105 relations: ABC (medicine), Abstinence, Activated carbon, Adverse drug reaction, Alcohol intoxication, Altered level of consciousness, Anticholinergic, Antidote, Arterial blood gas test, Barbiturate overdose, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine overdose, Blood, Blood pressure, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chelation therapy, Cholinergic, Cocaine, Cocaine intoxication, Coma, Death, Drug, Drug injection, Drug interaction, Electrocardiography, Electrolyte, Epileptic seizure, Ethanol, Ethchlorvynol, Ethylene glycol poisoning, Euphoria, Fentanyl, Flumazenil, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Gastric lavage, Glucose, Glutethimide, Heart rate, Hemoglobin, Heroin, Hypervitaminosis, Hypnotic, Hypoxia (medical), ICD-10, Illegal drug trade, Ingestion, Iron, Ketamine, List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication, Medical toxicology, ..., Methadone, Methamphetamine, Methanol toxicity, Methaqualone, Molecule, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Morphine, Naloxone, National Center for Health Statistics, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Nicotine, North Carolina, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid overdose, Organophosphate poisoning, Oxygen, Paracetamol, Paracetamol poisoning, People, Perspiration, Pesticide poisoning, PH, Poison, Poison control center, Poly drug use, Polypharmacy, Prescription drug, Psychoactive drug, Pulse, Pupil, Respiratory rate, Responsible drug use, Salicylate poisoning, Salicylic acid, Sedative, Self-harm, Speedball (drug), Stimulant, Stomach rumble, Suicide, Suicide attempt, Sympathomimetic drug, Syrup of ipecac, Temperature, Tobacco, Toxicity, Toxicology, Toxidrome, Toxin, Tricyclic antidepressant overdose, U.S. state, Urea, Water intoxication, Whole bowel irrigation. Expand index (55 more) » « Shrink index
ABC and its variations are initialism mnemonics for essential steps used by both medical professionals and lay persons (such as first aiders) when dealing with a patient.
Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Barbiturate overdose is poisoning due to excessive doses of barbiturates.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine overdose describes the ingestion of one of the drugs in the benzodiazepine class in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chelation therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocaine intoxication refers to the immediate and deleterious effects of cocaine on the body.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug injection is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous).
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethchlorvynol is a GABA-ergic sedative and hypnotic/soporific medication developed by Pfizer in the 1950s.
Ethylene glycol poisoning is poisoning caused by drinking ethylene glycol.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist available by injection and intranasal.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
Gastric lavage, also commonly called stomach pumping or gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutethimide is a hypnotic sedative that was introduced by Ciba in 1954 as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hypervitaminosis is a condition of abnormally high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Drug overdose and intoxication are significant causes of accidental death, and can also be used as a form of suicide.
Medical toxicology is a subspecialty of medicine focusing on toxicology and providing the diagnosis, management, and prevention of poisoning and other adverse effects due to medications, occupational and environmental toxicants, and biological agents.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methanol toxicity is poisoning from methanol.
Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude (pronounced) and sometimes stylized "Quāālude" in the United States and Mandrax in the United Kingdom and South Africa, is a sedative and hypnotic medication.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System which provides statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the American people.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids.
Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paracetamol poisoning, also known as acetaminophen poisoning, is caused by excessive use of the medication paracetamol (acetaminophen).
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
A pesticide poisoning occurs when chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
A poison control center is a medical facility that is able to provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of exposure to poisonous or hazardous substances.
Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect.
Polypharmacy is the concurrent use of multiple medications by a patient.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
Responsible drug use maximizes the benefits and reduces the risk of negative impact on the lives of both the user and others.
Salicylate poisoning, also known as aspirin poisoning, is the acute or chronic poisoning with a salicylate such as aspirin.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Speedball (or powerball) is a mix of cocaine with heroin or morphine taken intravenously or by insufflation.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
A stomach rumble, also known as a bowel sound or peristaltic sound or bubble gut, is a rumbling, growling or gurgling noise produced by movement of the contents of the gastro-intestinal tract as they are propelled through the small intestine by a series of muscle contractions called peristalsis.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A suicide attempt is an attempt where a person tries to commit suicide but survives.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Syrup of ipecac, commonly referred to as ipecac, is a drug that was once widely used as an expectorant (in low doses) and a rapid-acting emetic (in higher doses).
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A toxidrome (a portmanteau of toxic and syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a dangerous level of toxins in the body.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is poisoning caused by excessive medication of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) type.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning, hyperhydration, or water toxemia is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside safe limits by overhydration (excessive water intake).
Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced macrogol solution (GoLYTELY, CoLyte), either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract.
Accidental Overdose, Accidental overdose, Drug OD, Drug Overdose, Drug overdoses, Drug poisoning, Medicinal Poisoning, Medicinal poisoning, O.d.'ing, OD'd, Od'ing, Over dosing, Overdose, Overdose Prevention, Overdose prevention, Overdosed, Overdoses, Overdosing, Overdosing on drugs, Salicylate intoxication.