289 relations: Afghanistan, Agglutination, Allar language, Alveolar consonant, Amravati district, Anantapur, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Aranadan language, Areal feature, Article (grammar), Asko Parpola, Aspirated consonant, Attapady Kurumba language, Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Avestan, Badaga language, Bahrain, Balaghat district, Balochi language, Balochistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bangalore, Bangladesh, Basque language, Bazigar language, Beary language, Bellari language, Betta Kurumba language, Betul district, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Bharia language, Bhutan, Biblia Impex India, Bihar, Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh, Brahmi script, Brahui language, Brahui people, Canada, Celt (tool), Census of India, Central India, Chamarajanagar district, Chenchu language, Chennai, Chhattisgarh, ..., Chittoor district, Clusivity, Coimbatore district, Colin Renfrew, Comparative linguistics, Dakshina Kannada, Deccan Plateau, Dental consonant, Denys Bray, Dravidian Linguistics Association, Dravidian people, Dravidian studies, Durg district, Duruwa language, Early Indian epigraphy, East India, Elam, Elamite language, Elamo-Dravidian languages, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eravallan language, Ernakulam district, Erode district, Ethnologue, Fatehgarh Sahib district, Fertile Crescent, Francis Whyte Ellis, Gerund, Gondi language, Gondi languages, Gondi people, Grammatical modifier, Gujarati language, Haryana, Henry Heras, Hindi, Holiya language, Hurrians, Hyderabad, Ice age, Idukki district, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan migration, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indonesia, Indus Valley Civilisation, Iran, Iranian languages, Iravatham Mahadevan, Irula language, Japanese language, Jeseri, Jharkhand, Kadar language, Kaikadi language, Kalanadi language, Kamil Zvelebil, Kanikkaran language, Kannada, Kannada dialects, Kannur district, Kanyakumari district, Karaikkal Ammaiyar, Karnataka, Kasaragod district, Kerala, Khirwar language, Kodagu district, Kodava language, Kolami language, Kolar, Kollam district, Konda language (Dravidian), Konkani language, Koraga language, Korean language, Kota language (India), Kottayam district, Koya language, Kozhikode district, Krishnagiri district, Kudiya language, Kui language (India), Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, Kumbaran language, Kunduvadi language, Kurdish languages, Kurichiya language, Kurnool, Kuru Kingdom, Kurukh language, Kurukh people, Kurumba language, Kuvi language, Kuwait, Lakshadweep, Language family, Language isolate, Language shift, Languages with official status in India, Lilatilakam, Liquid consonant, List of Scheduled Tribes in India, Logogram, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Madhya Pradesh, Madiya language, Madurai, Madurai district, Maharashtra, Mahavamsa, Mahé district, Mahbubnagar, Mala Malasar language, Malankuravan language, Malapandaram language, Malappuram district, Malasar language, Malayalam, Malayalam languages, Malaysia, Malto language, Malto people, Manda language (India), Manipravalam, Marathi language, Marwari language, Mauritius, Medak, Mother Tongue (journal), Muduga language, Mukha-Dora language, Mullu Kurumba language, Mumbai, Muria language, Murray Barnson Emeneau, Muthuvan language, Muzaffarnagar district, Myanmar, Mysore district, Naalayira Divya Prabhandham, Naiki language, Neelagiri, Negative verb, Nellore district, Nepal, Nihali language, Nostratic languages, Odisha, Ollari language, Oman, Ooty, Orthography, Pakistan, Palakkad district, Paliyan language, Paniya language, Pardhan language, Pathanamthitta district, Pathiya language, Patiala district, Pengo language, Persian language, Phonology, Phonotactics, Proto-Dravidian language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-language, Puducherry, Punjab, India, Qatar, Quotative, Ravula language, Réunion, Relict, Retroflex consonant, Rigveda, Robert Caldwell, Saharanpur district, Salem, Tamil Nadu, Sangam literature, Sangli, Sanskrit, Sanskritisation, Saudi Arabia, Seoni district, Sholaga language, Sindhi language, Singapore, Sino-Tibetan languages, Solapur, South Africa, South Asia, South India, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Tamils, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Subject–object–verb, Sumerian language, Surguja district, Tamil language, Tamil languages, Tamil Nadu, Tamil script, Tamil-Brahmi, Tamil–Kannada languages, Telangana, Telugu language, Thachanadan language, Thane, The Nilgiris District, Thiruvananthapuram district, Thomas Burrow, Thrissur district, Tirunelveli, Tirunelveli district, Toda language, Tolkāppiyam, Tulu language, Udupi district, Ullatan language, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uralic languages, Uttar Pradesh, Vedic Sanskrit, Viluppuram district, Vishavan language, Wayanad Chetti language, Wayanad district, West Bengal, Yerukala language, Yuri Knorozov, 2001 Census of India. Expand index (239 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Allar (also known as Chatan) is an unclassified Dravidian language spoken in Kerala (Malappuram district-Perinthalmanna tahsil, Manjeri tahsil, Mannarmala, Aminikadu, and Tazhecode; Palakkad district-Mannarkkad and Ottappalam tahsils), India.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amravati District is a District of Maharashtra state in central India.
Anantapur (officially:Anantapuramu) is a city in Anantapur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Aranadan is a Dravidian language spoken by several hundred people, predominantly in the Malappuram District of Kerala state, India.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Asko Parpola (born 1941) is a Finnish Indologist and Sindhologist, current professor emeritus of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Attapady Kurumba also called Pal Kurumba is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language spoken by a Scheduled tribe of India.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
Badaga is a southern Dravidian language spoken by approximately 135,000 people in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Balaghat District (बालाघाट ज़िला) a district of Madhya Pradesh state of central India.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Bazigar language is the Dravidian language of the Bazigar, a group of traveling acrobats of the Punjab region.
Beary or Byari (ಬ್ಯಾರಿ ಬಾಸೆ Byāri Bāsě) is an Indian language spoken by the Muslim communities mainly of Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts) and some parts of North Kerala (Byaris).
Bellari is a Dravidian variety of India spoken by about 1,000 Bellara, a Scheduled Caste of Karnataka and Kerala.
The Betta Kurumba language (Beṭṭa Kurumba) is a Dravidian language closely related to Tamil, and is spoken by 32,000 people in the Nilgiri mountains and in adjoining areas in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
Betul District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India.
Bhadriraju Krishnamurti (19 June 1928 – 11 August 2012) was an Indian Dravidianist and linguist.
Bharia is an unclassified Dravidian language spoken in the remote Patalkot Valley of Madhya Pradesh in central India.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Biblia Impex India is a New Delhi-based book distribution company that specializes in books on Indology, Hinduism and Buddhism founded by the influential Hindu nationalist historian Sita Ram Goel in 1963.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bilaspur district is a district of the Chhattisgarh state of India.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
Brahui (براهوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Baluchistan province in Pakistan, and in scattered parts of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Iraq.
The Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) or Brahvi people are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
In archaeology, a celt is a long, thin, prehistoric, stone or bronze tool similar to an adze, a hoe or axe-like tool.
The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times,.
Central India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.
Chamarajanagar is the southernmost district in the state of Karnataka, India.
Chenchu language is a Dravidian language which belongs to the Telugu branch of its South-Central family.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chhattisgarh (translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country.
Chittoor district, is a district in Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
Coimbatore District is a district in the Kongu Nadu region of the state of Tamil Nadu.
Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, FBA, FSA, Hon FSA Scot (born 25 July 1937 in Stockton-on-Tees) is a British archaeologist, paleolinguist and Conservative peer noted for his work on radiocarbon dating, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting at archaeological sites.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
Dakshina Kannada is a district in the state of Karnataka in India.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Sir Denys de Saumarez Bray, KCSI, KCIE, CBE (29 November 1875 – 19 November 1951) was an etymologist and British colonial civil servant in the Empire of India, who served as Secretary of the Foreign Department of the Government of India.
The Dravidian Linguistics Association is a learned society of scholars of Dravidian languages, based in Thiruvananthapuram.
Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages.
Dravidian studies (also Dravidology) is the academic field devoted to the Dravidian languages, literature and culture.
Durg District is situated in Chhattisgarh state of India.
Duruwa (Odia: ପରଜି, Devanagari: दुरुवा) or Parji is a Central Dravidian language spoken by the Dhurwa tribe, a scheduled tribe people of India, in the districts of Koraput and Bastar in Chhattisgarh state.
The earliest traces of epigraphy in the Indian Subcontinent are found in the undeciphered inscriptions of the Indus Valley Civilization (Indus script), which date back to the early 3rd millennium BC.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Eravallan is a tribal Dravidian language related to Tamil.
Ernakulam is a district of Kerala, India situated in the central part of that state.
Erode District (previously known as Periyar District) is a district in the Kongu Nadu region (western part) of the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Fatehgarh Sahib district is one of the twenty-two districts of the state of Punjab in North-West India, with its headquarters in the city of Fatehgarh Sahib.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Francis Whyte Ellis (1777–1819) was a British civil servant in the Madras Presidency and a scholar of Tamil and Sanskrit.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
Gondi is a South-Central Dravidian language, spoken by about two million Gond people, chiefly in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Telangana, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and in various adjoining areas of neighbouring states.
The Gondi languages are a subgroup of the Dravidian family that includes Gondi and related languages.
The Gondi (Gōndi) or Gond people are Adivasi who speak Dravidian language, spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra (Vidarbha), Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Western Odisha.
In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Henry Heras (11 September 1888, Barcelona, Spain - 14 December 1955, Bombay, India) was a Spanish Jesuit priest, archeologist and historian in India.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Holiya (Golari) is a southern Dravidian language closely related to Kannada.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, India, created on 26January 1972.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Iravatham Mahadevan (born 2 October 1930) is an Indian epigraphist and former civil servant, known for his successful decipherment of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and for his expertise on the epigraphy of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Irula is a Dravidian language spoken by the Irulas who inhabit the area of the Nilgiri mountains, in the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, India.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jeseri (also known as Jesri or Dweep Bhasha) is a dialect of Malayalam, spoken in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep in India.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
Kadar is a Dravidian language of Kerala and Tamil Nadu that is closely related to Malayalam.
The Kaikadi language is a Dravidian language related to Tamil, spoken by about 23,000 people of the formerly nomad Kaikadi tribe primarily in Maharashtra.
Kalanadi is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language of India.
Kamil Václav Zvelebil (September 17, 1927 – January 17, 2009) was a distinguished Czech scholar in Indian literature and linguistics, notably Tamil, Sanskrit, Dravidian linguistics and literature and philology.
Kanikkaran is a language spoken by about 19,000 Kanikkars in southern India.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannada dialects, in the broad sense incorporating the Kannada–Badaga languages, are spoken in and around Karnataka.
Kannur District is one of the 14 districts along the west coast in the state of Kerala, India.
Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.
for 1973 film based on her history, see Karaikkal Ammaiyar (film) Karaikal Ammaiyar (meaning "the revered mother from Karaikkal"), one of the three women amongst the 63 Nayanmars, is one of the greatest figures of early Tamil literature.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kasaragod District (Kasarkod District) is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Khirwar is a Dravidian language in India.
Kodagu is an administrative district in Karnataka, India.
The Kodava or Coorg language is an endangered Dravidian language and the original language of the Kodagu district in southern Karnataka, India.
Kolami (Northwestern Kolami) is a tribal Central Dravidian language spoken in Maharashtra and Telangana.
Kolar The Golden city of India, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Kollam district (formerly Quilon) is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India.
Konda, also known as Konda-Dora, is one of the Dravidian languages spoken in India.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Koraga (also rendered Koragar, Koragara, Korangi) is a Dravidian language spoken by the Koraga people, a Scheduled tribe people of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka, and Kerala in South West India.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Kota is a language of the Dravidian language family with about 900 native speakers in the Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu state, India.
Kottayam is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India.
Koya is a South-Central Dravidian language of the Gondi–Kui group.
Kozhikode District or Calicut district is a district of Kerala state, on the southwest coast of India.
Krishnagiri district is a district in the western part of the state of Tamil Nadu, in India.
Kudiya is a minor Dravidian language spoken by a Scheduled tribe of India.
Kui (also Kandh, Khondi, Khond, Khondo, Kanda, Kodu (Kōdu), Kodulu, Kuinga (Kūinga), Kuy) is a South-Central Dravidian language spoken by the Khonds.
(fl. roughly 700) was a Hindu philosopher and Mīmāṃsā scholar from present-day India.
Kumbaran is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language spoken by a Scheduled caste of India.
Kunduvadi is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language of India.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Kurichiya is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language spoken by the Kurichiya, a Scheduled tribe of India.
Kurnool is the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Kuru (कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand and the western part of Uttar Pradesh (the region of Doab, till Prayag), which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent.
Kurukh (also Kurux and Oraon or Uranw; Devanagari: कुड़ुख़) is a Dravidian language spoken by nearly two million Oraon and Kisan tribal peoples of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal, as well as by 65,000 in northern Bangladesh, 28,600 a dialect called Dhangar in Nepal, and about 5,000 in Bhutan.
The Oraon or Kurukh tribe (Kurukh: Oṛāōn and Kuṛuḵẖ), also spelled Uraon, Oran, or Oram, are an Adivasi group inhabiting various states across central and eastern India, Rakhine State in Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan.
Kurumba, also known as Kannada Kurumba, is a Southern Dravidian language of the Tamil–Kannada subgroup spoken by the Kuruba tribe.
Kuvi is an endangered South-Central Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Odisha.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Lilatilakam (IAST: Līlā-tilakam, "diadem of poetry") is a 14th century Sanskrit-language treatise on the grammar and poetics of the Manipravalam language form, a precursor of the modern Malayalam language spoken in the Kerala state of India.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
This is a list of Scheduled Tribes in India.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born 25 January 1922) is an Italian-born population geneticist, who has been a professor (now emeritus) at Stanford University since 1970.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Madiya or Maria is a Dravidian language spoken in India.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Madurai district is the ninth largest in population of the 32 districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in southeastern India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
Mahé district is one of the four districts of the Union Territory of Puducherry in India.
Mahabubnagar is a city in Mahbubnagar district of the Indian state of Telangana named after the 6th Nizam - Mir Mahbub Ali Khan.
Mala Malasar is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language spoken by a Scheduled tribe of India.
Malankuravan (Mala Koravan, Malakkuravan) is a Dravidian language of southern India, on the southern border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Malapandaram (Hill Pandaram) is a Dravidian language of Kerala and Tamil Nadu that is closely related to Malayalam.
Malappuram district, with its headquarters at Malappuram, is a district in the state of Kerala, India.
Malasar (Malayar) is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language spoken by a Scheduled tribe of India.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
The Malayalam languages are the group of Dravidian languages most closely related to Malayalam.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malto or Paharia or, rarely, archaically, Rajmahali is a Northern Dravidian language spoken primarily in East India.
The Malto or Maler people are a Dravidian-speaking ethnic group.
Manḍa is a Dravidian language of Orissa.
Manipravalam മണിപ്രവാളം (Macaronic) was a literary style used in medieval liturgical texts in South India, which used an admixture of Proto Tamil-Malayalam language and Sanskrit.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Medak is a town in Medak district of the Indian state of Telangana.
Mother Tongue is an annual academic journal published by the Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory (ASLIP) that has been published since 1995.
Muduga also called Mudugar is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language of India influenced by Kannada and Tulu.
Mukha-Dora (Nuka-Dora) is one of the Dravidian languages spoken in India.
Mullu Kurumba is a Southern Dravidian language of the Tamil–Kannada subgroup.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Muria is a Dravidian language spoken in India.
Murray Barnson Emeneau (February 28, 1904 – August 29, 2005) was an emeritus professor and founder of the Department of Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Muthuvan is a tribal Dravidian language related to Tamil.
Muzaffarnagar district is a district of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mysore District is an administrative district located in the southern part of the state of Karnataka, India.
The Nalayira Divya Prabandham (translit) is a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses (Naalayiram in Tamil means 'four thousand') composed by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries.
Naiki, or Southeastern Kolami, is a tribal Central Dravidian language used in Maharashtra state of India.
Neelagiri is a panchayat town in the Thanjavur district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
A negative verb or negation verb is a type of auxiliary that is used to form the negative of a main verb.
Nellore district (officially: Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district), located in Coastal Andhra region is one of the 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nihali, also known as Nahali or erroneously as Kalto, is a moribund language isolate that is spoken in west-central India (in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra), with approximately 2,000 people in 1991 out of an ethnic population of 5,000.
Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
The Ollari language (also known as Pottangi Ollar Gadaba, Ollar Gadaba, Ollaro, Hallari, Allar, Hollar Gadbas) is a Central Dravidian language.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Udagamandalam (also known as Ootacamund), and abbreviated as Udhagai or Ooty, (is a town and municipality in Tamil Nadu, India. It is located 86 km north of Coimbatore and 128 km south of Mysore and is the capital of the Nilgiris district. It is a popular hill station located in the Nilgiri Hills. Originally occupied by the Toda people, the area came under the rule of the East India Company at the end of the 18th century. The economy is based on tourism and agriculture, along with the manufacture of medicines and photographic film. The town is connected by the Nilgiri ghat roads and Nilgiri Mountain Railway. Its natural environment attracts tourists and it is a popular summer destination. In 2011, the town had a population of 88,430.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palakkad District is one of the 14 districts of the Indian state of Kerala.
Paliyan is a Dravidian language of Kerala that is closely related to Malayalam.
Paniya is one of the Dravidian languages of India.
Pardhan (or Pradhan) is a South-Central Dravidian language spoken in India, mostly in Telangana, Adilbad District; Madhya Pradesh, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindawara, Hoshangabad, Betul, Balaghat, Jabalpur districts; Chhattisgarh, Raipur, Bilaspur districts; Maharashtra, Bhandara, Garhchiroli, Nagpur, Wardha, and Yavatmal districts.
Pathanamthitta District is a district in the southern part of Kerala, India.
Pathiya is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language of India.
Patiala district is one of the twenty two districts in the state of Punjab in north-west India.
Pengo is a South-Central Dravidian language spoken in Odisha.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
A quotative (abbreviated) is a grammatical device to mark quoted speech in some languages, and as such it preserves the grammatical person and tense of the original utterance rather than adjusting it as would be the case with reported speech.
Ravula, known locally as Yerava or Adiyan, is a Dravidian language of Karnataka and Kerala.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
A relict is a surviving remnant of a natural phenomenon.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Bishop Robert Caldwell (7 May 1814 – 28 August 1891) was a missionary and linguist, who academically established the Dravidian family of languages.He served as Assistant Bishop of Tirunelveli from 1877.
Saharanpur district is the northernmost of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state, India.
Salem is a city in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sangli (is a City and the district headquarters of Sangli District in the state of Maharashtra, in western India. It is known as the Turmeric City of Maharashtra due to its production and trade of the spice. Sangli is situated on the banks of river Krishna and houses many sugar factories.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sanskritisation (Indian English) or Sanskritization (American English, Oxford spelling) is a particular form of social change found in India.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Seoni District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India.
The Sholaga (Soliga) language is a Dravidian language related to Kannada and Tamil, spoken by the Soliga people.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Solapur is a city located in the south-western region of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Surguja District is a district in the northern part of the state of Chhattisgarh in India.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tamil languages are the group of Dravidian languages most closely related to Tamil.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
Tamil-Brahmi, or Tamili, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write the Tamil language.
Tamil–Kannada is an inner branch (Zvelebil 1990:56) of the Southern Dravidian I (SDr I) subfamily of the Dravidian languages that include Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Thachanadan is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language spoken by a Scheduled tribe of India.
Thane, colloquially called Thana, is a metropolitan city in India.
The Nilgiris District is in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Thiruvananthapuram District is the southernmost district of the coastal state of Kerala.
Thomas Burrow (29 June 1909 – 8 June 1986) was an Indologist and the Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford from 1944 to 1976; he was also a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford during this time.
Thrissur (also Trichur, Trissur) is a revenue district of Kerala situated in the central part of that state.
Tirunelveli, also known as Nellai and historically (during British rule) as Tinnevelly, is a major city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Tirunelveli District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.
Toda is a Dravidian language noted for its many fricatives and trills.
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
Udupi district in the Karnataka state of India was created in August 1997.
Ullatan is an apparently extinct and unclassified Southern Dravidian language once spoken by two Scheduled tribes of India.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Viluppuram (also Villupuram and Vizhupuram) is one of the thirty two districts which make up Tamil Nadu state situated on the southern tip of India.
Vishavan is an unclassified Dravidian language spoken by a tribal people of central Kerala in India.
Wayanad Chetti, or Chetti, is an unclassified Southern Dravidian language of India spoken by Wayanadan Chetti community in the Wayanad district of Kerala, India.
Wayanad is a district in the north-east of Kerala state, India with headquarters at the town of Kalpetta.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
Yerukula is a Dravidian language mainly spoken by the Yerukala tribe.
Yuriy Valentinovich Knorozov (alternatively Knorosov; Ю́рий Валенти́нович Кноро́зов; November 19, 1922 – March 31, 1999) was a Soviet linguist epigrapher and ethnographer, who is particularly renowned for the pivotal role his research played in the decipherment of the Maya script, the writing system used by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica.
The 2001 Census of India was the 14th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871.
Austro-Dravidian, Central Dravidian, Central Dravidian Group Languages, Central Dravidian Languages, Central Dravidian language, Central Dravidian languages, Draviadan Language, Dravidian Languages, Dravidian family of languages, Dravidian language, Dravidian language family, Dravidian linguistic group, Dravidian migrations, DravidianLanguages, Dravidic language, ISO 639:dra, Indo-European Dravidian Words, Indo-European Dravidian words, KV, KP, List of Dravidian Languages, Northern Dravidian, Northern Dravidian languages, Proto-Tamil, Proto-Tamil-Malayalam, South Central Dravidian languages, South Dravidian, South-Central Dravidian, South-Central Dravidian Languages, South-Central Dravidian languages, Southern Dravidian, Southern Dravidian languages, Tamil-Kodagu languages, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil-Malayalam language, Tamil-Malayalam languages, Tamil-Tulu languages, Tamil–Tulu languages.