225 relations: Adi Shankara, Afghanistan, Amaravathi (village), Andhra Pradesh, Ancient Tamil music, Andhra Ikshvaku, Andhra Pradesh, Ankam, Arabian Sea, Arival, Arts of Kerala, Asko Parpola, Āgama (Hinduism), Ājīvika, Śramaṇa, Balarama, Balochistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bay of Bengal, Baybayin, Bharatanatyam, Bhishma, Bihar, Bodhidharma, Bow and arrow, Brahmin, Brahui language, Brahui people, Brass knuckles, Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, Carnatic music, Celt (tool), Chalcolithic, Chalukya dynasty, Charvaka, Chera dynasty, Chhattisgarh, China, Chinese martial arts, Chola art, Chola dynasty, Christianity, Courtesan, Dagger, Dance forms of Andhra Pradesh, Dance forms of Tamil Nadu, Devadasi, Dravidian architecture, Dravidian languages, Dravidian University, ..., Durga, Early human migrations, Eastern Chalukyas, Eastern Ganga dynasty, Elam, Elamo-Dravidian languages, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ettuthogai, Folk arts of Karnataka, Gada (mace), Giraavaru people, Gondi language, Gondi people, Grantha script, Greater India, Hathigumpha inscription, Henry Heras, Hero stone, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, History of Shaktism, Hoysala Empire, Inamgaon, India, Indian Ocean, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indra, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Iran, Iravatham Mahadevan, Islam, Jaffna Kingdom, Jainism, Jallikattu, Japan, Jataka tales, Javanese script, Judaism, Kabaddi, Kadamba dynasty, Kakatiya dynasty, Kalabhra dynasty, Kalaripayattu, Kalarippayattu stick-fighting, Kalinga (historical region), Kambala, Kamil Zvelebil, Kanaka Dasa, Kanheri Caves, Kannada, Kannada cinema, Kannada people, Karate, Karnataka, Kartikeya, Katar (dagger), Kathakali, Kavadi Attam, Kawi script, Kerala, Kharavela, Khmer alphabet, Kingdom of Mysore, Koil, Koodiyattam, Krishna, Krishnadevaraya, Kuchipudi, Kuru Kingdom, Lambs and Tigers, Language family, Linguistics, Logogram, Madhya Pradesh, Madurai, Maduvu, Mahabharata, Maharashtra, Malayalam, Malayalam cinema, Malayali, Malaysia, Mandhata, Marathi people, Mayilattam, Michael Witzel, Mohiniyattam, Murti, Nagarjunakonda, Nataraja, Nayak dynasty, Nepal, Odisha, Oyilattam, Pakistan, Paleoclimatology, Pallava dynasty, Pallava script, Pancha-Dravida, Pancha-Gauda, Pandyan dynasty, Parai Attam, Pathupattu, Phonology, Prakrit, Proto-Dravidian language, Proto-language, Puducherry, Purandara Dasa, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Relict, Religious text, Rigveda, Robert Caldwell, Sahadeva, Sandhi, Sangam landscape, Sanskrit, Sanskritisation, Satavahana dynasty, Savuku, Shadow Puppets of Andhra Pradesh, Shield, Shiva, Sikhism, Silambam, Silappatikaram, Singapore, South Africa, South Asia, South India, Southeast Asia, Spear, Sri Lanka, Stratum (linguistics), Sword, Tamil cinema, Tamil language, Tamil Nadu, Tamilakam, Tamils, Telangana, Telugu cinema, Telugu language, Telugu people, Thai alphabet, The Wonder That Was India, Three Crowned Kings, Togalu Gombeyaata, Tolkāppiyam, Trishula, Tulu language, Tulu people, Tutelary deity, Urumi, Uttar Pradesh, Valari, Vallam Kali, Varāhamihira, Vastu shastra, Vedas, Veeragase, Vel, Vijayanagara, Vijayanagara Empire, Vilasini Natyam, Vishnu, Vishnukundina, Western Chalukya Empire, Western Ganga dynasty, Yakshagana, Yuri Knorozov. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Amaravathi is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The ancient Tamil music is the historical predecessor of the Carnatic music during the Sangam period.
The Ikshvaku (IAST: Ikṣvāku) dynasty ruled in the eastern Krishna River valley of India, from their capital at Vijayapuri (modern Nagarjunakonda in Andhra Pradesh) during approximately 225-340 CE.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Ankam is a Malayalam word meaning combat or battle.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
The aruval (அருவாள்) is a type of billhook from India, particularly common in the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
The Indian state, Kerala is well known for its diverse forms of performing arts.
Asko Parpola (born 1941) is a Finnish Indologist and Sindhologist, current professor emeritus of Indology and South Asian Studies at the University of Helsinki.
The Agamas (Devanagari: आगम, IAST) are a collection of scriptures of several Hindu devotional schools.
Ajivika (IAST) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.
Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".
Balarama (Sanskrit: बलराम, IAST: Balarāma) is a Hindu deity and the elder brother of Krishna (an avatar of the god Vishnu).
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
Baybayin (pre-kudlit:, post-kudlit:, kudlit + pamudpod), is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.
Bharatanatyam (Tamil: "பரதநாட்டியம்"), is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu.
In the epic Mahabharata, Bhishma (Sanskrit: भीष्म) was well known for his pledge of Brahmacharya.The eighth son of Kuru King Shantanu and the goddess Ganga Bhishma was blessed with wish-long life and was related to both the Pandava and the Kaurava.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Brahui (براهوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Baluchistan province in Pakistan, and in scattered parts of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Iraq.
The Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) or Brahvi people are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
Brass knuckles, also sometimes called knuckles, knucks, brass knucks, knucklebusters, knuckledusters, an English punch or a classic, are weapons used in hand-to-hand combat.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
In archaeology, a celt is a long, thin, prehistoric, stone or bronze tool similar to an adze, a hoe or axe-like tool.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Chhattisgarh (translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.
The period of the imperial Cholas (c. 850 CE - 1250 CE) was an age of continuous improvement and refinement of Dravidian art and architecture.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A courtesan was originally a courtier, which means a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person.
A dagger is a knife with a very sharp point and one or two sharp edges, typically designed or capable of being used as a thrusting or stabbing weapon.
The dance forms of Andhra Pradesh take on a wide variety of colors, costumes, and types; and involve different settings and musical instruments.
Tamil Nadu has a rich history of art of entertainment.
In South and parts of Western India, a devadasi (deva (god)) or jogini is a girl "dedicated" to worship and service of a deity or a temple for the rest of her life.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Dravidian University, Kuppam, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India was established by the Government of Andhra Pradesh, through a Legislature Act (No. 17 of 1997) with the initial support extended by the governments of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala for an integrated development of Dravidian languages and culture.
Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
Eastern Chalukyas, also known as the Chalukyas of Vengi, were a dynasty that ruled parts of South India between the 7th and 12th centuries.
The Eastern Ganga dynasty or Chodaganga dynasty was a medieval Indian dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from the 11th century to the early 15th century.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Ettuthogai (எட்டுத்தொகை)– 'The Eight Anthologies' - is a Classical Tamil poetic work which forms part of the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology series of the Sangam Literature.
Karnataka has a variety of folk arts, including folk dance and puppetry.
The gada (Sanskrit: गदा gadā, Tamil: gadai, Malay: gedak Old Tagalog: batuta) is a club or blunt mace from South Asia.
The Giraavaru people are the indigenous people of Giraavaru Island, part of the Maldives.
Gondi is a South-Central Dravidian language, spoken by about two million Gond people, chiefly in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Telangana, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and in various adjoining areas of neighbouring states.
The Gondi (Gōndi) or Gond people are Adivasi who speak Dravidian language, spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra (Vidarbha), Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Western Odisha.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
The Hathigumpha Inscription ("Elephant Cave" inscription), from Udayagiri, near Bhubaneswar in Odisha, was inscribed by Kharavela, the then Emperor of Kalinga in India, during 2nd century BCE.
Henry Heras (11 September 1888, Barcelona, Spain - 14 December 1955, Bombay, India) was a Spanish Jesuit priest, archeologist and historian in India.
A hero stone (Viragallu in Kannada, Naṭukal in Tamil) is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
The roots of Shaktism – a Hindu denomination that focuses worship upon Shakti or Devi, the Hindu Divine Mother – penetrate deeply into India's prehistory.
The Hoysala Empire was a Kannadiga power originating from the Indian subcontinent, that ruled most of the what is now Karnataka, India between the 10th and the 14th centuries.
Inamgaon (Marathi: इनामगांव) is a post-Harappan agrarian village and archaeological site located in Maharashtra, western India.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iravatham Mahadevan (born 2 October 1930) is an Indian epigraphist and former civil servant, known for his successful decipherment of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions and for his expertise on the epigraphy of the Indus Valley Civilization.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Jaffna Kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215–1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jallikattu (or sallikkattu), also known as eru thazhuvuthal and manju virattu, is a traditional spectacle in which a Bos indicus bull, such as the Pulikulam or Kangayam breeds, is released into a crowd of people, and multiple human participants attempt to grab the large hump on the bull's back with both arms and hang on to it while the bull attempts to escape.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.
The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kabaddi is a contact team sport.
The Kadambas (Kannada: ಕದಂಬರು) (345–525 CE) were an ancient royal family of Karnataka, India, that ruled northern Karnataka and the Konkan from Banavasi in present-day Uttara Kannada district.
The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.
The Kalabhra dynasty (களப்பிரர் Kalappirar) ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 7th century in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum.
Kalaripayattu (pronounced Kalarippayatt) is a martial art and fighting system, which originated as a style in North Malabar, Kerala, Southern India.
Stick fighting in kalaripayattu, a martial art of India, makes use of several kinds of sticks.
Kalinga is a historical region of India.
A kambala (Tulu & Kannada: ಕಂಬಳ) is an annual buffalo race held in the southwestern Indian state of Karnataka.
Kamil Václav Zvelebil (September 17, 1927 – January 17, 2009) was a distinguished Czech scholar in Indian literature and linguistics, notably Tamil, Sanskrit, Dravidian linguistics and literature and philology.
Kanaka Dasa (ಕನಕದಾಸ) (1509 – 1609) was a poet, philosopher, musician and composer from modern Karnataka.He was born in kuruba community (shepherd).
The Kanheri Caves (Kānherī-guhāḥ) are a group of caves and rock-cut monuments cut into a massive basalt outcrop in the forests of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, on the island of Salsette in the western outskirts of Mumbai, India.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannada cinema, also known as Chandanavana, Link referring rechristening of sandalwod as chandanavana at world kannada summit is the Indian film industry based in the state of Karnataka where motion pictures are produced in the Kannada language.
The Kannada people known as the Kannadigas and Kannadigaru are the people who natively speak Kannada.
(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kartikeya (IAST), also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumara, and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.
The katar or katara, is a type of push dagger from South Asia.
Kathakali (കഥകളി) is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance.
Kavadi Attam (Tamil:காவடி ஆட்டம்) ("Burden Dance") is a ceremonial sacrifice and offering practiced by devotees during the worship of Lord Murugan,Kent, Alexandra.
Aksara Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") or Aksara Jawa Kuna ("Old Javanese script") is the name given to the writing system originating in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia from the 8th century to around 1500 AD.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kharavela was a king of Kalinga in present-day Odisha, India.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Koil or Koyil or Kovil, (meaning: residence of GodThe modern Tamil word for Hindu temple is kōvil (கோவில்) meaning " the residence of God". In ancient Tamil Nadu, the king (கோ, Kō) was considered to be a ‘representative of God on earth' and lived in a kōvil, which also means "king’s house". Old words for king like Kō (கோ "King"), Iṟai (இறை "Emperor") and Āṇṭavan (ஆண்டவன் "Conqueror") are now primarily used to refer to God.) is the Tamil term for a distinct style of Hindu temple with Dravidian architecture.
Koodiyattam (കൂടിയാട്ടം), also transliterated as Kutiyattam, is a traditional performing artform in the state of Kerala, India.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Krishnadevaraya (IAST) was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529.
Kuchipudi is one of the eight major Indian classical dances.
Kuru (कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand and the western part of Uttar Pradesh (the region of Doab, till Prayag), which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The maduvu (மட்டுவு; Marathi: madhu, Hindi: singhauta), also known as a maru or madu, is a weapon from India.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam.
The Malayali people or Keralite people (also spelt Malayalee, Malayalam script: മലയാളി and കേരളീയൻ) are an Indian ethnic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala, located in South India.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mandhata (Hindi: मान्धाता), also called Shivapuri or Omkareshwar, is an island in the Narmada river in Khandwa district, Madhya Pradesh, India.
The Marathi people (मराठी लोक) are an ethnic group that speak Marathi, an Indo-Aryan language.
Mayilattam (Tamil:மயிலாட்டம்) is an artistic and religious form of dance performed in the Hindu temples of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in reverence to Lord Subrahmanya.
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.
Mohiniyattam, also spelled Mohiniattam (മോഹിനിയാട്ടം), is one of two classical dances of India that developed and remain popular in the state of Kerala.
A Murti (Sanskrit: मूर्ति, IAST: Mūrti) literally means any form, embodiment or solid object, and typically refers to an image, statue or idol of a deity or person in Indian culture.
Nagarjunakonda (IAST: Nāgārjunikoṇḍa, meaning Nagarjuna Hill) is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Nataraja (meaning "the lord of dance") is a depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the cosmic ecstatic dancer.
Nayaka dynasties emerged during the declining period of the Vijayanagara Empire.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Oyilattam (ஒயிலாட்டம்; meaning: dance of grace) is a folk dance with origins in the Madurai region of Tamil Nadu.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century AD.
Pancha Dravida is one of the two major groupings of Brahmins in Hinduism, of which the other was Pancha-Gauda.
Pancha Gauda is one of the two major groupings of Brahmins in Hinduism, of which the other was Pancha-Dravida.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Parai Attam is a special type of dance in Tamil culture in which folks beat Parai and dance to its rhythm.
Pathupattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு; Pattuppāṭṭu; ten Idylls) is an anthology of ten mid-length books and one of the oldest surviving works of Tamil poetry.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
Purandara Dāsa (ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ) (1484–1564) was a Haridasa (a devotee - servant of Lord Hari (Vishnu)), great devotee of Lord Krishna (an incarnation of Lord Vishnu) and a saint.
Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.
A relict is a surviving remnant of a natural phenomenon.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Bishop Robert Caldwell (7 May 1814 – 28 August 1891) was a missionary and linguist, who academically established the Dravidian family of languages.He served as Assistant Bishop of Tirunelveli from 1877.
In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव) was the youngest of the five Pandava brothers.
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
The Sangam landscape (Tamil: அகத்திணை "inner classification") is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sanskritisation (Indian English) or Sanskritization (American English, Oxford spelling) is a particular form of social change found in India.
The Satavahanas (IAST), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region.
Savuku (சவுக்கு, Malay: sauku) is the Tamil word for whip, used both for domestic purposes and traditionally also in hand-to-hand fighting.
Tholu Bommalata is the shadow puppet theatre tradition of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Silambam (சிலம்பம்) is a weapon-based martial art of India, more specifically in the state of Tamil Nadu, where it originated around 1000 BC.
Silappadikaram (republished as The Tale of an Anklet) is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger.
Tamil cinema is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, based in Film Nagar, a neighborhood of Hyderabad, Telangana.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The Telugu people or Telugu Praajalu are the people who speak Telugu as a first language.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims, is a book on Indian history written by Arthur Llewellyn Basham and first published in 1954.
The Three Crowned rulers, or the Three Glorified by Heaven, or World of the Three, primarily known as Moovendhar, refers to the triumvirate of Chola, Chera and Pandya who dominated the politics of the ancient Tamil country, Tamilakam, from their three countries or Nadu of Chola Nadu, Pandya Nadu (present day Madurai and Tirunelveli) and Chera Nadu (present day Kerala) in southern India.
Togalu Gombeyaata is a puppet show unique to the state of Karnataka, India.
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
Trishula (Sanskrit: त्रिशूल, IAST: triśūla) is a trident, commonly used as the principal symbols in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
The Tulu people, or Tuluva (plural Tuluver), are an ethnic group native to the Tulu Nadu region of India, presently divided amongst the Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka and the Kasaragod taluk of Kerala up to river Chandragiri.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
The urumi (Malayalam: ഉറുമി, urumi; Tamil: உறுமி, urumi, Sinhalese: එතුණු කඩුව ethunu kaduwa; Hindi: āra) is a sword with a flexible whip-like blade from the Indian subcontinent.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
A valari (வளரி) or valai thadi is a throwing stick used primarily by the Tamil people of India, Sri Lanka and Russia.
Vallam Kali (vaḷḷaṃ kaḷi, literally: boat game) is a traditional boat race in Kerala, India.
Vārāhamihira (505–587 CE), also called Vārāha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.
Vastu shastra is a traditional Hindu system of architecture which literally translates to "science of architecture." These are texts found on the Indian subcontinent that describe principles of design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement and spatial geometry.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Veeragase ವೀರಗಾಸೆ is a dance form prevalent in the state of Karnataka, India.
Vel (lit) is a divine javelin (spear) associated with Murugan, a War God also known as Vēl Murugan (வேல் முருகன்).
Vijayanagara (Sanskrit: "City of Victory") was the capital city of the historic Vijayanagara Empire.
The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.
Vilasini Natyam or Chinna Melam is an Indian classical dance form originating in Andhra Pradesh.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
The Vishnukundina dynasty (IAST: Viṣṇukundina) was an Indian imperial power controlling the Deccan, Orissa and parts of South India during the 5th and 6th centuries, carving land out from the Vakataka Empire.
The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries.
Western Ganga was an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India which lasted from about 350 to 1000 CE.
Yakshagana (Kannada: "ಯಕ್ಷಗಾನ", Tulu: "ಆಟ") is a traditional theatre form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.
Yuriy Valentinovich Knorozov (alternatively Knorosov; Ю́рий Валенти́нович Кноро́зов; November 19, 1922 – March 31, 1999) was a Soviet linguist epigrapher and ethnographer, who is particularly renowned for the pivotal role his research played in the decipherment of the Maya script, the writing system used by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica.