349 relations: Abolition of monarchy, Albert II of Belgium, António José de Ávila, 1st Duke of Ávila and Bolama, Appanage, Archduke, Archon, Auguste, Duke of Leuchtenberg, Austria, Árpád dynasty, Łęczyca, Battle of Bosworth Field, Battle of Mohács, Baudouin of Belgium, Bavaria, Belgium, Bosnia (region), Brussels, Burgundy, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, Caliphate of Córdoba, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Carolingian dynasty, Catholic Church, Celts, Central Java, Channel Islands, Christian, Cleph, Confucius, Conquest of Ceuta, Constantine I of Greece, Count, Counts and dukes of Aumale, County of Portugal, Courtesy title, Crusader states, Cybo, Danish language, Demesne, Despot (court title), Despotate of the Morea, Dithmarschen, Doge, Duchies in Sweden, Duchy, Duchy of Amalfi, Duchy of Athens, Duchy of Brittany, Duchy of Brunswick, ..., Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchy of Brzeg, Duchy of Cleves, Duchy of Cornwall, Duchy of Ferrara, Duchy of Friedland, 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The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in the government of a country.
Albert II (born 6 June 1934) reigned as the sixth King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013.
António José de Ávila (Matriz, Horta; 8 March 1807 – 3 May 1881) was a Portuguese politician, minister of the kingdom, mayor of the city of Horta, on the island of Faial, in the Azores, Civil Governor of the same, Peer-of-the-Realm, Minister of State, and later Ambassador to Spain.
An appanage or apanage (pronounced) or apanage is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture.
Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: Erzherzog, feminine form: Erzherzogin) was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty.
Archon (ἄρχων, árchon, plural: ἄρχοντες, árchontes) is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office.
Auguste Charles Eugène Napoléon, Duke of Leuchtenberg (9 December 1810 – 28 March 1835) was the first prince consort of Maria II of Portugal.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Árpáds or Arpads (Árpádok, Arpadovići, translit, Arpádovci, Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301.
Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca; Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca; לונטשיץ) is a town of 14,362 inhabitants in central Poland.
The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
Baudouin (Boudewijn, Balduin; 7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) reigned as the fifth King of the Belgians, following his father's abdication, from 1951 until his death in 1993.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bosnia (Bosna/Босна) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Palaiologoi dynasty in a period spanning from 1261 to 1453 AD, from the restoration of Byzantine rule to Constantinople by the usurper Michael VIII Palaiologos following its recapture from the Latin Empire, founded after the Fourth Crusade (1204), up to the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire.
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Java (Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is a province of Indonesia.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Cleph (also Clef, Clepho, or Kleph) was king of the Lombards from 572 to 574.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
The conquest of Ceuta by the Portuguese on 21 August 1415 marks an important step in the beginning of the Portuguese Empire in Africa.
Constantine I (Κωνσταντίνος Αʹ, Konstantínos I; – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
The County of Aumale, later elevated to a duchy, was a medieval fief in Normandy.
The County of Portugal (Condado de Portugal, Condado Portucalense, Condado de Portucale; in documents of the period the name used was Portugalia) refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga and Porto, today corresponding to littoral northern Portugal. It is the first state within which the identity of the Portuguese people formed, there the first Portuguese nation state and a predecessor to modern Portugal. The county existed from the mid-ninth to the mid-eleventh centuries as a vassalage of the Kingdom of Asturias and later the Kingdoms of Galicia and León, before being abolished as a result of a rebellion against the king of Galicia. A larger entity under the same name was then reestablished by the king of León in the late 11th century and lasted until the mid-12th century when its count elevated it into an independent Kingdom of Portugal.
A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children of members of the nobility (c.f. substantive title).
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Cybo, Cibo or Cibei family of Italy is an aristocratic family from Genoa of Greek origin.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In the feudal system, the demesne was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants.
Despot or despotes (from δεσπότης, despótēs, "lord", "master") was a senior Byzantine court title that was bestowed on the sons or sons-in-law of reigning emperors, and initially denoted the heir-apparent.
The Despotate of the Morea (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μορέως) or Despotate of Mystras (Δεσποτᾶτον τοῦ Μυστρᾶ) was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries.
Dithmarschen (Low Saxon pronunciation:, archaic English: Ditmarsh, Ditmarsken, Medieval Latin: Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
A doge (plural dogi or doges) was an elected lord and chief of state in many of the Italian city-states during the medieval and renaissance periods.
Duchies in Sweden have been allotted since the 13th century to powerful Swedes, almost always to princes of Sweden (only in some of the dynasties) and wives of the latter.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
The Duchy of Amalfi (Ducato di Amalfi) or the Republic of Amalfi (Repubblica di Amalfi) was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries.
The Duchy of Athens (Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, Doukaton Athinon; Catalan: Ducat d'Atenes) was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia, and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
The Duchy of Brunswick (Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Brzeg (Księstwo Brzeskie) or Duchy of Brieg (Herzogtum Brieg), (Knížectví Břežské) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, created in 1311 during the fragmentation of the Duchy of Wrocław.
The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve; Hertogdom Kleef) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau (de).
The Duchy of Cornwall (Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Duchy of Ferrara (Ducato di Ferrara) was a sovereign state in what is now northern Italy.
Duchy of Friedland (Czech: Frýdlantské vévodství, German: Herzogtum Friedland) was a de facto sovereign duchy in Bohemia.
The Duchy of Gaeta was an early medieval state centered on the coastal South Italian city of Gaeta.
The Duchy of Krumlov (Krumau in German) was a titular duchy in the southern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia, comprising the town of Český Krumlov and its surrounding territories, now in the Czech Republic.
The Duchy of Lancaster is, since 1399, the private estate of the British sovereign as Duke of Lancaster.
The Duchy of Legnica (Księstwo Legnickie, Lehnické knížectví) or Duchy of Liegnitz (Herzogtum Liegnitz) was one of the Duchies of Silesia.
The Duchy of Mantua was a duchy in Lombardy, Northern Italy, subject to the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
The Duchy of Modena and Reggio (Ducato di Modena e Reggio, Ducatus Mutinae et Regii) was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1814) when Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy, then under the domination of his French Empire.
The Duchy of Naples (Ducatus Neapolitanus, Ducato di Napoli) began as a Byzantine province that was constituted in the seventh century, in the reduced coastal lands that the Lombards had not conquered during their invasion of Italy in the sixth century.
The Duchy of Nassau (German: Herzogtum Nassau), or simply Nassau, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse.
The Duchy of Neopatras (Ducat de Neopàtria; Δουκάτο Νέων Πατρών; Ducatus Neopatriae) was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the sacking and conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade.
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512.
Duchy of Racibórz (Herzogtum Ratibor, Ratibořské knížectví) was one of the duchies of Silesia.
The Duchy of Schleswig (Hertugdømmet Slesvig; Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: Sleswig; North Frisian: Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark.
The Duchy of Surabaya (Indonesian and Javanese: Kadipaten Surabaya) was a Javanese principality centered in Surabaya, on the northeastern coast of Java (in today's East Java, Indonesia), that existed as an independent polity from to 1625.
The Duchy of the Archipelago (Ducato dell'arcipelago, Δουκάτο του Αρχιπελάγους), or also Duchy of Naxos (Ducato di Nasso, Δουκάτο της Νάξου) or Duchy of the Aegean (Ducato dell'Egeo, Δουκάτο του Αιγαίου), was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros.
The Duchy of Zator was one of many Duchies of Silesia.
Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor.
The Duke of Aquitaine (Duc d'Aquitània, Duc d'Aquitaine) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English, and later French kings.
The Dukedom of Aveiro was an aristocratic Portuguese title, granted in 1535 by King John III of Portugal to his 4th cousin, John of Lencastre, son of Infante George of Lencastre, a natural son of King John II of Portugal.
This was a Portuguese Nobility title granted by King Luís I of Portugal to António José de Ávila, 1st Duke of Ávila and Bolama, a remarkable Portuguese politician and ambassador during the liberal period.
The Dukes of Barcelos was a title of nobility granted by King Sebastian of Portugal on 5 August 1562 to the heir of the Duke of Braganza.
Duke of Bedford (named after Bedford, England) is a title that has been created six times (for five distinct people) in the Peerage of England.
Duke of Beja (in Portuguese Duque de Beja) was an aristocratic Portuguese title and royal dukedom, associated with the Portuguese Royal House.
The Duke of Brabant was formally the ruler of the Duchy of Brabant since 1183/1184.
The title Duke of Braganza (Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal.
Duke of Buckingham, referring to Buckingham, is a title that has been created several times in the peerages of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom.
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
Duke of Cambridge, one of several royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom, is a hereditary title of specific rank of nobility in the British Royal Family.
Duke of Clarence is a substantive title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the British royal family.
Duke of Coimbra (Duque de Coimbra) was an aristocratic Portuguese title with the level of royal dukedom, that is, associated with the Portuguese royal house, created in 1415, by King John I of Portugal to his 2nd male son, Infante Pedro.
The title of Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was granted by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to her third son, Prince Arthur, on 24 May 1874.
Duke of Cornwall is a title in the Peerage of England, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch, previously the English monarch.
Duke of Cumberland is a peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British Royal Family, named after the former county of Cumberland (now Cumbria).
Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, is a substantive title that has been created three times for members of the British royal family since 1726.
The title Duke of Exeter was created several times in England in the later Middle Ages, when Exeter was the main town of Devon.
Duke of Finland (in Finnish Suomen herttua; Swedish hertig av Finland) was an occasional medieval title granted as a tertiogeniture to the relatives of the King of Sweden between the 13th and 16th centuries.
Duke of Gloucester is a British royal title (after Gloucester), often conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch.
Duke of Hereford was a title in the Peerage of England.
Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, also known as Ducal Holstein, that were ruled by the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp.
The title of Duke of Ireland was created in 1386 for Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford (1362–1392), the favourite of King Richard II of England, who had previously been created Marquess of Dublin.
The title of Duke of Kent has been created several times in the peerages of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, most recently as a royal dukedom for the fourth son of King George V.
Duke of Lafões (in Portuguese Duque de Lafões) was a Portuguese title of nobility created under the decree of February 17, 1718, of King John V of Portugal and granted to his nephew, ''Dom'' Pedro Henrique de Bragança, son of the Infante Miguel de Bragança, an illegitimate son of King Peter II of Portugal and Anne Armande Pastre de Verger, though Pedro's mother, Luisa Casimira de Sousa Nassau e Ligne was the first to use this title.The title was later passed on to his brother, João Carlos de Bragança e Ligne de Sousa Tavares Mascarenhas da Silva, the most famous Duke of this title.
The Duke of Lancaster is the owner of the estates of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Dukes of Miranda do Corvo (in Portuguese Duque de Miranda do Corvo) was a Portuguese title of nobility granted by Queen Maria I of Portugal, by a royal decree dated from May 13, 1796, to ''Dom'' José João Miguel de Bragança e Ligne, 1st Duke of Miranda do Corvo, who died in 1801, before his father, João Carlos de Bragança e Ligne de Sousa Tavares Mascarenhas da Silva, 2nd Duke of Lafões.
The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
Duke of Porto (Portuguese Duque do Porto) is a royaly-held noble title of Portuguese nobility.
The Dukedoms of Richmond (in the peerage of England) and of Lennox (in the peerage of Scotland) have usually been held by the same person since 1623.
The title Duke of Ross has been created twice in the Peerage of Scotland, both times for younger sons of the King of Scotland.
Duke of Rothesay (Diùc Baile Bhòid, Duik o Rothesay) is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles.
The title of Duke of Saint-Cloud was created in 1674.
Duke of Somerset is a title in the peerage of England that has been created several times.
Duke of Sparta (Δοὺξ τῆς Σπάρτης) was a title instituted in 1868 to designate the Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Greece.
The Duke of Spoleto was the ruler of Spoleto and most of central Italy outside the Papal States during the Early and High Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1300).
Duke of Suffolk is a title that has been created three times in the Peerage of England.
The Duke of Sussex is a substantive title, one of several royal dukedoms, that has been created twice in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The title Duke of the Franks (dux Francorum) has been used for three different offices, always with "duke" implying military command and "prince", on those occasions when it was used either with or in preference to "duke", implying something approaching sovereign or regalian rights.
The Dukes of Torres Novas (in Portuguese Duque de Torres Novas) was an aristocratic Portuguese title granted by King Philip II of Portugal, also known as Philip III of Spain, by a royal decree of September 26, 1619, to George of Lencastre, 1st Duke of Torres Novas, who died before his parents, Juliana and Álvaro of Lencastre of Lencastre, 3rd Dukes of Aveiro.
Duke of Viseu (in Portuguese Duque de Viseu) was a Portuguese Royal Dukedom created in 1415 by King John I of Portugal for his third male child, Henry the Navigator, following the conquest of Ceuta.
The Duke of Windsor was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Duke of Yansheng, literally "Duke Overflowing with Sagacity", sometimes translated as Holy Duke of Yen, was a Chinese title of nobility.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
Dux (plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank.
An ealdorman (from Old English ealdorman, lit. "elder man"; plural: "ealdormen") was a high-ranking royal official and prior magistrate of an Anglo-Saxon shire or group of shires from about the ninth century to the time of King Cnut.
An earl is a member of the nobility.
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Edo (with diacritics, Ẹ̀dó; also called Bini (Benin)) is a Volta–Niger language spoken primarily in Edo State, Nigeria.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward of Woodstock, known as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), was the eldest son of Edward III, King of England, and Philippa of Hainault and participated in the early years of the Hundred Years War.
Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.
In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire arose when King-Emperor Edward VIII proposed to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing the divorce of her second.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Emperor Lizong of Song (26 January 1205 – 16 November 1264), personal name Zhao Yun, was the 14th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the fifth emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay.
The Ernestine duchies, also known as the Saxon duchies (although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changing number of small states that were largely located in the present-day German state of Thuringia and governed by dukes of the Ernestine line of the House of Wettin.
Esterházy (also spelled Eszterházy) is a Hungarian noble family with origins in the Middle Ages.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Sir Frank Merry Stenton (17 May 1880 – 15 September 1967) was a 20th-century historian of Anglo-Saxon England, and president of the Royal Historical Society (1937–1945).
The Frankokratia (Φραγκοκρατία, Frankokratía, Anglicized as "Francocracy", "rule of the Franks"), also known as Latinokratia (Λατινοκρατία, Latinokratía, "rule of the Latins") and, for the Venetian domains, Venetocracy (Βενετοκρατία, Venetokratía or Ενετοκρατία, Enetokratia), was the period in Greek history after the Fourth Crusade (1204), when a number of primarily French and Italian Crusader states were established on the territory of the dissolved Byzantine Empire (see Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae).
A gastald (Latin gastaldus or castaldus, Italian gastaldo or guastaldo) was a Lombard official in charge of some portion of the royal demesne (a gastaldate, gastaldia or castaldia) with civil, martial, and judicial powers.
Germanic kingship is a thesis regarding the role of kings among the pre-Christianized Germanic tribes of the Migration period (c. 300–700 AD) and Early Middle Ages (c. 700–1,000 AD).
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
A grand duchy is a country or territory whose official head of state or ruler is a monarch bearing the title of grand duke or grand duchess.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The monarchic title of grand duke (feminine: grand duchess) ranked in order of precedence below emperor and king, and above that of sovereign prince and sovereign duke.
Grandee (Grande,; Grande) is an official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility and, to a lesser extent, Portuguese nobility.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Gustav III (– 29 March 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.
is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden.
Hayam Wuruk, also called (after 1350) Rajasanagara, Pa-ta-na-pa-na-wu, or Bhatara Prabhu, (1334–1389), was a Javanese Hindu King from the Rajasa Dynasty and the fourth monarch of the Indianised Majapahit Empire.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henry Christophe (6 October 1767 – 8 October 1820) was a former slave of Bambara ethnicity in West Africa, and perhaps of Igbo descent, and key leader in the Haitian Revolution, which succeeded in gaining independence from France in 1804.
Henry de Beauchamp, 14th Earl and 1st Duke of Warwick (21 March 1425 – 11 June 1446) was an English nobleman.
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, KG (c. 1310 – 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Herzog is a German hereditary title held by one who rules a territorial duchy, exercises feudal authority over an estate called a duchy, or possesses a right by law or tradition to be referred to by the ducal title.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Ascania (Askanier) is a dynasty of German rulers.
The House of Este (Casa d'Este; originally House of Welf-Este) is a European princely dynasty.
The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy.
The House of Glücksburg (also spelled Glücksborg), shortened from House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, is a Dano-German branch of the House of Oldenburg, members of which have reigned at various times in Denmark, Norway, Greece and several northern German states.
The House of Gonzaga was a princely family that ruled Mantua, in northern Italy, from 1328 to 1708; they also ruled Monferrato in Piedmont and Nevers in France, and also many other lesser fiefs throughout Europe.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.
The House of Mecklenburg, also known as Nikloting, is a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918 in the Mecklenburg region, being among the longest-ruling families of Europe.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
The House of Nassau is a diversified aristocratic dynasty in Europe.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg was a branch of the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg of the House of Oldenburg.
The House of Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
The House of Wettin is a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and kings that once ruled territories in the present-day German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ife (Ifè, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (Elena María Isabel Dominica de Silos de Borbón y de Grecia; born 20 December 1963) is the first child and elder daughter of King Juan Carlos I of Spain and Queen Sofía of Spain, and third in the line of succession to the Spanish throne.
Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria, Duchess of Hernani, Grandee of Spain (Margarita María de la Victoria Esperanza Jacoba Felicidad Perpetua de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born 6 March 1939), is the younger sister of King Juan Carlos and aunt of the reigning King Felipe VI of Spain.
Infanta Pilar of Spain, Duchess of Badajoz, Dowager Viscountess of la Torre (Spanish: María del Pilar Alfonsa Juana Victoria Luisa Ignacia y Todos los Santos de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias; born 30 July 1936), sometimes known more simply as Pilar de Borbón is the elder daughter of Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona and Princess María Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and older sister of King Juan Carlos I. She has also a younger sister, Infanta Margarita of Spain.
Infante (f. infanta), also anglicised as Infant or translated as Prince, is the title and rank given in the Iberian kingdoms of Spain (including the predecessor kingdoms of Aragon, Castile, Navarre and León), and Portugal, to the sons and daughters (infantas) of the king, sometimes with the exception of the heir apparent to the throne who usually bears a unique princely or ducal title.
A jagir (IAST: Jāgīr), also spelled as jageer, was a type of feudal land grant in South Asia at the foundation of its Jagirdar system.
John Corvinus (Hungarian: Corvin János, Croatian: Ivaniš Korvin; 2 April 1473 – 12 October 1504) was the illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, and his mistress, Barbara Edelpöck.
John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, KG (27 September 1442 – 14~21 May 1492), was a major magnate in 15th-century England.
John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (c. 1425 – 22 August 1485), was an English nobleman, soldier, politician, and the first Howard Duke of Norfolk.
John I (João, ʒuˈɐ̃w̃; 11 April 1357 – 14 August 1433) was King of Portugal and the Algarve in 1385–1433.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English nobleman, soldier, statesman, and prince, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England.
John of Gravina (1294 – 5 April 1336), Count of Gravina 1315–1336, Prince of Achaea 1318-1332, Duke of Durazzo 1332–1336 and ruler of the Kingdom of Albania (although he never used a royal title), was a younger son of Charles II of Naples and Maria of Hungary.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
Kalisz (Old Greek: Καλισία, Latin: Calisia, Yiddish: קאַליש, Kalisch) is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants (December 2017), the capital city of the Kalisz Region.
Karl Topia was an Albanian feudal prince and warlord who ruled Albania from the middle of the 14th century until the first Ottoman conquest of Albania.
The katepánō (κατεπάνω, lit. " placed at the top", or " the topmost") was a senior Byzantine military rank and office.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
The Kingdom of Albania (Regnum Albaniae) was established by Charles of Anjou in the Albanian territories he conquered from the Byzantine Empire in 1271.
The Kingdom of Benin, also known as the Benin Kingdom, was a pre-colonial kingdom in what is now southern Nigeria.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kuyavia (Kujawy, Kujawien, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
Langres is a commune in northeastern France.
Laon is the capital city of the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France, northern France.
Lasem (لاسم, also Romanized as Lāsem and Lasm; also known as Lishan) is a village in Bala Larijan Rural District, Larijan District, Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leopold III (3 November 1901 – 25 September 1983) reigned as the fourth King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, KG (29 November 133817 October 1368) was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainault.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This page lists all dukedoms, extant, extinct, dormant, abeyant, or forfeit, in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
This is a list of the Dukes and Princes of Benevento.
This is a list of the 31 present and extant dukes in the peerages of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1927 and after.
This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia.
This article lists the Counts, Dukes, Electors, and Kings who ruled over different territories named Württemberg from the beginning of the County of Württemberg in the 11th century to the end of the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1918.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lolland (formerly spelled Laaland, literally "low land") is the fourth largest island of Denmark, with an area of.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias (25 August 1803 – 7 May 1880), nicknamed "the Peacemaker" and "Iron Duke", was an army officer, politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
Mangkunegaran is a small Javanese princely state located within the region of Surakarta in Indonesia.
Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.
Dona Maria II (4 April 1819 – 15 November 1853) "the Educator" ("a Educadora") or "the Good Mother" ("a Boa Mãe"), was Queen regnant of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1826 to 1828, and again from 1834 to 1853.
Massa is a town and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, the administrative centre of the province of Massa and Carrara.
The Mataram conquest of Surabaya or Mataram-Surabaya War was a military campaign by the Sultanate of Mataram in the early 17th century that resulted in the capture of the Duchy of Surabaya (Kadipaten Surabaya) and its allies in eastern Java, in modern-day Indonesia.
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java before the island was colonised by the Dutch.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (maior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
The megas doux (μέγας δούξ; grand duke) was one of the highest positions in the hierarchy of the later Byzantine Empire, denoting the commander-in-chief of the Byzantine navy.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Napoléon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (20 March 181122 July 1832), Prince Imperial, King of Rome, known in the Austrian court as Franz from 1814 onward, Duke of Reichstadt from 1818, was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Oba of Benin is the traditional ruler of the Edo people and all Edoid people and head of the historic Eweka dynasty of the Benin Empire - a West African empire centred on Benin City, in modern-day Nigeria.
Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria.
Pakualaman (also written Paku Alaman) is a small Javanese princely state within the Sultanate of Yogyakarta.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions.
Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707.
The Peerage of France (Pairie de France) was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers.
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Acts of Union 1707 but before the Acts of Union 1800.
The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Peerage of Scotland (Moraireachd na h-Alba) is the section of the Peerage of the British Isles for those peers created by the King of Scots before 1707.
The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain.
Infante D. Pedro, Duke of Coimbra KG (Peter), (9 December 1392 – 20 May 1449) was a Portuguese ''infante'' (prince) of the House of Aviz, son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt.
Philip I of Taranto (10 November 1278 – 23 December 1332), of the Angevin house, was titular Latin Emperor of Constantinople (as Philip II), despot of Epirus, King of Albania, Prince of Achaea and Taranto, and Lord of Durazzo.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
The Pippinids or Arnulfings are the members of a family of Frankish nobles in the Pippinid dynasty.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Pomerelia (Pomerelia; Pomerellen, Pommerellen), also referred to as Eastern Pomerania (Pomorze Wschodnie) or as Gdańsk Pomerania (Pomorze Gdańskie), is a historical region in northern Poland.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
Prince Carl Philip of Sweden, Duke of Värmland (Carl Philip Edmund Bertil; born 13 May 1979) is the only son and the second of three children of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia.
Prince Charles of Belgium, Count of Flanders (10 October 1903 – 1 June 1983) was the second son of Albert I, King of the Belgians and Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
Prince or Princess of Asturias (Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title used by the heir apparent or heir presumptive to the throne of Spain.
A prince regent, or prince-regent, is a prince who rules a monarchy as regent instead of a monarch, e.g., as a result of the Sovereign's incapacity (minority or illness) or absence (remoteness, such as exile or long voyage, or simply no incumbent).
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
The Principality of Achaea or of the Morea was one of the three vassal states of the Latin Empire which replaced the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.
The Privy Purse is the British Sovereign's private income, mostly from the Duchy of Lancaster.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government (Daerah Tingkat I – level I region).
The provinces of Sweden (Sveriges landskap) are historical, geographical and cultural regions.
Rao (راؤ), is one of the cognate Hindi variations of the (originally Hindu) title Raja(h) (like Rawal and Rawat), used as equivalent royal style in certain princely states, notably of former British India.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
A reign is the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation (e.g., Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Andorra), of a people (e.g., the Franks, the Zulus) or of a spiritual community (e.g., Roman Catholicism, Tibetan Buddhism, Nizari Ismailism).
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Robert II of Taranto (1319 or early winter 1326 – 10 September 1364Peter Lock, The Franks in the Aegean: 1204-1500, (Routledge, 1988), 129.), of the Angevin family, Prince of Taranto (1332–1346), King of Albania (1332–1364), Prince of Achaea (1333–1346), and titular Latin Emperor (1343/1346-1364).
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Paris (Latin: Archidioecesis Parisiensis; French: Archidiocèse de Paris) is one of twenty-three archdioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims (Archidioecesis Remensis; French: Archidiocèse de Reims) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Rule of the Dukes was an interregnum in the Lombard Kingdom of Italy (574/5–584/5) during which Italy was ruled by the Lombard dukes of the old Roman provinces and urban centres.
Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.
Sandomierz (pronounced:; Tsoizmer צויזמער) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006), situated in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (since 1999).
Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was an Ernestine duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day states of Bavaria and Thuringia in Germany.
Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.
Södermanland, sometimes referred to under its Latin form Sudermannia or Sudermania, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Sieradz (Syradia, 1941-45 Schieratz) is a town on the Warta river in central Poland with 42,762 inhabitants (2016).
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silivri (Selymbria) is a city and a district in Istanbul Province along the Sea of Marmara in Turkey, outside metropolitan Istanbul, containing many holiday and weekend homes for residents of the city.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Stormarn was a gau which, alongside Holstein and Dithmarschen, was one of the three Northern Albingian Saxon gaus.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop.
Sultan Agung Adi Prabu Hanyakrakusuma (Javanese: ꦯꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦲꦒꦸꦁꦲꦢꦶꦦꦿꦧꦸꦲꦚꦏꦿꦏꦸꦱꦸꦩ, Sultan Agung Adi Prabu Hanyåkråkusumå) was the third Sultan of Mataram in Central Java ruling from 1613 to 1645.
Surakarta (ꦯꦸꦫꦏꦂꦠ, often called Solo or less common spelling Sala) is a city in Central Java.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The 1810 Act of Succession (1810 års successionsordning; in English literally The 1810 order of succession) is one of four Fundamental Laws of the Realm (rikets grundlagar) and thus forms part of the Swedish Constitution.
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
In the United Kingdom, a territorial designation follows modern peerage titles, linking them to a specific place or places.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Thai royal and noble titles are the royal and noble styles indicating relationship to the king which were introduced by King Trailokanat (reigned 1448–1488).
The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
The thiufa was the highest division of the Visigothic army in Hispania.
Thomas Hodgkin, FBA (29 July 1831 – 2 March 1913)Martin, G. H. (2004) in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was a British historian and biographer.
Thomas Holland, 1st Duke of Surrey, 3rd Earl of Kent, 4th Baron Holland, KG, Earl Marshal (1374 – 7 January 1400) was an English nobleman.
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443 – 21 May 1524), styled Earl of Surrey from 1483 to 1485 and again from 1489 to 1514, was an English nobleman and politician.
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, KG (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the fourteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, agreed to on 4 December 1259 ending 100 years of conflicts between the Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
The upper nobility (főnemesség, barones) was the highest stratum of the temporal society in the Kingdom of Hungary until 1946 when the Parliament passed an act that prohibited the use of noble titles, following the declaration of the Republic of Hungary.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland (Victoria Ingrid Alice Désirée; born 14 July 1977) is the heir apparent to the Swedish throne, as the eldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf.
Visconti is the family name of important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
A voivodeship is the area administered by a voivode (Governor) in several countries of central and eastern Europe.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Yogyakarta (also Jogja or Jogjakarta; ꦛꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ; formerly Dutch: Djokjakarta/Djocjakarta or Djokja) is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
Yorubaland is the cultural region of the Yoruba people in West Africa.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
Duc, Ducal, Ducem, Duche grand fief, Duche grand fief de l'Empire, Duche grand-fief, Duche grand-fief de l'Empire, Duche grands fief de l'Empire, Duche-grand fief, Duchess, Duchesses, Duché grand fief, Duché grand fief de l'Empire, Duché grand-fief, Duché grand-fief de l'Empire, Duché grands fief de l'Empire, Duché-grand fief, Dukal, Dukedom (rank), Dukes, Dutchesses, Gertsog, Herceg, Herttua, Herzogin, Papal Duke, Royal duchy, Royal duke, Royal dukes, Royale Duke, Titular duke, Titular duke (disambiguation).