231 relations: Abdur Rahman Khan, Abdur Razzaq (Taliban Interior Minister), Act of Congress, Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office, Afghan National Army, Afghanistan, Afghanistan–Pakistan barrier, Afghanistan–Pakistan relations, Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes, AfPak, Al Jazeera English, Al-Zulfiqar, Ambassadors of the United States, Ancient history, Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919, Angur Ada, Arabic, Arabs, Arachosia, Arandu, Pakistan, Assault rifle, Associated Press, Bacha Khan, Bahawalpur, Baloch people, Balochistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bijan Omrani, Biometrics, British Indian Army, British Library, British Raj, Buffer zone, Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Cartography, Central Intelligence Agency, Chitral Scouts, Chronicle, Coercion, Company rule in India, Consumer, Controversy, Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, Copper, Council on Foreign Relations, Curzon Line, Daily Times (Pakistan), Dari language, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn News, ..., De facto, Delegate, Demarcation line, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Diktat, Dominion of India, Durrani Empire, Encyclopædia Britannica, English language, Fazal-ur-Rehman (politician), Fazlullah (militant leader), Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Firishta, First Anglo-Afghan War, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Foreign Policy, Foreign relations of Afghanistan, Formality, Frontier Regions, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Funding, Gemstone, Geo News, Geopolitics, George H. W. Bush, Geostrategy, Ghaznavids, Ghurid dynasty, Gilgit-Baltistan, Government of the United Kingdom, Governor-general, Greeks, Habibullah Khan, Hamid Karzai, Henry Dobbs, Henry McMahon, Herodotus, Hotak dynasty, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, India, Indigenous peoples, Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts, Indus River, Intelligence agency, Inter-Services Intelligence, International Security Assistance Force, Interventionism (politics), Islam, Islamabad, Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Jalalabad, Jamiat Ulema-e Islam (F), Kabul, Kabul River, Karachi, KGB, KHAD, Khost, Khost Province, Khudai Khidmatgar, Khyber Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Khyber Pass, Kunar Province, Left-wing politics, Library of Congress, Library of Congress Country Studies, Lieutenant colonel (United Kingdom), List of Baloch tribes, List of heads of state of Afghanistan, Los Angeles Times, Loya jirga, Lumber, Mahmud Tarzi, Marble, Mexican Cession, Mianwali, Military aircraft, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Afghanistan), Ministry of Interior Affairs (Afghanistan), Mohmand Agency, Mortimer Durand, Mughal Empire, Multan, Muslim, Narcotic, National Army Museum, Nawaz Sharif, Newsweek, No. 114 Squadron RAF, No. 31 Squadron RAF, North-West Frontier Province (1901–2010), Nuristan Province, Nuristanis, Operation Cyclone, Organisation of African Unity, Packard Humanities Institute, Pajhwok Afghan News, Pakistan, Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan International Airlines, Pakthas, Parachinar, Partition of India, Pashtunistan, Pashtuns, Passport, PBS, Percy Sykes, Pervez Musharraf, Peshawar, Peter Tomsen, Philip Noel-Baker, Political officer (British Empire), Politics of Afghanistan, Presidencies and provinces of British India, President of Afghanistan, President of Pakistan, Provinces of Afghanistan, Punjab, Puppet state, Ratification, Reuters, Royal Air Force, Sahibzada Abdul Latif, Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum, Sardar Shireendil Khan, Scramble for Africa, Second Anglo-Afghan War, Shkin, Sikh Empire, Sir, Sky News, South Waziristan, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, Sovereign state, Special Forces (United States Army), Sphere of influence, Spin Boldak, Stephen Biddle, Strategic bombing, Sulaiman Mountains, Survey of India, Swat District, Sykes–Picot Agreement, Taliban, The Express Tribune, The Friday Times, The Great Game, The Hindu, The New York Times, The News International, The Observer, The Washington Post, Third Anglo-Afghan War, Timurid dynasty, Topography, Torkham, Travel visa, Treaty of Gandamak, Unilateralism, United Nations, United States Army, United States Department of State, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Uti possidetis juris, Vehicle, Viceroy, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Voice of America, Void (law), Wakhan Corridor, War in Afghanistan (1978–present), Washington, D.C., Weapon, Wesh–Chaman border crossing, 1842 retreat from Kabul, 2011 NATO attack in Pakistan, 2017 Afghanistan–Pakistan border skirmish, 2017 Sehwan suicide bombing. Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
Abdur Rahman Khan (عبد رحمان خان) (between 1840 and 1844October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.
Mullah Abdur Razzaq Akhundzada (born 1958), an ethnic Pashtun, is a member of the Taliban leadership as of the early 2000s (decade), and a former Afghan interior minister.
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress.
The Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO) is the Afghan government's national cartographic agency, and was founded in 1958.
The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Afghanistan–Pakistan barrier is an under-construction border barrier being built by Pakistan, that is designed to prevent illegal movement and infiltration across the Durand Line, the porous, international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Afghanistan–Pakistan relations involve bilateral relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Since 1949, a series of armed skirmishes and firefights have occurred along the Durand Line (the Afghanistan–Pakistan border) between the Afghan National Security Forces and the Pakistan Armed Forces.
AfPak (or Af-Pak) was a neologism used within U.S. foreign policy circles to designate Afghanistan and Pakistan as a single theater of operations.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Al-Zulfiqar was an organization in Pakistan.
The diplomats serving as ambassadors of the United States of America to individual nations of the world, to international organizations, and ambassadors-at-large change regularly for various reasons, such as reassignment or retirement.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
The Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919, also known as the Treaty of Rawalpindi, was an armistice made between the United Kingdom and Afghanistan during the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
Angur Ada (انګور اډه, literally: "Grape Base" in Pashto) is a village and a border crossing straddling the South Waziristan Agency of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Afghanistan's Paktika Province.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Arandu (ارندو), also known as Arnawai (ارنوۍ), is a town in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, on the banks of the Landai Sin River just above its confluence with the Kunar River.
An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
Bahawalpur (بہاولپُور; Punjabi), is a city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bijan Omrani is a British Classical scholar of Persian descent, historian, journalist, teacher and author.
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chitral Scouts (CS) (چترال سکاوٹس), also known as Chitral levies, originally raised in 1903 as the militia of the princely state of Chitral, is now a unit of the federally controlled Frontier Corps of Pakistan.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of conflicting opinion or point of view.
The Convention between the United Kingdom and China, Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory, commonly known as the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory or the Second Convention of Peking, was a lease signed between Qing China and the United Kingdom on 9 June 1898.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
The Daily Times (DT) is an English-language Pakistani newspaper.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
Dawn News is one of Pakistan's 24-hour Urdu news channel.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
A delegate is someone who attends or communicates the ideas of or acts on behalf of an organization at a meeting or conference between organizations, which may be at the same level or involved in a common field of work or interest.
A political demarcation line is a geopolitical border, often agreed upon as part of an armistice or ceasefire.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
Dera Ghazi Khan (ڈيره غازي خان), abbreviated as D. G. Khan, is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
A diktat is a statute, harsh penalty or settlement imposed upon a defeated party by the victor, or a dogmatic decree.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Maulana Fazl-ur-Rehman (born 19 June 1953) is a Pakistani politician who is the current President of the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F).
Fazal Hayat (1974 – 14 June 2018), more commonly known by his pseudonym Fazlullah (ملا فضل اللہ), was an Islamist militant who has served as the leader of the Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi, an organisation aiming to enforce their interpretation of Sharia in Pakistan, and was the leader of the Tehreek-e-Taliban-e-Pakistan in Swat Valley.
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018.
Firishta or Ferishta(فرِشتہ), full name Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (مُحمّد قاسِم ہِندُو شاہ), was a Persian historian who was born in 1560 and died in 1620.
The First Anglo-Afghan War (also known as Disaster in Afghanistan) was fought between British imperial India and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Foreign relations of Afghanistan are handled by the nation's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is headed by Salahuddin Rabbani.
A formality is an established procedure or set of specific behaviors and utterances, conceptually similar to a ritual although typically secular and less involved.
The Frontier Regions (often abbreviated as FR) of Pakistan are a group of small administrative units in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), lying immediately to the east of the seven main tribal agencies and west of the settled districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.
Funding is the act of providing financial resources, usually in the form of money, or other values such as effort or time, to finance a need, program, and project, usually by an organization or company.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Geo News is a private Pakistani TV news channel, owned and operated by Independent Media Corporation, the parent company which also owns the Jang Group of Newspapers.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Habibullah Khan (June 3, 1872 – February 20, 1919) was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1901 until 1919.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Sir Henry Robert Conway Dobbs (26 August 1871 – 30 May 1934) was an administrator in British India and High Commissioner in Iraq.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Vincent Arthur Henry McMahon (28 November 1862 – 29 December 1949) was a British Indian Army officer and diplomat who served as the High Commissioner in Egypt from 1915 to 1917.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان اسلامي امارات) was an Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
Jamiat Ulema-e Islam (F) (Urdu: (English: Assembly of Islamic Clerics; Acronym: JUI(F), JUI-F, or JUIF) is a Sunni Deobandi political party in Pakistan. Established as JUI (Jamiat Ulema-e Islam) in 1945, it is the result of a factional split of 1988, F standing for the name of its leader, Maulana Fazal-ur-Rehman. JUI-F is as of 2013 Pakistan's 5th largest party, winning 3.2% of the popular vote, or 15 out of 272 general seats in the National Assembly. It is entirely based in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern parts of Baluchistan. The party is in coalition with Pakistan's current ruling party Pakistan Muslim League (N). The JUI-S faction, led by Samiul Haq, is of regional significance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa but has no representation on the national level. The split of JUI into two factions was due to dissent over the policy of president Zia-ul-Haq of supporting Mujahideen outfits in the Afghanistan war during the 1980s. A more recent faction known as JUI-N, split off JUI-F in 2008, is also unrepresented at the national level.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Kabul River (کابل سیند, دریای کابل), the classical Cophes, is a long river that emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Khadamat-e Aetla'at-e Dawlati (Pashto/خدمات اطلاعات دولتی) translates directly to English as: "State Intelligence Agency".
Khost (خوست) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, and the largest city of Loya Paktia.
Khost (خوست, خوست) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of Afghanistan.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
Khyber (خېبر قبايلي سيمه; خیبر) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
Kunar (کونړ, کنر) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Lieutenant colonel (Lt Col), is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries.
This is a list of Baloch tribes and clans.
This article lists the heads of state of Afghanistan since the foundation of the first Afghan state, the Hotak Empire, in 1709.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
In the Pashtunwali, a code of laws of the Pashtun peoples living in areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan and neighboring countries, loya jirga (لويه جرګه, "grand assembly") is a special type of jirga that is mainly organized for choosing a new head of state in case of sudden death, adopting a new constitution, or to settle national or regional issue such as war.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Mahmud Beg Tarzi (محمود طرزۍ, Dari Persian: محمود بیگ طرزی; August 23, 1865 – November 22, 1933) was a politician and one of Afghanistan's greatest intellectuals.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
The Mexican Cession is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
Mianwali (مِيانوالى) is the capital city of Mianwali District, Pakistan.
A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type.
The Afghan Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) (وزارت خارجه افغانستان د افغانستان د بهرنیو چارو وزارت) is the ministry responsible for managing the Foreign relations of Afghanistan.
The Ministry of Interior Affairs (د افغانستان د کورنیو چارو وزارت) is headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan, and is responsible for law enforcement in Afghanistan.
Mohmand (د مومندو قبايلي سيمه; مہمند ایجنسی) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, (14 February 1850 – 8 June 1924) was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The National Army Museum is the British Army's central museum.
Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/میاں محمد نواز شریف, born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani business magnate and former politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms, all of the three terms were unsuccessful.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
No. 114 Squadron was a squadron of the British Royal Air Force. It was first formed in India during the First World War, serving as a light bomber squadron during the Second World War and as a transport squadron post-war. It was last disbanded in 1971.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Nuristan, also spelled Nurestan or Nooristan, (Nuristani: نورستان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
The Nuristanis are an ethnic group native to the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan, who speak Indo-Iranian languages, including Nuristani.
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the mujahideen, in Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, prior to and during the military intervention by the USSR in support of its client, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) is a non-profit foundation, established in 1987, and located in Los Altos, California, which funds projects in a wide range of conservation concerns in the fields of archaeology, music, film preservation, and historic conservation, plus Greek epigraphy, with an aim to create tools for basic research in the Humanities.
Pajhwok Afghan News (پژواک خبري اژانس) (آژانس خبرى پژواک) is Afghanistan's largest independent news agency.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly referred to by the abbreviation PIA (پیآئیاے) is the national flag carrier of Pakistan.
Pakthas are an ancient people that find reference in Sanskrit and Greek sources as a people living in the region which includes south-eastern province (Loya Paktia) in Afghanistan and Northern parts of Pakistan.
Pāṛachinār (پاڑه چنار; پاڑه چنار), formerly called Tutki, is the a city in Kurram Agency of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pashtūnistān (پښتونستان; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Brigadier-General Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes, (28 February 1867 – 11 June 1945) was a soldier, diplomat, and scholar with a considerable literary output.
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Peter Tomsen (born November 19, 1940), is a retired American diplomat and educator, serving as United States Special Envoy to Afghanistan from 1989 to 1992, and United States Ambassador to Armenia between 1995 and 1998.
Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker, (1 November 1889 – 8 October 1982), born Philip John Baker, was a British politician, diplomat, academic, outstanding amateur athlete, and renowned campaigner for disarmament.
In the British Empire, a Political Officer or Political Agent was an officer of the imperial civil administration, as opposed to the military administration, usually operating outside imperial territory.
The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is Ashraf Ghani.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
Afghanistan is made up of 34 provinces (ولايت wilåyat).
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Syed Abdul Latif (1853 – July 14, 1903) or Sahibzada Abdul Latif Shaheed among the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam was the Royal Advisor to Abdur Rahman Khan and Habibullah Khan, the father and son kings of Afghanistan between the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Khan Bahadur Sahibzada Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan KCIE (12 December 1863 – 4 December 1937), hailing from Topi, Swabi District, British India (modern day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan) was a distinguished educationist and politician.
Sardar Shireendil Khan was a former governor of Khost, Afghanistan, who took part in the Royal Commission for setting up of Boundary which was set up in 1893, during rule of Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan, to negotiate terms with the British, for the agreeing to the Durand line between Afghanistan and the British governed India.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.
Shkin (شکين) is a town in Gomal District, Paktika Province, Afghanistan, located about a kilometer west of the newer town and bazaar of Angur Ada in the Barmal District of Paktika.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Sir is an honorific address used in a number of situations in many anglophone cultures.
Sky News is a 24-hour international multimedia news organisation based in the UK that started as a 24-hour television news channel.
South Waziristan (Urdu: جنوبی وزیرستان) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the southern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, that covers some 11,585 km² (4,473 mi²).
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Spin Boldak, meaning 'white desert', is a border town and the headquarters of Spin Boldak District in the southern Kandahar province of Afghanistan, next to the Durand Line border with Pakistan.
Stephen D. Biddle (born January 19, 1959) is an American author, historian, policy analyst and columnist whose work concentrates on U.S. foreign policy.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
The Sulaiman Mountains (د كسي غرونه; Balochi/Urdu/کوه سليمان), or Kōh-e Sulaymān, are the southern extension of the Hindu Kush mountain system, located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia regions of Afghanistan, and in the southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas (South Waziristan and Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan), most of northern Balochistan, and some of southwestern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
The Survey of India (भारतीय सर्वेक्षण विभाग) is India's central engineering agency in charge of mapping and surveying.
Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.
The Friday Times (TFT) is a Pakistani English-language independent newsweekly, based in Lahore, Pakistan.
"The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the nineteenth century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and Southern Asia.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The News International, published in broadsheet size, is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Third Anglo-Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 when the Emirate of Afghanistan invaded British India and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Torkham (Urdu, Persian, and تورخم Tūrkham) is city and a major border crossing between Pakistan and Afghanistan, located on the Torkham crossing line.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country.
The Treaty of Gandamak officially ended the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
Unilateralism is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Uti possidetis juris or uti possidetis iuris (Latin for "as you possess under law") is a principle of international law which provides that newly formed sovereign states should have the same borders that their preceding dependent area had before their independence.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is a treaty concerning the international law on treaties between states.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
In law, void means of no legal effect.
The Wakhan Corridor (واخان دهلېز Wāxān Dahléz, دالان واخان) is a narrow strip of territory in northeastern Afghanistan that extends to China and separates Tajikistan from Pakistan.
This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the communist military coup on 27 April 1978, known as the Saur Revolution, when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
The Wesh–Chaman border crossing is one of the major international border crossings between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The 1842 retreat from Kabul (or Massacre of Elphinstone's army) took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
The 2011 NATO attack in Pakistan (also known as the Salala incident, Salala attack or 26/11 attacks), was a border skirmish that occurred when US-led NATO forces engaged Pakistani security forces at two Pakistani military checkposts along the Afghanistan–Pakistan border on Saturday, 26 November 2011.
On 5 May 2017, an armed skirmish occurred after Afghan forces attacked a Pakistani census team in Chaman, in Pakistan near the border with Afghanistan.
On 16 February 2017, a suicide bombing took place inside the Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar in Sehwan, Sindh, Pakistan, where pilgrims were performing a Sufi ritual after the evening prayers.
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