as the Drama section at the Juilliard School); which specializes in the pre-professional training in drama and theatre arts, such as acting, design and technical theatre, arts administration, and related subjects.
Dramatic structure is the structure of a dramatic work such as a play or film.
Dramatic theory is a term used for works that attempt to form theories about theatre and drama.
The word Dramaturgy, is from the greek δραματουργέιν 'to write a drama'.
Dumbshow, also dumb show or dumb-show, is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of English as "gestures used to convey a meaning or message without speech; mime." In the theatre the word refers to a piece of dramatic mime in general, or more particularly a piece of action given in mime within a play "to summarise, supplement, or comment on the main action".
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Eavesdropping is secretly or stealthily listening to the private conversation or communications of others without their consent.
Edward Bond (born 18 July 1934) is an English playwright, theatre director, poet, theorist and screenwriter.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Drama was introduced to England from Europe by the Romans, and auditoriums were constructed across the country for this purpose.
English Renaissance theatre—also known as early modern English theatre and Elizabethan theatre—refers to the theatre of England between 1562 and 1642.
Quintus Ennius (c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic.
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An episode is a coherent narrative unit within a larger dramatic work, such as a film or television series.
Ernst Toller (1 December 1893 – 22 May 1939) was a German left-wing playwright, best known for his Expressionist plays.
An ethical dilemma or ethical paradox is a decision-making problem between two possible moral imperatives, neither of which is unambiguously acceptable or preferable.
Eugène Ionesco (born Eugen Ionescu,; 26 November 1909 – 28 March 1994) was a Romanian-French playwright who wrote mostly in French, and one of the foremost figures of the French Avant-garde theatre.
Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
In literature and drama, the term everyman has come to mean an ordinary individual with whom the audience or reader is supposed to be able to identify easily and who is often placed in extraordinary circumstances.
Experimental theatre (also known as avant-garde theatre) began in Western theatre in the late 19th century with Alfred Jarry and his Ubu plays as a rejection of both the age in particular and, in general, the dominant ways of writing and producing plays.
Extant literature and extant music refers to texts or music that has survived from the past to the present time, as opposed to lost work.
Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.
Fabula palliata is a genre of Roman drama that consists largely of Romanized versions of Greek plays.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz MBE, NI (فَیض احمد فَیض), (born 13 February 1911 – 20 November 1984) was a Pakistani leftist poet and author, and one of the most celebrated writers of the Urdu language.
In theatre, a farce is a comedy that aims at entertaining the audience through situations that are highly exaggerated, extravagant, and thus improbable.
Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca (5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director.
Fiction is any story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A film genre is a motion picture category based on similarities in either the narrative elements or the emotional response to the film (namely, serious, comic, etc.). Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism.
Film studies is an academic discipline that deals with various theoretical, historical, and critical approaches to films.
Flash drama is a type of theatrical play that does not exceed ten minutes in duration, hence the name.
Folk plays such as Hoodening, Guising, Mummers Play and Soul Caking are generally verse sketches performed in countryside pubs in European countries, private houses or the open air, at set times of the year such as the Winter or Summer solstices or Christmas and New Year.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Fop became a pejorative term for a foolish man excessively concerned with his appearance and clothes in 17th-century England.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Fergusson (1904–1986) was a Harvard and Oxford-educated teacher and critic, a theorist of drama and mythology who wrote The Idea of a Theater, (Princeton, 1949) arguably the best and most influential book about drama written by an American.
Benjamin Franklin Wedekind (July 24, 1864 – March 9, 1918), usually known as Frank Wedekind, was a German playwright.
Friedrich Dürrenmatt (5 January 1921 – 14 December 1990) was a Swiss author and dramatist.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
Sir George Etherege (c. 1636, Maidenhead, Berkshire – c. 10 May 1692, Paris) was an English dramatist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A Gesamtkunstwerk (translated as "total work of art", "ideal work of art", "universal artwork", "synthesis of the arts", "comprehensive artwork", "all-embracing art form" or "total artwork") is a work of art that makes use of all or many art forms or strives to do so.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Glynne William Gladstone Wickham (15 May 15 1922–27 January 2004) was a British Shakespearean and theatre scholar.
Gnaeus Naevius (c. 270 – c. 201 BC) was a Roman epic poet and dramatist of the Old Latin period.
Faust is a tragic play in two parts by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, usually known in English as Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
A Greek chorus, or simply chorus (χορός, khoros) in the context of Ancient Greek tragedy, comedy, satyr plays, and modern works inspired by them, is a homogeneous, non-individualised group of performers, who comment with a collective voice on the dramatic action.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
Harlequinade is a British comic theatrical genre, defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "that part of a pantomime in which the harlequin and clown play the principal parts".
Harold Pinter (10 October 1930 – 24 December 2008) was a Nobel Prize-winning British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor.
Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE.
Heiner Müller (9 January 1929 – 30 December 1995) was a German (formerly East German) dramatist, poet, writer, essayist and theatre director.
Henrik Johan Ibsen (20 March 1828 – 23 May 1906) was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Heroic drama is a type of play popular during the Restoration era in England, distinguished by both its verse structure and its subject matter.
Hildegard of Bingen (Hildegard von Bingen; Hildegardis Bingensis; 1098 – 17 September 1179), also known as Saint Hildegard and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German Benedictine abbess, writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, visionary, and polymath.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.
Hippolytus (Ἱππόλυτος, Hippolytos) is an Ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides, based on the myth of Hippolytus, son of Theseus.
The term historical period drama (also historical drama, period drama, costume drama, and period piece) refers to a work set in a past time period, usually used in the context of film and television.
The principle of historicisation is a fundamental part of the aesthetic developed by the German modernist theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of theatre charts the development of theatre over the past 2,500 years.
Horestes is a late Tudor morality play by the English dramatist John Pickering.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
Howard John Brenton FRSL (born 13 December 1942) is an English playwright and screenwriter.
Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim (Hrotsvitha Gandeshemensis; c. 935 – after 973) was a 10th-century German secular canoness, dramatist and poetess who lived at Gandersheim Abbey (in modern-day Bad Gandersheim, Lower Saxony), established by the Ottonian dynasty.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
Hyperdrama is a dramatic performance generated by playscripts written in hypertext.
Iambic pentameter is a type of metrical line used in traditional English poetry and verse drama.
Improvisational theatre, often called improv or impro, is the form of theatre, often comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers.
Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film, or some other presentation form that is not primarily musical.
Inder Sabha (Urdu: اِندر سبها) is an Urdu play and opera written by Agha Hasan Amanat, and first staged in 1853.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The term Indian classical drama refers to the tradition of dramatic literature and performance in ancient India.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivanov (italic (Ivanov: drama in four acts)) is a four-act drama by the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov.
Jacques Copeau (4 February 1879 – 20 October 1949) was a French theatre director, producer, actor, and dramatist.
Jacques Lecoq (December 15, 1921 – January 19, 1999), born in Paris, was a French actor, mime and acting instructor.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jean Genet (–) was a French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist.
Jean-Gaspard Deburau (born Jan Kašpar Dvořák; July 31, 1796 – June 17, 1846), sometimes erroneously called Debureau, was a celebrated Bohemian-French mime.
Jeremy Collier (23 September 1650 – 26 April 1726) was an English theatre critic, non-juror bishop and theologian.
Le Jeu de Robin et de Marion is reputedly the earliest French secular play with music, written in around 1282 or 1283, and is the most famous work of Adam de la Halle.
Joan Maud Littlewood (6 October 1914 – 20 September 2002) was an English theatre director, who trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts, and is best known for her work in developing the Theatre Workshop.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Arden (26 October 1930 – 28 March 2012) was an English Marxist playwright who at his death was lauded as "one of the most significant British playwrights of the late 1950s and early 60s".
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Still (c. 1543 – 26 February 1607/8), bishop of Bath and Wells, enjoyed considerable fame as a preacher and disputant.
Sir John Vanbrugh (24 January 1664 (baptised) – 26 March 1726) was an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.
John Wilmot (1 April 1647 – 26 July 1680) was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court.
is a classical Japanese dance-drama.
Kālidāsa was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language of India.
Keith Johnstone (born February 22, 1933) is a British and Canadian pioneer of improvisational theatre, best known for inventing the Impro System, part of which are the Theatresports.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kunqu, also known as Kunju (崑劇), Kun opera or Kunqu Opera, is one of the oldest extant forms of Chinese opera.
is a form of traditional Japanese comic theater.
Lascivious behavior is sexual behavior or conduct that is considered crude and offensive, or contrary to local moral or other standards of appropriate behavior.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
Lazzi (from the Italian lazzo, a joke or witticism) are stock comedic routines that are traditionally associated with Commedia dell'arte.
A legal drama or a courtroom drama is a genre of film and television that generally focuses on narratives regarding legal practice and the justice system.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Liturgical drama or religious drama, in its various Christian contexts, originates from the Mass itself, and usually presents a relatively complex ritual that includes theatrical elements.
Lucius Livius Andronicus (c. 284 – c. 205 BC) was a Greco-Roman dramatist and epic poet of the Old Latin period.
In September 1642 the Long Parliament ordered a closure of the London theatres.
Long Day's Journey into Night is a drama play in four acts written by American playwright Eugene O'Neill in 1941–42 but first published in 1956.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Love for Love is a Restoration comedy written by British playwright William Congreve.
Lucius Accius (170 – c. 86 BC), or Lucius Attius, was a Roman tragic poet and literary scholar.
Luigi Pirandello (28 June 1867 – 10 December 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet, and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Mysore Shrinivas Sathyu (born in Mysore, Karnataka) is a leading film director, stage designer and art director from India.
Machismo ((from Spanish and Portuguese "macho", male) is the sense of being 'manly' and self-reliant, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity." It is associated with "a man’s responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family." In American political usage, William Safire said that it refers to the... "condescension of the swaggering male; the trappings of manliness used to dominate women and keep them 'in their place....'" The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho in Portuguese and Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male (today hombre or varón, c.f. Portuguese homem and now-obsolete for humans varão; macho and varão, in their most common sense, are used for males of non-human animal species). Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho (literally, "to be a macho") was an aspiration for all boys. During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and violence. The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy.Opazo, R. M (2008). Latino Youth and Machismo: Working Towards a More Complex Understanding of Marginalized Masculinities. Retrieved From Ryerson University Digital Commons Thesis Dissertation Paper 108. http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/dissertations/108 The English word "machismo" derives from the identical Spanish and Portuguese word. Portuguese and Spanish machismo refers to the assumption that masculinity is superior to femininity in males, a concept similar to R. W. Connell's hegemonic masculinity.Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Los Angeles, California, United States: University of California Press Gender roles make an important part of human identity as we conduct our identities through our historical and current social actions. Machismo's attitudes and behaviours may be frowned upon or encouraged at various degrees in various societies or subcultures – albeit it is frequently associated with more patriarchial undertones, primarily in present views on the past.
The (महाभाष्य,, great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on selected rules of Sanskrit grammar from 's treatise, the ''Ashtadhyayi'', as well as Kātyāyana's Varttika, an elaboration of Pāṇini's grammar.
Mahesh Dattani (born 7 August 1958) is an Indian director, actor, playwright and writer.
Manfred: A dramatic poem is a closet drama written in 1816–1817 by Lord Byron.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment that flourished in 16th- and early 17th-century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy, in forms including the intermedio (a public version of the masque was the pageant).
Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (also called Comte (Count) Maeterlinck from 1932; in Belgium, in France; 29 August 1862 – 6 May 1949) was a Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist who was Flemish but wrote in French.
(मृच्छकटिका), also spelled Mṛcchakaṭikā, Mrchchhakatika, Mricchakatika, or Mrichchhakatika (The Little Clay Cart) is a ten-act Sanskrit drama attributed to Śūdraka (शूद्रक), an ancient playwright generally thought to have lived sometime between the 3rd century BC and the 5th century AD and identified by the prologue as a Kshatriya king as well as a devotee of Siva who lived for 100 years.
The Mālavikāgnimitram (Sanskrit, meaning Mālavikā and Agnimitra) is a Sanskrit play by Kālidāsa.
A medical drama is a television program or film in which events center upon a hospital, an ambulance staff, or any medical environment and most medical episodes are one hour long and set in a hospital.
Medieval theatre refers to theatrical performance in the period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. and the beginning of the Renaissance in approximately the 15th century A.D. Medieval Theatre covers all drama produced in Europe over that thousand-year period and refers to a variety of genres, including liturgical drama, mystery plays, morality plays, farces and masques.
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.
Melpomene (Μελπομένη; "to sing" or "the one that is melodious"), initially the Muse of Chorus, she then became the Muse of Tragedy, for which she is best known now.
Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.
Metatheatre, and the closely related term metadrama, describes the aspects of a play that draw attention to its nature as drama or theatre, or to the circumstances of its performance.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A mime or mime artist (from Greek μῖμος, mimos, "imitator, actor") is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art.
Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
In literature and other artistic media, a mode is an unspecific critical term usually designating a broad but identifiable kind of literary method, mood, or manner that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
A monodrama is a theatrical or operatic piece played by a single actor or singer, usually portraying one character.
The morality play is a genre of Medieval and early Tudor theatrical entertainment.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Mummers' Plays are folk plays performed by troupes of amateur actors, traditionally all male, known as mummers or guisers (also by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, wrenboys, and galoshins).
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment that was popular from the early Victorian era circa 1850 and lasting until 1960.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Mystery plays and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.
The N-Town Plays (also called the Hegge Cycle and the Ludus Coventriae cycle) are a cycle of 42 medieval Mystery plays from between 1450 and 1500.
Nagananda (Joy of the Serpents) is a Sanskrit play attributed to king Harsha (ruled 606 C.E. - 648 C.E.). Nagananda is among the most acclaimed Sanskrit dramas.
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.
Naturalism is a movement in European drama and theatre that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts.
Nineteenth-century theatre describes a wide range of movements in the theatrical culture of Europe and the United States in the 19th century.
, derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent", is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama that has been performed since the 14th century.
An obscenity is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality of the time.
Octavia is a Roman tragedy that focuses on three days in the year 62 AD during which Nero divorced and exiled his wife Claudia Octavia and married another (Poppaea Sabina).
Oedipus Rex, also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus (Οἰδίπους Τύραννος IPA), or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
A one-act play is a play that has only one act, as distinct from plays that occur over several acts.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
In Greek mythology, Orestes (Ὀρέστης) was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon.
Marcus Pacuvius (220 – c. 130 BC) was an ancient Roman tragic poet.
Pantomime (informally panto) is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.
(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.
Peking opera, or Beijing opera, is a form of Chinese opera which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance and acrobatics.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Performance is completion of a task with application of knowledge, skills and abilities.
Peter Hacks (21 March 1928 – 28 August 2003) was a German playwright, author, and essayist.
Peter Ulrich Weiss (8 November 1916 – 10 May 1982) was a German writer, painter, graphic artist, and experimental filmmaker of adopted Swedish nationality.
Phaedra, is a Roman tragedy with Greek subject of c. 1280 lines of verse by philosopher and dramatist Lucius Annaeus Seneca, which tells the story of Phaedra, wife of King Theseus of Athens, and her consuming lust for her stepson, Hippolytus.
Physical theatre is a well-known genre of theatrical performance that encompasses storytelling primarily through physical movement.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
Plot refers to the sequence of events inside a story which affect other events through the principle of cause and effect.
Aristotle's Poetics (Περὶ ποιητικῆς; De Poetica; c. 335 BCDukore (1974, 31).) is the earliest surviving work of dramatic theory and first extant philosophical treatise to focus on literary theory in the West.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
A political drama can describe a play, film or TV program that has a political component, whether reflecting the author's political opinion, or describing a politician or series of political events.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Priyadarsika is a Sanskrit play attributed to king Harsha (606 - 648).
The problem play is a form of drama that emerged during the 19th century as part of the wider movement of realism in the arts, especially following the innovations of Henrik Ibsen.
Prometheus Bound (Προμηθεὺς Δεσμώτης, Promētheus Desmōtēs) is an Ancient Greek tragedy.
A protagonist In modern usage, a protagonist is the main character of any story (in any medium, including prose, poetry, film, opera and so on).
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio drama (or audio drama, audio play, radio play, radio theater, or audio theater) is a dramatized, purely acoustic performance.
In a historical context, a rake (short for rakehell, analogous to "hellraiser") was a man who was habituated to immoral conduct, particularly womanising.
Ralph Roister Doister is a sixteenth-century play by Nicholas Udall, which was once regarded as the first comedy to be written in the English language.
Ratnavali is a Sanskrit drama about a beautiful princess named Ratnavali, and a great king named Udayana.
The Rawalpindi Conspiracy (also known as the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case) was an alleged attempted coup d'état against the government of Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, in 1951.
Realism in the theatre was a general movement that began in the 19th-century theatre, around the 1870s, and remained present through much of the 20th century.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
The term "Restoration comedy" refers to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710.
The revenge tragedy, or revenge play, is a dramatic genre in which the protagonist seeks revenge for an imagined or actual injury.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rush Rehm is Professor of Drama and Classics at Stanford University, California, in the United States.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sahir may refer to.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar in spirit to the bawdy satire of burlesque.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Sentimental comedy is an 18th-century dramatic genre which sprang up as a reaction to the immoral tone of English Restoration plays.
Shakuntala, also known as The Recognition of Shakuntala, The Sign of Shakuntala, and many other variants (Devanagari: अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् – Abhijñānashākuntala), is a Sanskrit play by the ancient Indian poet Kālidāsa, dramatizing the story of Shakuntala told in the epic Mahabharata.
In March 1698, Jeremy Collier published his anti-theatre pamphlet, A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage; in the pamphlet, Collier attacks a number of playwrights: William Wycherley, John Dryden, William Congreve, John Vanbrugh, and Thomas D’Urfey.
Slapstick is a style of humor involving exaggerated physical activity which exceeds the boundaries of normal physical comedy.
A soap opera or soaper is an ongoing, episodic work of fiction presented in serial format on television, radio and in novels, featuring the lives of many characters and focusing on emotional relationships to the point of melodrama.
The term social criticism often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for malicious conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure.
The Society for the Reformation of Manners was founded in the Tower Hamlets area of London in 1691.
A song, most broadly, is a single (and often standalone) work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
In theatre and performing arts, the stage (sometimes referred to as the deck in stagecraft) is a designated space for the performance of productions.
A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, or film, whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Taledanda (Kannada: ತಲೆದಂಡ, Hindi: Rakt Kalyan, literally: Death by Beheading) is a 1990 Kannada play written by Girish Karnad, an eminent person in Kannada literature, about the rise of the radical protest and reform movement, Lingaytism, in 12th century Karnataka.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983) was an American playwright.
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
A tetralogy (from Greek τετρα- tetra-, "four" and -λογία -logia, "discourse") is a compound work that is made up of four distinct works.
Thalia (Θάλεια, Θαλία; "the joyous, the flourishing", from θάλλειν, thállein; "to flourish, to be verdant"), also spelled Thaleia, was the goddess who presided over comedy and idyllic poetry.
Thérèse Raquin is a novel (first published in 1867) and a play (first performed in 1873) by the French writer Émile Zola.
The Boy and the Blind Man (Le Garçon et l'aveugle) is the name of a 13th-century French play; considered the oldest surviving French farce.
The Castle of Perseverance is a c. 15th century morality play and the earliest known full-length (3,649 lines) vernacular play in existence.
The Country Wife is a Restoration comedy written in 1675 by William Wycherley.
The Interlude of the Student and the Girl (Interludium de clerico et puella) is one of the earliest known secular plays in English, first performed c. 1300.
The Man of Mode, or, Sir Fopling Flutter is a Restoration comedy by George Etherege, written in 1676.
The Persians (Πέρσαι, Persai, Latinised as Persae) is an ancient Greek tragedy written during the Classical period of Ancient Greece by the Greek tragedian Aeschylus.
The Post Office (Bengali: Dak Ghar) is a 1912 play by Rabindranath Tagore.
The Provoked Wife (1697) is the second original comedy written by John Vanbrugh.
The Relapse, or, Virtue in Danger is a Restoration comedy from 1696 written by John Vanbrugh.
The Second Shepherds' Play (also known as The Second Shepherds' Pageant) is a famous medieval mystery play which is contained in the manuscript HM1, the unique manuscript of the Wakefield Cycle.
The Theatre was an Elizabethan playhouse in Shoreditch (in Curtain Road, part of the modern London Borough of Hackney), just outside the City of London.
The Way of the World is a play written by the English playwright William Congreve.
A theatre, theater or playhouse, is a structure where theatrical works or plays are performed, or other performances such as musical concerts may be produced.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
Theatre of ancient Rome refers to the time period of theatrical practice and performance in Rome beginning in the 4th century B.C., following the state’s transition from Monarchy to Republic.
The earliest form of classical theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre which came into existence only after the development of Greek and Roman theatres in the west.
Theatre practitioner is a modern term to describe someone who both creates theatrical performances and who produces a theoretical discourse that informs his or her practical work.
Theatrical makeup is makeup that is used to assist in creating the appearance of the characters that actors portray during a theater production.
A prop, formally known as (theatrical) property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production.
Thespis (Θέσπις; fl. 6th century BC) of Icaria (present-day Dionysos, Greece), according to certain Ancient Greek sources and especially Aristotle, was the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor playing a character in a play (instead of speaking as him or herself).
Thomas Middleton (baptised 18 April 1580 – July 1627; also spelled Midleton) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet.
Anthony Robert Kushner (born July 16, 1956) is an American playwright and screenwriter.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Twentieth-century theatre describes a period of great change within the theatrical culture of the 20th century, mainly in Europe and North America.
A two-hander is a term for a play, film, or television programme with only two main characters.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general term is poetic drama.
Vice is a stock character of the medieval morality plays.
Vijay Dhondopant Tendulkar (6 January 1928 – 19 May 2008) was a leading Indian playwright, movie and television writer, literary essayist, political journalist, and social commentator primarily in Marāthi.
Vikramōrvaśīyam (meaning Urvashi Won by Valour) is a five-act Sanskrit play by ancient Indian poet Kalidasa who flourished in the 4th Century CE, on the Vedic love story of king Pururavas and an Apsara, a celestial nymph named Urvashi.
A villain (also known as, "baddie", "bad guy", "evil guy", "heavy" or "black hat") is an "evil" character in a story, whether a historical narrative or, especially, a work of fiction.
Viola Spolin (November 7, 1906 — November 22, 1994) was a theatre academic, educator and acting coach.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Владимир Владимирович Маяковский; – 14 April 1930) was a Russian Soviet poet, playwright, artist, and actor.
Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) was an English-American poet.
Wajid Ali Shah (واجد علی شاہ) (30 July 1822 – 1 September 1887) was the tenth and last Nawab of Awadh, holding the position for 9 years, from 13 February 1847 to 11 February 1856.
The Wakefield or Towneley Mystery Plays are a series of thirty-two mystery plays based on the Bible most likely performed around the Feast of Corpus Christi probably in the town of Wakefield, England during the late Middle Ages until 1576.
Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language is an American dictionary first published in 1951 and since 2012 published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
The well-made play (la pièce bien faite, pronounced) is a dramatic genre from nineteenth-century theatre first codified by French dramatist Eugène Scribe.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
William Congreve (24 January 1670 – 19 January 1729) was an English playwright and poet of the Restoration period.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Wycherley (baptised 8 April 1641 – 1 January 1716) was an English dramatist of the Restoration period, best known for the plays The Country Wife and The Plain Dealer.
Winifred Louise Ward (October 29, 1884August 16, 1975) was a professor at Northwestern University most notable for having done significant work in the field of children's theatre and pioneering the idea of creative dramatics.
Wit is a form of intelligent humour, the ability to say or write things that are clever and usually funny.
Yakshagana (Kannada: "ಯಕ್ಷಗಾನ", Tulu: "ಆಟ") is a traditional theatre form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.
The York Mystery Plays, more properly the York Corpus Christi Plays, are a Middle English cycle of 48 mystery plays or pageants covering sacred history from the creation to the Last Judgment.
Zaju (literally meaning "variety show") was a form of Chinese drama or Chinese opera which provided entertainment through a synthesis of recitations of prose and poetry, dance, singing, and mime, with a certain emphasis on comedy (or, happy endings).
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1873.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1887.
Drama (Art Form), Drama (art form), Drama (fiction), Drama and Dramatic Arts, Dramas, Dramatic Literature, Dramatic arts, Dramatic society, Dramatic work, Dramatic writing, Dramatically, Dramatisations, Dramatise, Dramatised, Dramatises, Dramatising, Dramatized, Dramatizes, Dramatizing, Dranma, Family Drama, Fiction Drama, School Drama, School drama, Story Dramatization, Story dramatization.