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Index Druid

A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures. [1]

197 relations: Adomnán, Alexander Polyhistor, Alexandre Soumet, Alexandria, Amergin Glúingel, Anglesey, Annals (Tacitus), Aristotle, Artemidorus Ephesius, Arthur Oncken Lovejoy, Arverni, Ashoka, Astronomy, Augury, Augustan History, Augustus, Aulus Hirtius, Éigse, Île de Sein, Balor, Barbarian, Bard, Barry Cunliffe, Bé Chuille, Bóaire, Beuno, Biróg, Blathmac, Bodhmall, Boudica, British Isles, Carman, Carnutes, Cathbad, Celtic deities, Celtic Revival, Celts, Christianity in Wales, Christianization, Cicero, Cimbri, Claudius, Coligny calendar, Columba, Commenta Bernensia, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Common Era, Conall Cernach, Conchobar mac Nessa, Cornish language, ..., Cosmology, De Divinatione, Deal, Kent, Deirdre, Demon, Dictionary of the Irish Language, Dindsenchas, Diodorus Siculus, Diogenes Laërtius, Diviciacus (Aedui), Divination, Donald Alexander Mackenzie, Druidry (modern), Egypt, Esus, Ethniu, Felice Romani, Fenian Cycle, Filí, Fionn mac Cumhaill, Flidais, Fomorians, François-René de Chateaubriand, Franz Boas, Gaels, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, Gallic Wars, Gaulish language, Gauls, Geoffrey Keating, Germanus of Auxerre, Giovanni Pacini, Gorsedd, Gournay-sur-Aronde, Greece, Hades, Hagiography, High King of Ireland, Hill of Ward, History of ideas, Human sacrifice, Hywel Dda, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Insular Celtic languages, Iolo Morganwg, Irish mythology, Irminism, Irminsul, Jesus, John Aubrey, John O'Donovan (scholar), John Toland, Julius Caesar, Jupiter (mythology), La Scala, Latin, Lóegaire, Lóegaire mac Néill, Lebor Gabála Érenn, Lindow Man, List of Graeco-Roman geographers, Lucan, Magic (supernatural), Martin of Tours, Medea, Megalith, Metempsychosis, Middle Ages, Middle Welsh, Milesians (Irish), Miranda Aldhouse-Green, Modern Paganism, Monotheism, Mug Ruith, Munster, Mythological Cycle, Natural History (Pliny), Nennius, Nora K. Chadwick, Norma (opera), Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges, Oak, Occult, Old Irish, Ollamh Érenn, Opera, Oral literature, Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids, Ossian, Pliny the Elder, Pomponius Mela, Primitivism, Prophet, Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European religion, Pythagoreanism, Reincarnation, Rhine, Ribemont-sur-Ancre, Roman Empire, Roman Gaul, Roman Republic, Romanticism, Ronald Hutton, Royal Irish Academy, Sacred grove, Sacrifice, Saint Patrick, Shamanism, Stonehenge, Strabo, Stuart Piggott, Suetonius, Sulpicius Severus, Supernatural, T. D. Kendrick, Tacitus, Tadg mac Nuadat, Taranis, Táin Bó Cúailnge, Teutons, The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn, The Druid Order, Theology, Threefold death, Tiberius, Tlachtga, Tory Island, Toutatis, Tragic hero, Trieste, Truth, Tuatha Dé Danann, Ulster, Ulster Cycle, Uraicecht Becc, Vincenzo Bellini, Vortigern, Wales in the High Middle Ages, Welsh language, Wicker man, William Blake, William Price (physician), William Stukeley, Wren, Wren Day. Expand index (147 more) »


Adomnán or Adamnán of Iona (Adamnanus, Adomnanus; 624 – 704), also known as Eunan, was an abbot of Iona Abbey (679–704), hagiographer, statesman, canon jurist, and saint.

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Alexander Polyhistor

Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Πολυΐστωρ; flourished in the first half of the 1st century BC; also called Alexander of Miletus) was a Greek scholar who was enslaved by the Romans during the Mithridatic War and taken to Rome as a tutor.

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Alexandre Soumet

Alexandre Soumet (February 18, 1788March 30, 1845) was a French poet.

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Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Amergin Glúingel

Amergin Glúingel ("white knees") (also spelled Amhairghin Glúngheal) or Glúnmar ("big knee") is a bard, druid and judge for the Milesians in the Irish Mythological Cycle.

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Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.

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Annals (Tacitus)

The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Artemidorus Ephesius

Artemidorus of Ephesus (Ἀρτεμίδωρος ὁ Ἐφέσιος; Artemidorus Ephesius) was a Greek geographer, who flourished around 100 BC.

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Arthur Oncken Lovejoy

Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (October 10, 1873 – December 30, 1962) was an American philosopher and intellectual historian, who founded the discipline known as the history of ideas with his book The Great Chain of Being (1936), on the topic of that name, which is regarded as 'probably the single most influential work in the history of ideas in the United States during the last half century'.

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The Arverni were a Celtic tribe.

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Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Augury is the practice from ancient Roman religion of interpreting omens from the observed flight of birds (aves).

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Augustan History

The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Aulus Hirtius

Aulus Hirtius (c. 90 – 43 BC) was one of the consuls of the Roman Republic and a writer on military subjects.

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Éigse: A Journal of Irish Studies is an academic journal devoted to the study of the Irish language and literature.

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Île de Sein

The Île de Sein is a French island in the Atlantic Ocean, off Finistère, eight kilometres from the Pointe du Raz (raz meaning "water current"), from which it is separated by the Raz de Sein.

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In Irish mythology, Balor (modern spelling: Balar) was king of the Fomorians, a group of supernatural beings.

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A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.

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In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.

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Barry Cunliffe

Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe (born 10 December 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, is a British archaeologist and academic.

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Bé Chuille

Bé Chuille, also known as Becuille and Bé Chuma, is one of the Tuatha Dé Danann in Irish mythology.

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Bóaire was a title given to a member of medieval and earlier Gaelic societies prior to the introductions of English law according to Early Irish law.

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Saint Beuno (Bonus;Baring-Gould & Fisher, "Lives of the British Saints" (1907), quoted at, Early British Kingdoms website by David Nash Ford, accessed 6 February 2012 640), sometimes anglicized as Bono, was a 7th-century Welsh abbot, confessor, and saint.

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Biróg, in Irish mythology, is the name of a druidess of the Tuatha De Danann.

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Saint Blathmac (Blathmacus, Florentius) was a distinguished Irish monk, born in Ireland about 750 AD.

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Bodhmall or Bodmall is one of Fionn mac Cumhaill's childhood caretakers in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology.

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Boudica (Latinised as Boadicea or Boudicea, and known in Welsh as Buddug) was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61, and died shortly after its failure, having supposedly poisoned herself.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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In Celtic mythology, Carman or Carmun was a warrior-woman and sorceress from Athens who tried to invade Ireland in the days of the Tuatha Dé Danann, along with her three sons, Dub ("black"), Dother ("evil") and Dian ("violence").

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The Carnutes, a powerful Gaulish people in the heart of independent Gaul, dwelt in an extensive territory between the Sequana (Seine) and the Liger (Loire) rivers.

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Cathbad or Cathbhadh (modern spelling) is the chief druid in the court of King Conchobar mac Nessa in the Ulster Cycle of Irish Mythology.

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Celtic deities

The gods and goddesses of the pre-Christian Celtic peoples are known from a variety of sources, including ancient places of worship, statues, engravings, cult objects and place or personal names.

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Celtic Revival

The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Christianity in Wales

Christianity is the largest religion in Wales.

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Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.

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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.

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Coligny calendar

The Coligny calendar is a Gaulish peg calendar or ''parapegma'' made in Roman Gaul in the 2nd century, giving a five-year cycle of a lunisolar calendar with intercalary months.

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Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.

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Commenta Bernensia

The Commenta Bernensia, also known as the Bern scholia, are commentaries or marginal notes in a 10th-century manuscript preserved in the Burgerbibliothek of Bern, Switzerland.

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Commentarii de Bello Gallico

Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Conall Cernach

Conall Cernach (modern spelling: Conall Cearnach) is a hero of the Ulaid in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology.

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Conchobar mac Nessa

Conchobar mac Nessa (son of Ness) was the king of Ulster in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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De Divinatione

Cicero's De Divinatione (Latin, "Concerning Divination") is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 44 BC.

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Deal, Kent

Deal is a town in Kent, England, which lies on the border of the North Sea and the English Channel, eight miles north-east of Dover and eight miles south of Ramsgate.

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Deirdre (Irish:; Old Irish: Derdriu) is the foremost tragic heroine in Irish legend and probably its best-known figure in modern times.

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A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.

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Dictionary of the Irish Language

Dictionary of the Irish Language: Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials (also called "the DIL"), published by the Royal Irish Academy, is the definitive dictionary of the origins of the Irish language, specifically the Old Irish and Middle Irish stages; the modern language is not included.

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Dindsenchas or Dindshenchas (modern spellings: Dinnseanchas or Dinnsheanchas or Dinnṡeanċas), meaning "lore of places" (the modern Irish word dinnseanchas means "topography"), is a class of onomastic text in early Irish literature, recounting the origins of place-names and traditions concerning events and characters associated with the places in question.

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Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

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Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.

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Diviciacus (Aedui)

Diviciacus or Divitiacus of the Aedui is the only druid from antiquity whose existence is attested by name.

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Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.

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Donald Alexander Mackenzie

Donald Alexander Mackenzie (24 July 1873 – 2 March 1936) was a Scottish journalist and folklorist and a prolific writer on religion, mythology and anthropology in the early 20th century.

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Druidry (modern)

Druidry, sometimes termed Druidism, is a modern spiritual or religious movement that generally promotes harmony, connection, and reverence for the natural world.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Esus, Hesus, or Aisus was a Gaulish god known from two monumental statues and a line in Lucan's Bellum civile.

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In Irish mythology, Ethniu, or Eithne in modern spelling, is the daughter of the Fomorian leader Balor, and the mother of Lugh.

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Felice Romani

Felice Romani (31 January 178828 January 1865) was an Italian poet and scholar of literature and mythology who wrote many librettos for the opera composers Donizetti and Bellini.

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Fenian Cycle

The Fenian Cycle or the Fiannaíocht (an Fhiannaíocht), also referred to as the Ossianic Cycle after its narrator Oisín, is a body of prose and verse centring on the exploits of the mythical hero Fionn mac Cumhaill (Old, Middle, Modern Irish: Find, Finn, Fionn) and his warriors the Fianna.

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A filí was a member of an elite class of poets in Ireland, up until the Renaissance.

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Fionn mac Cumhaill

Fionn mac Cumhaill (Old and Find or Finn mac Cumail or Umaill, sometimes transcribed in English as MacCool or MacCoul) was a mythical hunter-warrior of Irish mythology, occurring also in the mythologies of Scotland and the Isle of Man.

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Flidas or Flidais (modern spelling: Fliodhas, Fliodhais) is a female figure in Irish Mythology, known by the epithet Foltchaín ("beautiful hair").

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The Fomorians (Fomoire, Modern Fomhóraigh) are a supernatural race in Irish mythology.

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François-René de Chateaubriand

François-René (Auguste), vicomte de Chateaubriand (4 September 1768 – 4 July 1848), was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.

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Franz Boas

Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".

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The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.

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Gaius Suetonius Paulinus

Gaius Suetonius Paulinus (fl. 1st century) was a Roman general best known as the commander who defeated the rebellion of Boudica.

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Gallic Wars

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.

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Gaulish language

Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.

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The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

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Geoffrey Keating

Seathrún Céitinn (c. 1569 – c. 1644; known in English as Geoffrey Keating) was a 17th-century historian.

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Germanus of Auxerre

Germanus of Auxerre (Welsh: Garmon Sant) (c. 378 – c. 448) was a bishop of Auxerre in Late Antique Gaul.

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Giovanni Pacini

Giovanni Pacini (17 February 17966 December 1867) was an Italian composer, best known for his operas.

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A gorsedd plural gorseddau, is a community or meeting of modern-day bards.

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Gournay-sur-Aronde is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.

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No description.

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Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.

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A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.

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High King of Ireland

The High Kings of Ireland (Ard-Rí na hÉireann) were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland.

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Hill of Ward

The Hill of Ward (formerly Tlachtgha) is a hill in County Meath, Ireland.

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History of ideas

The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time.

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Human sacrifice

Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.

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Hywel Dda

Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) or Hywel ap Cadell (c.880 – 950) was a King of Deheubarth who eventually came to rule most of Wales.

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Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch

The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW; "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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Iolo Morganwg

Edward Williams, better known by his bardic name Iolo Morganwg (10 March 1747 – 18 December 1826), was an influential Welsh antiquarian, poet, collector, and literary forger.

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Irish mythology

The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity.

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Irminism (German: Irminenschaft or Irminenreligion) is a current of Ariosophy based on a Germanic deity Irmin supposedly reconstructed from literaric, linguistic and onomastic sources.

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An Irminsul (Old Saxon, probably "great/mighty pillar" or "arising pillar") was a sacral pillar-like object attested as playing an important role in the Germanic paganism of the Saxon people.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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John Aubrey

John Aubrey (12 March 1626 – 7 June 1697) was an English antiquary, natural philosopher and writer.

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John O'Donovan (scholar)

John O'Donovan (Seán Ó Donnabháin; 25 July 1806 – 10 December 1861), from Atateemore, in the parish of Kilcolumb, County Kilkenny, and educated at Hunt's Academy, Waterford, was an Irish language scholar from Ireland.

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John Toland

John Toland (30 November 1670 – 11 March 1722) was an Irish rationalist philosopher and freethinker, and occasional satirist, who wrote numerous books and pamphlets on political philosophy and philosophy of religion, which are early expressions of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Jupiter (mythology)

Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.

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La Scala

La Scala (abbreviation in Italian language for the official name Teatro alla Scala) is an opera house in Milan, Italy.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lóegaire is a given name.

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Lóegaire mac Néill

Lóegaire (floruit fifth century) (reigned 428–458 AD, according to the Annals of the Four Masters of the Kingdom of Ireland)(died c. 462), also Lóeguire, is said to have been a son of Niall of the Nine Hostages.

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Lebor Gabála Érenn

Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is a collection of poems and prose narratives that purports to be a history of Ireland and the Irish from the creation of the world to the Middle Ages.

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Lindow Man

Lindow Man, also known as Lindow II and (in jest) as Pete Marsh, is the preserved bog body of a man discovered in a peat bog at Lindow Moss near Wilmslow in Cheshire, North West England.

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List of Graeco-Roman geographers

;Pre-Hellenistic Classical Greece.

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Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in Hispania Baetica.

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Magic (supernatural)

Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.

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Martin of Tours

Saint Martin of Tours (Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 or 336 – 8 November 397) was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.

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In Greek mythology, Medea (Μήδεια, Mēdeia, მედეა) was the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, niece of Circe, granddaughter of the sun god Helios.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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Metempsychosis (μετεμψύχωσις) is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle Welsh

Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.

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Milesians (Irish)

In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Milesians are the final race to settle in Ireland.

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Miranda Aldhouse-Green

Miranda Jane Aldhouse-Green, (née Aldhouse; born 24 July 1947) is a British archaeologist and academic.

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Modern Paganism

Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Mug Ruith

Mug Ruith (or Mogh Roith, "slave of the wheel") is a figure in Irish mythology, a powerful blind druid of Munster who lived on Valentia Island, County Kerry.

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Munster (an Mhumhain / Cúige Mumhan,.

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Mythological Cycle

The Mythological Cycle is a conventional division within Irish mythology, concerning a set of tales about the godlike peoples said to have arrived in five migratory invasions into Ireland and principally recounting the doings of the Tuatha Dé Danann.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Nennius — or Nemnius or Nemnivus — was a Welsh monk of the 9th century.

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Nora K. Chadwick

Nora Kershaw Chadwick CBE FSA FBA (28 January 1891 – 24 April 1972) was an English medievalist.

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Norma (opera)

Norma is a tragedia lirica or opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini with libretto by Felice Romani after Norma, ou L'infanticide (Norma, or The Infanticide) by Alexandre Soumet.

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Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges

Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges (18 March 1830 – 12 September 1889) was a French historian.

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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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Ollamh Érenn

The Ollamh Érenn or Chief Ollam of Ireland was a professional title of Gaelic Ireland.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

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Oral literature

Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.

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Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids

The Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids or OBOD is a Neo-Druidic organisation based in England, but based in part on the Welsh Gorsedd of Bards.

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Ossian (Irish Gaelic/Scottish Gaelic: Oisean) is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Pomponius Mela

Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer.

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Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience.

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In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.

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Proto-Celtic language

The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Proto-Indo-European religion

Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.

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Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.

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Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Ribemont-sur-Ancre is a commune in the Somme département in Hauts-de-France in northern France.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Gaul

Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Ronald Hutton

Ronald Hutton (born 1953) is an English historian who specialises in the study of Early Modern Britain, British folklore, pre-Christian religion and contemporary Paganism.

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Royal Irish Academy

The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) (Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann), based in Dublin, is an all-Ireland independent academic body that promotes study and excellence in the sciences, and humanities and social sciences.

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Sacred grove

A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.

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Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.

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Saint Patrick

Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.

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Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Stuart Piggott

Stuart Ernest Piggott,, FRSE FSA Scot (28 May 1910 – 23 September 1996) was a British archaeologist, best known for his work on prehistoric Wessex.

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Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

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Sulpicius Severus

Sulpicius Severus (c. 363 – c. 425) was a Christian writer and native of Aquitania in modern-day France.

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The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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T. D. Kendrick

Sir Thomas Downing "T.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Tadg mac Nuadat

Tadg, son of Nuada, was a druid and the maternal grandfather of Fionn mac Cumhail in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology.

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In Celtic mythology Taranis was the god of thunder worshipped primarily in Gaul, Gallaecia, the British Isles, but also in the Rhineland and Danube regions, amongst others.

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Táin Bó Cúailnge

Táin Bó Cúailnge ("the driving-off of cows of Cooley", commonly known as The Cattle Raid of Cooley or The Táin) is a legendary tale from early Irish literature which is often considered an epic, although it is written primarily in prose rather than verse.

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The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors.

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The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn

The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn (Macgnímartha Finn) is a medieval Irish narrative belonging to the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology.

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The Druid Order

The Druid Order is a contemporary druidry fraternal order, founded in 1909 by George MacGregor-Reid in the United Kingdom.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Threefold death

The threefold death, which is suffered by kings, heroes, and gods, is a putatively Proto-Indo-European theme, reconstructed from medieval accounts of Celtic and Germanic mythology and archaeologically attested from ancient bodies such as Lindow Man.

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Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.

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Tlachtga was a powerful druid in Irish mythology.

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Tory Island

Tory Island, or simply Tory (officially known by its Irish name Toraigh), is an island off the north-west coast of County Donegal in Ulster, Ireland, and is the most remote inhabited island of Ireland.

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Toutatis or Teutates was a Celtic god worshipped in ancient Gaul and Britain.

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Tragic hero

A tragic hero is the protagonist of a tragedy in drama.

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Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.

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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Tuatha Dé Danann

The Tuath(a) Dé Danann (usually translated as "people(s)/tribe(s) of the goddess Dana or Danu", also known by the earlier name Tuath Dé ("tribe of the gods"),Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2006. pp.1693-1695 are a supernatural race in Irish mythology. They are thought to represent the main deities of pre-Christian Gaelic Ireland. The Tuatha Dé Danann constitute a pantheon whose attributes appeared in a number of forms all across the Celtic world. The Tuath Dé dwell in the Otherworld but interact with humans and the human world. Their traditional rivals are the Fomoire (or Fomorii), sometimes anglicized as Fomorians, who seem to represent the harmful or destructive powers of nature. Each member of the Tuath Dé has been associated with a particular feature of life or nature, but many appear to have more than one association. Many also have bynames, some representing different aspects of the deity and others being regional names or epithets. Much of Irish mythology was recorded by Christian monks, who modified it to an extent. They often depicted the Tuath Dé as kings, queens and heroes of the distant past who had supernatural powers or who were later credited with them. Other times they were explained as fallen angels who were neither good nor evil. However, some medieval writers acknowledged that they were once gods. A poem in the Book of Leinster lists many of them, but ends "Although enumerates them, he does not worship them". The Dagda's name is explained as meaning "the good god"; Brigit is called "a goddess worshipped by poets"; while Goibniu, Credne and Luchta are referred to as Trí Dé Dána ("three gods of craftsmanship"), Characters such as Lugh, the Morrígan, Aengus and Manannán mac Lir appear in tales set centuries apart, showing all the signs of immortality. They also have parallels in the pantheons of other Celtic peoples: for example Nuada is cognate with the British god Nodens; Lugh is cognate with the pan-Celtic god Lugus; Brigit with Brigantia; Tuirenn with Taranis; Ogma with Ogmios; and the Badb with Catubodua. The Tuath Dé eventually became the Aos Sí or "fairies" of later folklore.

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Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Cycle

The Ulster Cycle (an Rúraíocht), formerly known as the Red Branch Cycle, one of the four great cycles of Irish mythology, is a body of medieval Irish heroic legends and sagas of the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster and northern Leinster, particularly counties Armagh, Down and Louth, and taking place around or before the 1st century AD.

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Uraicecht Becc

Uraicecht Becc (Old Irish for "Small Primer"; uraicecht is a variant of airaiccecht, 'primer') is an Old Irish legal tract on status.

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Vincenzo Bellini

Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".

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Vortigern (Old Welsh Guorthigirn, Guorthegern; Gwrtheyrn; Wyrtgeorn; Old Breton Gurdiern, Gurthiern; Foirtchern; Vortigernus, Vertigernus, Uuertigernus, etc), also spelled Vortiger, Vortigan, and Vortigen, was possibly a 5th-century warlord in Britain, known perhaps as a king of the Britons, at least connoted as such in the writings of Bede.

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Wales in the High Middle Ages

Wales in the High Middle Ages covers the 11th to 13th centuries in Welsh history.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Wicker man

A wicker man was a large wicker statue reportedly used by the ancient Druids (priests of Celtic paganism) for sacrifice by burning it in effigy.

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William Blake

William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.

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William Price (physician)

William Price (4 March 1800 – 23 January 1893) was a Welsh physician known for his support of Welsh nationalism, Chartism and his involvement with the Neo-Druidic religious movement.

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William Stukeley

William Stukeley (7 November 1687 – 3 March 1765) was an English antiquarian, physician, and Anglican clergyman.

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The wrens are mostly small, brownish passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae.

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Wren Day

Wren Day, also known as Wren's Day, Day of the Wren, or Hunt the Wren Day (Lá an Dreoilín), is celebrated on 26 December, St. Stephen's Day.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Druid

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