161 relations: Abrahamic religions, Absorption (pharmacology), Absorption (skin), Addiction, Aerosol, Aging brain, Alcoholic drink, Altered state of consciousness, Amphetamine, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, Anesthetic, Animal feed, Areca nut, Ayahuasca, Biological target, Biopharmaceutical, Biopharmaceutics Classification System, Blood transfusion, Bolus (medicine), Cactus, Caffeine, Calea ternifolia, Cannabis (drug), Central nervous system, Chemical structure, Chronic condition, Cognition, Consciousness, Controlled Substances Act, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, Cosmetics, Cream, Cure, Depressant, Dermal patch, Designer drug, Dietary supplement, Disease, Dissociative, Drug class, Drug delivery, Drug development, Drug injection, Echinopsis pachanoi, Electromagnetic radiation, Emulsion, Entheogen, Entheogenic use of cannabis, Ergot, Ethanol, ..., Ethnic religion, Euphoria, Food, Food and Drug Administration, Food safety, Gastrointestinal tract, Generic drug, Government, Hallucinogen, Hashish, Health and Care Professions Council, Health professional, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Illegal drug trade, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Ingestion, Inhalation, Insufflation (medicine), Intramuscular injection, Intraosseous infusion, Intravenous therapy, Inverse benefit law, Kava, Khat, Legal status of Salvia divinorum, Legal status of Salvia divinorum in the United States, Legality of cannabis, Lifestyle drug, List of drugs, List of federal agencies in the United States, List of pharmaceutical companies, List of psychoactive plants, List of Schedule I drugs (US), Lucid dream, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Mazatec shamanism, Mechanism of action, Medical cannabis, Medical device, Medical diagnosis, Medical research, Medication, Medicinal plants, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Mescaline, Mode of action, Mood (psychology), Nicotine, Nootropic, Oneirogen, Opiate, Oral administration, Organic synthesis, Over-the-counter drug, Pacific Ocean, Patent, Perception, Performance-enhancing substance, Peritoneum, Peyote, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacist, Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacy, Physician, Placebo, Prescription drug, Preventive healthcare, Prodrug, Prohibition of drugs, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic drug, Psychoactive drug, Public health, Random House, Rastafari, Recreational drug use, Rectum, Regulation, Regulation of therapeutic goods, Religious ecstasy, Route of administration, Sacrament, Salvia divinorum, Sedative, Shamanism, Side effect, Silene undulata, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Smoking, Solution, Specialty drugs in the United States, Steroid, Stimulant, Stimulant psychosis, Sublingual administration, Suppository, Suspension (chemistry), Synthetic cannabinoids, Temporary class drug, Tobacco, Tobacco products, Topical medication, Treaty, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vaccine, Veterinary medicine, Well-being, Xhosa people. Expand index (111 more) » « Shrink index
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream.
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Aging is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
The Biopharmaceutics Classification System is a system to differentiate the drugs on the basis of their solubility and permeability.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a discrete amount of medication, drug, or other compound within a specific time, generally within 1 - 30 minutes, in order to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calea ternifolia (syn. Calea zacatechichi) is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
A dermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a medication into the skin.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
Echinopsis pachanoi (syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) — known as San Pedro cactus — is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the Andes Mountains at in altitude.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Cannabis has been used in an entheogenic context—a chemical substance used in a religious, shamanic, or spiritual context—in India and Nepal since the Vedic period dating back to approximately 1500 BCE, but perhaps as far back as 2000 BCE.
Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Hashish, or hash, is a drug made from cannabis.
The Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC, formerly the Health Professions Council, HPC) is a statutory regulator of over 344,000 professionals from 16 health and care professions in the United Kingdom.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intraosseous infusion (IO) is the process of injecting directly into the marrow of a bone.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
The inverse benefit law states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively a drug is marketed.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Salvia divinorum, a psychoactive plant, is legal in most countries.
The legal status of Salvia divinorum in the United States varies, with 29 states (and the territory of Guam) having completely banned it and others considering proposals for banning its use.
The legality of cannabis for general or recreational use varies from country to country.
Lifestyle drug is an imprecise term commonly applied to medications which treat non–life-threatening and non-painful conditions such as baldness, wrinkles, erectile dysfunction, or acne, which the speaker perceives as either not medical problems at all or as minor medical conditions relative to others.
This is a list of agencies of the United States federal government.
It is limited to those companies notable enough to have articles in Wikipedia.
A list of plants that are used as psychoactive drugs.
This is the list of Schedule I drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
A lucid dream is a dream during which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
The Mazatec Shamans are known for their ritual use of psilocybin mushrooms, psychoactive morning glory seeds, and Salvia divinorum.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
A mode of action (MoA) describes a functional or anatomical change, at the cellular level, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
An oneirogen, from the Greek ὄνειρος óneiros meaning "dream" and gen "to create", is that which produces or enhances dream-like states of consciousness.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction.
Religious ecstasy is a reported type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional (and sometimes physical) euphoria.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
Salvia divinorum (also known as sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or simply salvia) is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Silene undulata (iindlela zimhlophe—"white ways/paths", also known as Silene capensis, and African dream root) is a plant native to the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Specialty drugs or specialty pharmaceuticals are a recent designation of pharmaceuticals that are classified as high-cost, high complexity and/or high touch.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body–the same receptors that the cannabinoids in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD–attach to.
A temporary class drug is a relatively new status for controlled drugs, which has been adopted in some jurisdictions, notably New Zealand and the United Kingdom, to attempt to bring newly synthesised designer drugs under legal control.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobacco is the agricultural product of the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.
The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.