82 relations: ACE inhibitor, Acetyl group, Acne, Adrenal insufficiency, Agonist, Androgen receptor, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Antiandrogen, Antiglucocorticoid, Antigonadotropin, Antimineralocorticoid, Bayer, Bioavailability, Biological target, Birth control, Birth control pill formulations, Canrenone, Chemical formula, Combined oral contraceptive pill, CYP3A4, Cyproterone acetate, Cytochrome P450, Endometrium, Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Ethinylestradiol, Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone/levomefolic acid, European Medicines Agency, Feces, Folate, Food and Drug Administration, Generic drug, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Heparin, Hormone, Human serum albumin, Hyperkalemia, Kidney, Kidney failure, Lactone, Levonorgestrel, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Liver disease, Luteinizing hormone, Medication, Medicine, ..., Menopause, Methylene bridge, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Molecular mass, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Oral administration, Organic compound, Ovulation, Pharmacodynamics, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Potassium, Potassium-sparing diuretic, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Progestin, Progestogen, Receptor antagonist, Redox, SC-5233, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Spirolactone, Spironolactone, Steroid, Steroidal antiandrogen, Structural analog, Substituent, Sulfation, Thio-, Trademark distinctiveness, Transcortin, Venous thrombosis. Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antiglucocorticoid is a drug which reduces glucocorticoid activity in the body.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Oral contraceptives come in a variety of formulations.
Canrenone, sold under the brand names Contaren, Luvion, Phanurane, and Spiroletan, is a steroidal antimineralocorticoid of the spirolactone group related to spironolactone which is used as a diuretic in Europe, including in Italy and Belgium.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cyproterone acetate (CPA), sold alone under the brand name Androcur or with ethinylestradiol (EE) under the brand names Diane or Diane-35 among others, is an antiandrogen and progestogen which is used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, early puberty, and prostate cancer, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, and in birth control pills.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone/levomefolic acid (trade names Beyaz, Safyral) is an oral contraceptive developed by Bayer.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.
Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
In organic chemistry, a methylene bridge, methylene spacer, or methanediyl group is any part of a molecule with formula --; namely, a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms and connected by single bonds to two other distinct atoms in the rest of the molecule.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium-sparing diuretics are diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome affecting 3–8% of menstruating women.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
SC-5233, also known as 6,7-dihydrocanrenone or 20-spirox-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a synthetic, steroidal antimineralocorticoid of the spirolactone group which was developed by G. D. Searle & Company in the 1950s but was never marketed.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
Spirolactones are a class of functional group in organic chemistry featuring a cyclic ester attatched spiro to another ring system.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A steroidal antiandrogen (SAA) is an antiandrogen with a steroidal chemical structure.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.
The prefix thio-, when applied to a chemical, such as an ion, means that an oxygen atom in the compound has been replaced by a sulfur atom.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.