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Dungan people

Index Dungan people

Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin. [1]

127 relations: Afaq Khoja, Afaqi Khoja revolts, Akhoond, Arabic, Australian National University, Ürümqi, Bai Yanhu, Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County, Bishkek, Bukhara, Central Asia, Central Plains Mandarin, China proper, Chinese people, Chu River, Chuy Region, Communist revolution, Cyrillic script, Denis Twitchett, Dowry, Dungan language, Dungan Revolt (1862–77), Dungan Revolt (1895–96), Edinburgh Review, Emperor of China, Endogamy, Ethnonym, Exorcism, Fergana Valley, Foot binding, Gansu, Guanzhong, Hami, Han Chinese, Henry Lansdell, Hui people, Ili River, Imam, Islam, Issyk-Kul Region, Ivanovka, Kyrgyzstan, Jahangir Khoja, Jambyl District, Jambyl, Jambyl Region, Jeti-Ögüz District, Joseph Fletcher (historian), Karakol, Karl Ernst von Baer, Kashgar, Kazakh language, ..., Kazakhstan, Khanate of Kokand, Khoja (Turkestan), Kim Ho-dong, Kokand, Kolkhoz, Korday District, Koryo-saram, Kublai Khan, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyzstan, Magaza Masanchi, Manas County, Marshall Broomhall, Milyanfan, Ming dynasty, Mullah, Multilingualism, Muslim, Names of China, Ningxia, Northwest China, Opium, Orenburg, Osh, Osh Region, Ottoman Empire, Owen Lattimore, Panthay Rebellion, Panthays, Persian language, Pinyin, Pristan'-Przheval'sk, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Qitai County, Queue (hairstyle), Red Army, Russia, Russian Census (2002), Russian language, Shaanxi, Snuff (tobacco), Sokuluk, Sokuluk District, Sortobe, Soviet Union, Sufism, Tajiks of Xinjiang, Taranchi, Taraz, The Cambridge History of China, The Courier-Mail, The Times, Thomas Edward Gordon, Tian Shan, Titular nation, Tokmok, Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881), Turkic languages, Turpan, Ulama, Uyghur language, Uyghurs, Varieties of Chinese, Wade–Giles, World War II, Xi'an, Xiao'erjing, Xinjiang, Yamen, Yaqub Beg, Yarkant County, Yining, Ysyk-Ata District, Yunnan, Zhongyuan. Expand index (77 more) »

Afaq Khoja

Afaq Khoja (1626 – 1694), born Hidayat Allah (هدایت‌الله), a.k.a. Apaq Xoja, or more properly Āfāq Khwāja (Persian: آفاق خواجه) was a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day southern Xinjiang, China).

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Afaqi Khoja revolts

During the early and mid-19th century in China, the Afaqi Khojas in the Khanate of Kokand (descended from Khoja Burhanuddin and ultimately from Afaq Khoja) unsuccessfully tried to invade Kashgar and regain Altishahr from the Qing dynasty.

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An akhoond (akhund or akhwand) (آخوند) is a Persian title for an Islamic cleric, common in Iran, Azerbaijan and some parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Australian National University

The Australian National University (ANU) is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia.

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Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.

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Bai Yanhu

Bai Yanhu also known as Mohammed Ayub Bianhu, was a Hui military commander and rebel from Shaanxi, China.

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Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County

Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County (Barköl Qazaq awtonomïyalıq awdanı, sometimes Barkul or Balikul in English) is part of Kumul Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and has an area of.

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Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).

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Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Plains Mandarin

Central Plains Mandarin, or Zhongyuan Mandarin, is a variety of Mandarin Chinese spoken in the central and southern parts of Shaanxi, Henan, southwestern part of Shanxi, southern part of Gansu, far southern part of Hebei, northern Anhui, northern parts of Jiangsu, southern Xinjiang and southern Shandong.

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China proper

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.

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Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.

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Chu River

The Chu (Shu or Chui, Chuy) (Шу/Şuw, شۋ; Чүй, Çüy, چۉي; Чў, Çw (from 楚 chǔ); Чу) is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan.

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Chuy Region

Chuy Region or Chui Region (Kyrgyz: Чүй облусу, Çüy oblusu; Чуйская область, Čujskaja oblastj) is the northernmost region (oblast) of the Kyrgyz Republic.

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Communist revolution

A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution often, but not necessarily inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Denis Twitchett

Denis Crispin Twitchett (23 September 192524 February 2006) was a British Sinologist and scholar who specialized in Chinese history, and is well known as one of the co-editors of The Cambridge History of China.

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A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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Dungan language

The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.

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Dungan Revolt (1862–77)

The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) or Tongzhi Hui Revolt (Xiao'erjing: توْجِ حُوِ بِيًا/لُوًا, Тунҗы Хуэй Бян/Луан) or Hui (Muslim) Minorities War was a mainly ethnic and religious war fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor (r. 1861–75) of the Qing dynasty.

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Dungan Revolt (1895–96)

The Dungan Revolt (189596) was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect.

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Edinburgh Review

The Edinburgh Review has been the title of four distinct intellectual and cultural magazines.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.

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An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.

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Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.

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Fergana Valley

The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.

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Foot binding

Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.

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Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River.

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Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Henry Lansdell

Henry Lansdell (10January 18414October 1919) was a nineteenth-century British priest in the Church of England.

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Hui people

The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.

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Ili River

Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili River (Ile, ئله; Или;; Йили хә, Xiao'erjing: اِلِ حْ;, literally "Bareness") is a river situated in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan.

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Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Issyk-Kul Region

Issyk-Kul Region (Ысык-Көл облусу, Isıq-Köl oblusu, ىسىق-كۅل وبلاستى; Иссык-Кульская область, Issyk-Kuljskaja oblastj) is one of the regions of Kyrgyzstan.

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Ivanovka, Kyrgyzstan

Ivanovka (Ивановка) is a village in the Ysyk-Ata District of the Chuy Region, of Kyrgyzstan, approximately midway between Tokmok and Kant.

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Jahangir Khoja

Jahanghir Khoja, Jāhangīr Khwāja, or Jihangir Khoja (جهانگیر خوجا, جهانگير خوجة,; 1788 – 1828) was a member of the influential East Turkestan Afaqi khoja clan, who managed to wrest Kashgaria from the Qing Empire's power for a few years in the 1820s.

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Jambyl District, Jambyl

Jambyl (Жамбыл ауданы) is a district of Jambyl Region in south-eastern Kazakhstan. The administrative center of the district is the auyl of Asy.

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Jambyl Region

Jambyl Region (Жамбыл облысы, Jambyl oblysy, جامبىل وبلىسى) is a region of Kazakhstan.

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Jeti-Ögüz District

Jeti-Ögüz or Jeti-Oguz (Жети-өгүз, seven bulls) is a raion (district) of Issyk-Kul Region in north-eastern Kyrgyzstan.

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Joseph Fletcher (historian)

Joseph F. Fletcher, Jr., usually referred to simply as Joseph Fletcher (1934 – 1984) was an American historian of China and Central Asia, a professor at East Asian Languages and Civilizations Department of Harvard University.

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Karakol (Каракол, Qaraqol/Karakol, قاراقول), formerly Przhevalsk, is the fourth largest city in Kyrgyzstan, near the eastern tip of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan, about from the Kyrgyzstan-China border and from the capital Bishkek.

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Karl Ernst von Baer

Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; –) was an Estonian scientist and explorer.

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Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

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Kazakh language

Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Khanate of Kokand

The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.

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Khoja (Turkestan)

Khoja or Khwaja, (Қожа, خوجا), a Persian word literally meaning 'master', was used in Central Asia as a title of the descendants of the noted Central Asian Naqshbandi Sufi teacher, Ahmad Kasani (1461–1542) or others in the Naqshbandi intellectual lineage prior to Baha al-din Naqshband.

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Kim Ho-dong

Kim Ho-dong (김호동; Hanja: 金浩東; often written in English-language literature as Hodong Kim or Ho-dong Kim) (born 1954) is a Korean historian, professor at Seoul National University.

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Kokand (Qo‘qon, Қўқон, قوقان; Xuqand; Chagatai: خوقند, Xuqand; Xökand) is a city in Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley.

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A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.

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Korday District

Korday (Қордай ауданы) is a district of Jambyl Region in south-eastern Kazakhstan.

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Koryo-saram (Корё сарам; 고려사람) or Koryoin (고려인) is the name which ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).

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Kyrgyz language

Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.

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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Magaza Masanchi

Magaza Masanchi (1886–1937; Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), Magaza Masanchin (Cyrillic Dungan: Магәзы Масанчын), or Ma Sanqi, was a Dungan Communist revolutionary commander and Statesman in the Soviet Union.

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Manas County

Manas County, also written Manass (Xiao'erjing: مَانَاسِ ﺷِﯿًﺎ) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region under the administration of the Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture.

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Marshall Broomhall

Marshall B. Broomhall (Chinese: 海恩波; 17 July 1866 – 24 October 1937), was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China with the China Inland Mission.

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Milyanfan (Милянфан; Милянфан; Милёнчуан) is a village in the Ysyk-Ata District of the Chuy Region of Kyrgyzstan.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mullah (ملا, Molla, ملا / Mollâ, Molla, মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".

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Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Names of China

The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its official language.

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Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.

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Northwest China

Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.

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Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).

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Orenburg (p) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia.

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Osh (Ош, Ош, O'sh) is the second largest city in Kyrgyzstan, located in the Fergana Valley in the south of the country and often referred to as the "capital of the south".

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Osh Region

Osh Region (Ош облусу, Oş oblusu/Osh oblusu, وش وبلاستى; Ошская область, Oshskaya oblast’/Ošskaja oblastj) is a region (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is Osh. It is bounded by (clockwise) Jalal-Abad Region, Naryn Region, Xinjiang, China, Tajikistan, Batken Region, and Uzbekistan.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Owen Lattimore

Owen Lattimore (July 29, 1900 – May 31, 1989) was an American author, educator, and influential scholar of China and Central Asia, especially Mongolia.

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Panthay Rebellion

The Panthay rebellion (1856–1873), known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion (Tu Wen-hsiu Rebellion), was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.

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Panthays form a group of Chinese Muslims in Burma.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

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Pristan'-Przheval'sk is an urban-type settlement in the Issyk-Kul Region of Kyrgyzstan.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.

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Qitai County

Qitai County (Xiao'erjing: ٿِتَیْ ﺷِﯿًﺎ), historically known as Gucheng (古城), is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China under the administration of the Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture.

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Queue (hairstyle)

The queue or cue is a Qing dynasty hairstyle most often worn by Chinese men.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Census (2002)

The Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да) was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Snuff (tobacco)

Snuff is a smokeless tobacco made from ground or pulverised tobacco leaves.

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Sokuluk (Сохўлў, Sohwlw; Kyrgyz, Сокулук) is a large village in the Chuy Region of Kyrgyzstan.

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Sokuluk District

Sokuluk District (Сокулук району; Сокулукский район) is a raion (district) of the Chuy Region in northern Kyrgyzstan.

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Shor-Tyube (Сортөбе, Sortobe; Сортобе, Sortobe; Щёртюбе) is an urban-type settlement in Korday District of Jambyl Region of Kazakhstan.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Tajiks of Xinjiang

Chinese Tajiks or Mountain Tajiks in China (Sarikoli:, Tujik), including Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.

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Taranchi is a term denoting the Muslim sedentary population living in oases around the Tarim Basin in today's Xinjiang, whose native language is Turkic Karluk, and whose ancestral heritages include Iranian and Tocharian populations of Tarim and the later Turkic peoples such as the Uyghurs, Karluks, Yaghmas, Chigils, Basmyls and lastly, the Mongolic tribes of the Chagatai Khanate.

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Taraz (Тараз) (known to Europeans as Talas) is a city and the administrative center of Jambyl Region in Kazakhstan, located on the Talas (Taraz) River in the south of the country near the border with Kyrgyzstan.

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The Cambridge History of China

The Cambridge History of China is an ongoing series of books published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the history of China from the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC to 1982.

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The Courier-Mail

The Courier-Mail is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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Thomas Edward Gordon

Sir Thomas Edward Gordon KCIE CB CSI (1832, Aberdeen – 1914) was a Scottish soldier, diplomat, and traveler.

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Tian Shan

The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

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Titular nation

The titular nation is the single dominant ethnic group in the state, typically after which the state was named.

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Tokmok (Токмок, Tokmok ('hammer'); Токмак, Tokmak) is a city in the Chuy Valley, northern Kyrgyzstan, east of the country's capital of Bishkek.

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Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881)

The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881), also known as Treaty of Ili, was the treaty between the Russian Empire and the Qing dynasty, signed in Saint Petersburg, Russia, on.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

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The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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Uyghur language

The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.

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The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script,, Xiao'erjing: بٌکٍْ; Бынҗин, Вьnⱬin), is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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A yamen (ya-men;; Manchu: yamun) was the administrative office or residence of a local bureaucrat or mandarin in imperial China.

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Yaqub Beg

Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ) (Яъқуб-бек, Ya’qub-bek) (182030 May 1877) was an adventurer of Tajik or Uzbek descent who was master of the Tarim Basin from 1865 to 1877.

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Yarkant County

Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.

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Yining, also known as Ghulja or Qulja (قۇلجا, Құлжа), and formerly Ningyuan is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.

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Ysyk-Ata District

Ysyk-Ata District (Ысык–Атинский район) is one of the eight districts of the Chuy Region in northern Kyrgyzstan.

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Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.

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Redirects here:

Chinese in Central Asia, Dongans (Chinese Muslims), Dungans, Tungans.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dungan_people

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