45 relations: Adjuvant therapy, Areola, Arm, Basement membrane, Biopsy, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast cancer screening, Cancer, Cancer registry, Chemical substance, Chemotherapy, Child, Cochrane Library, Comedocarcinoma, Epithelium, Estrogen receptor, Genealogy, Grading (tumors), Hormone therapy, Hyperplasia, In situ, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Lactiferous duct, Lumpectomy, Malignancy, Mammography, Mastectomy, Menopause, Menstruation, Microcalcification, National Cancer Institute, Nipple, Orange (fruit), Quadrant (plane geometry), Radiation, Radiation therapy, Sentinel lymph node, Skin, Survival rate, Swelling (medical), Systematic review, Tamoxifen, Toxicity, Watchful waiting.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
The human areola (areola mammae, in. or) is the pigmented area on the breast around the nipple.
In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A cancer registry is a systematic collection of data about cancer and tumor diseases.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Comedocarcinoma is one kind of breast cancer which is most commonly very early-stage which demonstrates central necrosis.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
In pathology, grading is a measure of the cell appearance in tumors and other neoplasms.
Hormone therapy or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment.
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (founded in 1893) is the academic medical teaching and research arm of the Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876.
Lactiferous ducts are those ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules of the mammary gland.
Lumpectomy (sometimes known as a tylectomy) is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast, usually in the treatment of malignant tumor or breast cancer.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.
Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Microcalcifications are tiny specks of mineral deposits (calcium), that can be scattered throughout the mammary gland, or occur in clusters.They can also be found in the prostate in men and lead to prostatic hyperplasia.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
The axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system divide the plane into four infinite regions, called quadrants, each bounded by two half-axes.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes draining a cancer.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Survival rate is a part of survival analysis.
In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Watchful waiting (also watch and wait or WAW) is an approach to a medical problem in which time is allowed to pass before medical intervention or therapy is used.