234 relations: Acid, Addis Ababa University, Alcohol, Alcohol by volume, Alcoholic drink, Almond milk, Alternative investment, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greece and wine, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Rome, Ancient Rome and wine, Apfelwein, Appellation, Apple cider, Apple juice, Arabian Peninsula, Bacchanalia, Balkans, Bar, Bar stool, Barley wine, Bartender, Beer, Berry, Bhutan, Billycan, Bittering agent, Bitters, Blood, Bloomberg News, Borovička, Brandy, Brewed coffee, Brewery, Brewing, Bubble tea, Caffeine, Canada, Cancer, Carbon dioxide, Carbonated water, Carbonation, Cardiovascular disease, Carrot, Cask ale, Cattle, Celery, Cereal, ..., Champagne glass, Chemistry, China, Christianity, Cider, Cider apple, Coca-Cola, Coconut milk, Coconut water, Code of Hammurabi, Coffea, Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffee, Coffeehouse, Costa Coffee, Cream, Cucumber, Cult of Dionysus, Cultivar, Culture, Culture of Australia, Culture of New Zealand, Culture of the United Kingdom, Diarrhea, Dionysian Mysteries, Dionysus, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Draught beer, Drink mixer, Drinking, Drinking establishment, Drinking water, Eleanor Robson, Electrolyte, Enzyme, Espresso, Ethanol, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eucharist, Evergreen, Fermentation in food processing, Fermentation in winemaking, Filtration, Food, French press, Fruit, Fruit wine, Genus, Georgia (country), Germination, Gin, Go-go dancing, Goat, Grape, Grapefruit juice, Herb, Herbal tea, Honey, Hookah, Hops, Hot chocolate, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Huangjiu, Human, Hydrolysis, Hypothalamus, Hypoxia (environmental), Iced tea, Iran, Islam, Jagertee, Japan, Judaism, Juice, Kashmir, Kiddush, Lemonade, Liquid, Liquor, List of countries by coffee production, List of countries with alcohol prohibition, List of drinks, List of hot drinks, Los Angeles Times, Loving cup, Low-alcohol beer, Maize, Malt, Malting process, Masala chai, Mashing, Menelik II, Metabolism, Metro Detroit, Microbrewery, Microorganism, Middle East, Milk, Milkshake, Mixed drink, Mixture, Multinational corporation, Neolithic, Neolithic Europe, Nepal, New England, Ninkasi, Nutrient, Orange juice, Ottoman Empire, Outback, Pathogen, Peach, Pear, PepsiCo, Percolation, Plutarch, Pomegranate, Preservative, Pub, Punch (drink), Red wine, Rice milk, Rice wine, Root beer, Rum, Rye, Sake, Samovar, Samuel Pepys, Science (journal), Scientific American, Senegalese tea culture, Separation process, Shang dynasty, Sheep, Shrub, Slivovitz, Snifter, Soft drink, Sorghum, South Africa, Soy milk, Starbucks, Starch, Striptease, Sufism, Sugar, Surface area, Sweetness of wine, Symposium, Taiwan, Tangerine, Tap water, Tea, Teahouse, Tequila, Terroir, The Independent, Theatre, Thirst, Tibet, Toast (honor), Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, United Kingdom, United States Geological Survey, Vodka, Volatility (chemistry), Water chlorination, Western Asia, Western world, Wheat, Whisky, White wine, Wine, Wine glass, Winemaking, World Health Organization, Wort, Yeast in winemaking, Yemen, Yuenyeung, Yunnan. Expand index (184 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Addis Ababa University (አዲስ አበባ ዩኒቨርሲቲ) is a state university in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent).
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Almond milk is a plant milk manufactured from almonds with a creamy texture and nutty flavor, although other types or brands are flavored in imitation of dairy milk.
An alternative investment or alternative investment fund (AIF) is an investment in asset classes other than stocks, bonds, and cash.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The influence of wine in ancient Greece helped Ancient Greece trade with neighboring countries and regions.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancient Rome played a pivotal role in the history of wine.
Apfelwein (Germany, apple wine), or Viez (Moselfranken, Saarland, Trier, vice) or Most (Austria, Switzerland, South Germany, must) are German words for cider.
An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown; other types of food often have appellations as well.
Apple cider (also called sweet cider or soft cider or simply cider) is the name used in the United States and parts of Canada for an unfiltered, unsweetened, non-alcoholic beverage made from apples.
Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
The Bacchanalia were Roman festivals of Bacchus, based on various ecstatic elements of the Greek Dionysia.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A bar (also known as a saloon or a tavern or sometimes a pub or club, referring to the actual establishment, as in pub bar or savage club etc.) is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, liquor, cocktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and often sell snack foods such as crisps (potato chips) or peanuts, for consumption on premises.
Bar stools are a type of tall chair, often with a foot rest to support the feet.
Barley wine is a style of strong ale of between 6-11% or 8-12% alcohol by volume.
A bartender (also known as a barkeep, barman, barmaid, bar chef, tapster, mixologist, alcohol server, flairman or an alcohol chef) is a person who formulates and serves alcoholic or soft drink beverages behind the bar, usually in a licensed establishment.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
A billycan is a lightweight cooking pot in the form of a metal bucketFarrell, Michael.
A bittering agent is a flavoring agent added to a food or beverage to impart a bitter taste, possibly in addition to other effects.
A bitters is traditionally an alcoholic preparation flavored with botanical matter so that the end result is characterized by a bitter, sour, or bittersweet flavor.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
Borovička (also known as Juniper brandy) is a Slovak alcoholic beverage flavored with juniper berries.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
Brewed coffee is made by pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans, then allowing to brew.
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
Bubble tea (also known as pearl milk tea, bubble milk tea, boba tea, or simply boba) (with tapioca balls it is) is a Taiwanese tea-based drink invented in Tainan and Taichung in the 1980s.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonated water (bubbly water, fizzy water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved, either by technology or by a natural geologic source.
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is unfiltered and unpasteurised beer which is conditioned (including secondary fermentation) and served from a cask without additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide pressure.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
A Champagne glass is a form of stemware designed specifically to enhance the drinking of champagne.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.
Cider apples are a group of apple cultivars grown for their use in the production of cider (referred to as "hard cider" in the United States).
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a mature coconut.
Coconut water is the clear liquid inside coconuts (which are fruits of the coconut palm).
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
Coffea is a genus of flowering plants whose seeds, called coffee beans, are used to make various coffee beverages and products.
Coffea arabica, also known as the Arabian coffee, "coffee shrub of Arabia", "mountain coffee", or "arabica coffee", is a species of Coffea.
Coffea canephora (syn. Coffea robusta), commonly known as robusta coffee, is a species of coffee that has its origins in central and western sub-Saharan Africa.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Costa Coffee is a British multinational coffeehouse company headquartered in Dunstable, Bedfordshire, and a wholly owned subsidiary of Whitbread.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
The Cult of Dionysus is strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni, and its characteristic symbols are the bull, the serpent, tigers/leopards, the ivy, and the wine.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
The culture of Australia is a Western culture, derived primarily from Britain but also influenced by the unique geography of Australia, the cultural input of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other Australian people.
The culture of New Zealand is essentially a Western culture influenced by the unique environment and geographic isolation of the islands, and the cultural input of the indigenous Māori and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration which followed the British colonisation of New Zealand.
The culture of the United Kingdom is influenced by the UK's history as a developed state, a liberal democracy and a great power; its predominantly Christian religious life; and its composition of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which sometimes used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques (like dance and music) to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return to a natural state.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Inc. is an American soft drink company, based in Plano, Texas.
Draught beer, also spelt draft, is beer served from a cask or keg rather than from a bottle or can.
Drink mixers are the non-alcoholic ingredients in mixed drinks and cocktails.
Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth.
A drinking establishment is a business whose primary function is the serving of alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Eleanor Robson is a Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History at the Department of History, University College London, chair of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq and a Quondam Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Espresso is coffee brewed by expressing or forcing out a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
A French press, also known as a cafetière, cafetière à piston, Cafeteria, press pot, coffee press, or coffee plunger, is a coffee brewing device patented by Italian designer Attilio Calimani in 1929.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients (other than grapes); they may also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gin is liquor which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).
Go-go dancers are dancers who are employed to entertain crowds at nightclubs or other venues where music is played.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
Grapefruit juice is the juice from grapefruits.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Herbal teas — less commonly called tisanes (UK and US, US also) — are beverages made from the infusion or decoction of herbs, spices, or other plant material in hot water.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA:; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.
Hot chocolate, also known as Chocolate tea, drinking chocolate or just cocoa is a heated beverage consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and usually a sweetener.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Huangjiu, often translated as yellow wine, is a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage made from water, cereal grains such as rice, sorghum, millet, or wheat, and a jiuqu starter culture.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Iced tea (or ice tea; thé glacé in French) is a form of cold tea.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jagertee (also Jägertee) is an alcoholic beverage made by mixing overproof rum with black tea, red wine, plum brandy, orange juice and various spices.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kiddush (קידוש), literally, "sanctification," is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat and Jewish holidays.
Lemonade can be any one of a variety of sweetened beverages found throughout the world, but which are all characterized by a lemon flavor.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
The following table lists the total coffee production of coffee exporting countries.
The following countries have or had comprehensive prohibitions against alcohol.
Drinks are liquids that can be consumed.
This list of hot drinks comprises drinks that are typically served hot.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
A loving cup is a shared drinking container traditionally used at weddings and banquets.
Low-alcohol beer (also called light beer, non-alcoholic beer, small beer, small ale, or near-beer) is beer with little or no alcohol content, which aims to reproduce the taste of beer without the inebriating effects of standard alcoholic brews.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
The malting process converts raw grain into malt.
Masala chai (मसाला चाय, literally "mixed-spice tea") is a flavoured tea beverage made by brewing black tea with a mixture of aromatic Indian spices and herbs.
In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of grain (typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, sorghum, rye, or wheat), known as the "grain bill", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture.
Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ), baptised as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus of Shewa (1866–89), then Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The Detroit metropolitan area, often referred to as Metro Detroit, is a major metropolitan area in the U. S. State of Michigan, consisting of the city of Detroit and its surrounding area.
A microbrewery or craft brewery is a brewery that produces small amounts of beer (or sometimes root beer), typically much smaller than large-scale corporate breweries, and is independently owned.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A milkshake is a sweet, cold beverage that is usually made from milk, ice cream, or iced milk, and flavorings or sweeteners such as butterscotch, caramel sauce, chocolate syrup, or fruit syrup.
A mixed drink is a beverage in which two or more ingredients are mixed.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BCE (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) and c. 1700 BCE (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe).
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Ninkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Orange juice is the liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York.
In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation (from Latin percōlāre, "to filter" or "trickle through") refers to the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer (such as ale) and cider.
Punch is a wide assortment of drinks, both non-alcoholic and alcoholic, generally containing fruit or fruit juice.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
Rice milk is a grain milk made from rice.
Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Root beer is a sweet North American soft drink traditionally made using the sassafras tree Sassafras albidum (sassafras) or the vine Smilax ornata (sarsaparilla) as the primary flavor.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.
A samovar (самовар,; literally "self-brewer") is a heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in Russia.
Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Senegalese tea culture is an important part of daily social life.
A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two or more distinct product mixtures.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Slivovitz, Šljivovica, Śliwowica, Slivovitza, Schlivowitz, Slivovitsa, Slivovice, Slivovica or Slivovka is a fruit brandy made from damson plums, often referred to as plum brandy.
A snifter (also called brandy snifter, brandy bowl, cognac glass, or balloon) is a type of stemware, a short-stemmed glass whose vessel has a wide bottom and a relatively narrow top.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Soy milk or soymilk is a plant-based drink produced by soaking and grinding soybeans, boiling the mixture, and filtering out remaining particulates.
Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
A striptease is an erotic or exotic dance in which the performer gradually undresses, either partly or completely, in a seductive and sexually suggestive manner.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
The subjective sweetness of a wine is determined by the interaction of several factors, including the amount of sugar in the wine, but also the relative levels of alcohol, acids, and tannins.
In ancient Greece, the symposium (συμπόσιον symposion or symposio, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a part of a banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure was accompanied by music, dancing, recitals, or conversation.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The tangerine (Citrus tangerina) is a group of orange-colored citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata).
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
A teahouse is an establishment which primarily serves tea and other light refreshments.
Tequila is a regional distilled beverage and type of alcoholic drink made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the central western Mexican state of Jalisco.
Terroir (from terre, "land") is the set of all environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including unique environment contexts, farming practices and a crop's specific growth habitat.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
A toast is a ritual in which a drink is taken as an expression of honor or goodwill.
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.
White wine is a wine whose colour can be straw-yellow, yellow-green, or yellow-gold.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A wine glass is a type of glass that is used to drink and taste wine.
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Wort is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky.
The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yuenyeung (often transliterated according to the Cantonese language pronunciation Yuenyeung, Yinyeung, or Yinyong), coffee with tea, also commonly known as Kopi Cham in Malaysia (from the Hokkien cham, "mix") is a popular beverage in Hong Kong.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.