364 relations: Abel Tasman, Aceh, Act of Abjuration, Africa, Afrikaans, Afrikaners, Albany, New York, Alkmaar, Suriname, Amangalla, Ambon Island, Ambon, Maluku, Amboyna massacre, American Revolutionary War, Amsterdam, Amsterdam School, Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870–71, Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Angola, Anping District, Anthony van Diemen, Antwerp, Arnhem Land, Art Deco, Aruba, Asia, Australian places with Dutch names, Axim, Bahia, Bali, Banda Neira, Bandung, Bandung Institute of Technology, Batavia, Dutch East Indies, Batavian Republic, Battle in the Bay of Matanzas, Battle of Alcácer Quibir, Battle of Blaauwberg, Battle of Elmina (1637), Battle of Malacca (1641), Battle of Oosterweel, Battles of La Naval de Manila, Beeldenstorm, Belgian Revolution, Belgium, Berbice Creole Dutch, Bloemfontein, Boer, Bonaire, ..., Borneo, Bowery, Brazil, Breukelen, British Bencoolen, British Empire, Brooklyn, Bukittinggi, Burgher people, Cambridge University Press, Cape Colony, Cape Dutch, Cape Dutch architecture, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town, Capture of Brielle, Capture of Luanda, Caribbean Netherlands, Caribbean Sea, Cartography, Castle of Good Hope, Catskill (town), New York, Cause célèbre, Cayenne (Dutch colony), Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Chartered company, Chile, Christ Church (Melaka), Cirebon, Cocoa bean, Coeymans, New York, Colombo, Colonial architecture in Jakarta, Colonial Brazil, Colony, Communist Party of Indonesia, Compagnie van Verre, Coney Island, Congress of Vienna, Coolie, Cornelis de Houtman, Creole language, Creole peoples, Crown colony, Curaçao, Curaçao and Dependencies, De Stijl, Declaration of independence, Decolonization, Dejima, Delaware, Delaware River, Dinosaur, Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Dutch Brazil, Dutch Cape Colony, Dutch Caribbean, Dutch colonisation of the Guianas, Dutch colonization of the Americas, Dutch East India Company, Dutch East Indies, Dutch East Indies campaign, Dutch Ethical Policy, Dutch expedition to Valdivia, Dutch Gold Coast, Dutch Golden Age, Dutch Language Union, Dutch people, Dutch Republic, Dutch Revolt, Dutch West India Company, Dutch-based creole languages, Dutch–Portuguese War, East India Company, Eighty Years' War, Elmina, Elmina Castle, Empire of Japan, Ethnic groups in Europe, Eugène Dubois, Europe, Exploration, Feng shui, Flanders, Fort (Colombo), Fort Nassau (North River), Fort Orange (New Netherland), Fort Rotterdam, Fort Zeelandia (Paramaribo), Fortification, Founding of modern Singapore, Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, France, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frederick Coyett, Galle Fort, Geography of Taiwan, Glorious Revolution, Goa, Gorée, Graaff-Reinet, Great Post Road, Groningen, Suriname, Groot Desseyn, Groote Eylandt, Guyana, Haarlem, Habsburg Spain, Harlem, Harmony Society, Batavia, Hartford, Connecticut, Haverstraw, New York, Henk Sneevliet, Henri Maclaine Pont, Henry Hudson, Herman Willem Daendels, Hirado, Nagasaki, Hispanic America, History of slavery, History of sugar, Hoboken, New Jersey, Holland, Holy Roman Emperor, Hotel des Indes (Batavia), House of Habsburg, House of Hope (fort), Hudson River, Huguenots, Iberian Union, Indo people, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Indonesian National Revolution, Invasion of Java (1811), Invasion of the Cape Colony, Isla de los Estados, Jacob Le Maire, Jakarta, James Cook, Jan Peter Balkenende, Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies, Java, Java Man, Javindo language, Jersey Dutch, Johannesburg, John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen, Joint-stock company, K. M. Panikkar, Khoisan, Kinderhook (town), New York, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Kochi, Kodungallur, Komodo (island), Komodo dragon, Koxinga, Landhuis, Levant, Lisbon, List of Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements, List of islands of Indonesia, List of municipalities in South Africa, List of place names of Dutch origin, Loanword, Lombok, Long Island, Louis Bonaparte, Luanda, Macau, Makassar, Malacca, Malang, Malay Peninsula, Maluku Islands, Manado, Manila, Maritime Southeast Asia, Martin Van Buren, Maurice, Prince of Orange, Mauritius, Medan, Mediterranean Sea, Menteng, Ministry of the Colonies (Netherlands), Mohammad Hatta, Mohawk Dutch, Monarchy of Spain, Mutual intelligibility, Nagapattinam, Nanban trade, Naresuan, Nassau County, New York, Natural rubber, Navigation Acts, Negerhollands, Neoclassical architecture, Netherlands, Netherlands New Guinea, New Amsterdam, New Indies Style, New Jersey, New Netherland, New Netherland Company, New Sweden, New York Agreement, New Zealand, Newburgh, New York (town), Nieuwe Zakelijkheid, North America, Nusa Laut, Old Colombo Dutch Hospital, Oranjestad, Aruba, Ormus, Pacific Ocean, Padang, Papiamento, Pasuruan, Peace of Paris (1783), Pernambuco, Peter Ouwens, Peter Stuyvesant, Petjo language, Philip II of Spain, Philippines, Piet Pieterszoon Hein, Portugal, Portuguese Ceylon, Portuguese real, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Protestantism, Recife, Renaissance Revival architecture, Rensselaer, New York, Saba, Sakoku, Salt evaporation pond, San people, Saparua, Saramaccan language, Sarekat Islam, Sawahlunto, São Luís, Maranhão, Schuylkill River, Sebastian of Portugal, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Semarang, Sergipe, Seventeen Provinces, Shōgun, Siege of Fort Zeelandia, Singapore, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, Skepi Creole Dutch, South Africa, South America, Southern Hemisphere, Southern Netherlands, Spanish East Indies, Spanish treasure fleet, Spice trade, Sranan Tongo, Sri Lanka, Staatsburg, New York, Stadtholder, Stadthuys, Staten Island, States General of the Netherlands, Stellenbosch, Strait of Magellan, Stuyvesant, New York, Sukarno, Surabaya, Suriname, Swellendam, Tasmania, Thailand, Theodore Roosevelt, Toko Merah, Tonne, Treaty of Amiens, Treaty of Antwerp (1609), Treaty of Breda (1667), Treaty of The Hague (1661), Tulbagh, United Kingdom of the Netherlands, University of Minnesota, Valdivia, Valdivian Fort System, Van Diemen's Land, Vanderbijlpark, Vereeniging, Verwantschapslanden, Vlissingen, Watervliet, New York, West Indies, West New Guinea dispute, Western New Guinea, Willemstad, William III of England, William the Silent, Wolvendaal Church, World War II, Xhosa people, Xhosa Wars, Yogyakarta, Yonkers, New York, Zeeland, 1969 Curaçao uprising. Expand index (314 more) » « Shrink index
Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.
The Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, literally 'placard of abjuration'), is de facto the declaration of independence by many of the provinces of the Netherlands from Spain in 1581, during the Dutch Revolt.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Alkmaar is a resort in Suriname, located in the Commewijne District.
Amangalla is a 5-star franchise hotel belonging to the international group of Aman Resorts, located in Galle, Sri Lanka built within Galle Fort, the 17th-century Dutch fort, inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia.
Ambon (Indonesian: Kota Ambon) is the capital and most populous city of the Indonesian province of Maluku.
The Amboyna massacre was the 1623 torture and execution on Ambon Island (present-day Maluku, Indonesia) of twenty men, including ten of whom were in the service of the English East India Company, and Japanese and Portuguese traders, by agents of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), on accusations of treason.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Amsterdam School (Dutch: Amsterdamse School) is a style of architecture that arose from 1910 through about 1930 in the Netherlands.
The Anglo-Dutch Treaties of 1870–1871 were three related treaties between Great Britain and the Netherlands, dealing with colonial disputes and other colonial affairs between the two countries.
The Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1814 (also known as the Convention of London) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands in London on 13 August 1814.
The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London, was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands in London on 17 March 1824.
The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anping District is a district of Tainan, Taiwan.
Anthony van Diemen (also Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (1593 – 19 April 1645) was a Dutch colonial governor.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Of an estimated 200 place names the Dutch bestowed on Australian localities in the 17th century as a result of the Dutch voyages of exploration along the western, northern and southern Australian coasts, only about 35 can still be found on current maps.
Axim is a coastal town and the capital of Nzema East Municipal district, a district in Western Region of South Ghana.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
Banda Neira is the only settlement of significant size on any of the Banda Islands, located in the Maluku province of Indonesia.
Bandung (Sundanese:, Bandung, formerly Dutch: Bandoeng), is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 2nd largest metropolitan area with over 8.5 millions inhabitants listed in the 2015 Badan Pusat Statistik data.
The Bandung Institute of Technology or Institute of Technology, Bandung (Institut Teknologi Bandung, abbreviated as ITB) is a state, coeducational research university located in Bandung, Indonesia.
Batavia was the name of the capital city of the Dutch East Indies that corresponds to the present-day Central Jakarta.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
The Battle in the Bay of Matanzas was a naval battle during the Eighty Years' War in which a Dutch squadron was able to defeat and capture a Spanish treasure fleet.
The Battle of Alcácer Quibir (also known as "Battle of Three Kings" (معركة الملوك الثلاثة) or "Battle of Oued al-Makhazin" (معركة وادي المخازن) in Morocco) was fought in northern Morocco, near the town of Ksar-el-Kebir (variant spellings: Ksar El Kebir, Alcácer-Quivir, Alcazarquivir, Alcassar, etc.) and Larache, on 4 August 1578.
The Battle of Blaauwberg, also known as the Battle of Cape Town, fought near Cape Town on 8 January 1806, was a small but significant military engagement.
The Battle of Elmina in 1637, was a military engagement between the Portuguese and the Dutch, that culminated with the capture of the historical St. George of Elmina Fort by the latter.
The Battle of Malacca (2 August 1640 – 14 January 1641) was a successful attempt by the Dutch to capture Malacca from the Portuguese.
The Battle of Oosterweel took place on 13 March 1567 and is traditionally seen as the beginning of the Eighty Years' War.
The Battles of La Naval de Manila (Batallas de las marinas de Manila) were a series of five naval battles fought in the waters of the Philippines in the year 1646, in which the forces of Spain repelled various attempts by forces of the Dutch Republic to invade Manila, during the Eighty Years' War.
Beeldenstorm in Dutch, roughly translatable to "statue storm", or Bildersturm in German ("image/statue storm"), also the Great Iconoclasm or Iconoclastic Fury, is a term used for outbreaks of destruction of religious images that occurred in Europe in the 16th century.
The Belgian Revolution (Belgische Revolution) was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces (mainly the former Southern Netherlands) from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Berbice Dutch Creole is a now extinct Dutch-based creole language.
Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
The Bowery is a street and neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breukelen is a town and former municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht.
British Bencoolen was a British possession in Sumatra based in the area of what is now Bengkulu City.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Bukittinggi (Kota Bukittinggi, Bukittinggi, Jawi), is the third largest city in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of over 124,000 people and an area of 25.24 km².
Burgher people, also known simply as Burghers, are a small Eurasian ethnic group in Sri Lanka descended from Portuguese, Dutch, British and other European men who settled in Sri Lanka and developed relationships with native Sri Lankan women.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historical class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Cape Dutch architecture is a traditional Afrikaner architectural style found mostly in the Western Cape of South Africa.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
The Capture of Brielle by the Watergeuzen, on 1 April 1572 marked a turning point in the uprising of the Low Countries against Spain in the Eighty Years' War.
In 1641 the Dutch captured Luanda from the Portuguese.
The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop; Kasteel van Goeie Hoop) known locally as the Castlehttps://janalinesworldjourney.com/2016/03/28/torture-chambers-at-castle/ or Cape Town Castle is a bastion fort built in the 17th century in Cape Town, South Africa.
Catskill is a town in the southeast part of Greene County, New York, United States.
A cause célèbre (famous case; plural causes célèbres) is an issue or incident arousing widespread controversy, outside campaigning, and heated public debate.
Cayenne, currently the capital of French Guiana, was a hotly contested area between French and Dutch colonizers in the 17th century.
Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker (25 July 1882 – 22 May 1949) was a Dutch architect who designed several distinguished Art Deco buildings in Bandung, Indonesia, including the Villa Isola and Hotel Preanger.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
The Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (in Dutch: Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; in Papiamentu: Statuut pa e Reino di Hulanda) describes the political relationship between the four countries that constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten in the Caribbean and the Netherlands (for the most part) in Europe.
A chartered company is an association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration, and colonization.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christ Church Malacca is an 18th-century Anglican church in the city of Malacca City, Malaysia.
Cirebon (formerly referred to as Cheribon in English) is a port city on the north coast of the Indonesian island of Java.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Coeymans is a town in Albany County, New York, United States.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
Colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta include those that were constructed during the Dutch colonial period of Indonesia.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
The Communist Party of Indonesia (Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia that existed throughout the mid-20th century.
The Compagnie van Verre (long-distance company) was a forerunner of the Dutch East India Company.
Coney Island is a peninsular residential neighborhood, beach, and leisure/entertainment destination of Long Island on the Coney Island Channel, which is part of the Lower Bay in the southwestern part of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The word coolie (also spelled koelie, kuli, cooli, cooly and quli); (Hindi: कुली, Tamil: கூலி, Telugu: కూలీ, Chinese: 苦力) meaning a labourer, has a variety of other implications and is sometimes regarded as offensive or a pejorative, depending upon the historical and geographical context.
Cornelis de Houtman (2 April 1565 – 1 September 1599), brother of Frederick de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who discovered a new sea route from Europe to Indonesia and who thus begun the Dutch spice trade.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
The Colony of Curaçao and Dependencies (Kolonie Curaçao en onderhorigheden; Kolonia di Kòrsou i dependensianan) was a Dutch colony from 1815 until 1828 and from 1845 until 1936.
De Stijl, Dutch for "The Style", also known as Neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917 in Leiden.
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
, in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decima, Desjima, Dezima, Disma, or Disima, was a Dutch trading post notable for being the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. It was a small fan-shaped artificial island formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 by local merchants. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it was used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of or, it was later integrated into the city through the process of land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
The Netherlands Antilles was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.
The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India Company.
The Dutch Caribbean (historically known as the Dutch West Indies) is the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Dutch colonisation of the Guianas the coastal region between the Orinoco and Amazon rivers in South America began in the early 16th century.
The Dutch colonization of the Americas began with the establishment of Dutch trading posts and plantations in the Americas, which preceded the much wider known colonisation activities of the Dutch in Asia.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch East Indies Campaign of 1941–42 was the conquest of the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) by forces from the Empire of Japan in the early days of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. Forces from the Allies attempted unsuccessfully to defend the islands. The East Indies were targeted by the Japanese for their rich oil resources which would become a vital asset during the war. The campaign and subsequent three and a half year Japanese occupation was also a major factor in the end of Dutch colonial rule in the region.
The Dutch Ethical Policy (Ethische Politiek) was the official policy of colonial government of Indonesia during the four decades from 1901 until the Japanese occupation of 1942.
With Spain and the Dutch Republic at war in 1643 a Dutch fleet sailed from Dutch Brazil to Southern Chile with the goal of establishing a base in the ruins of the abandoned Spanish city of Valdivia.
The Dutch Gold Coast or Dutch Guinea, officially Dutch possessions on the Coast of Guinea (Dutch: Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) was a portion of contemporary Ghana that was gradually colonized by the Dutch, beginning in 1598.
The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
The Dutch Language Union (Dutch:, NTU) is an international regulatory institution that governs issues regarding the Dutch language.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
A Dutch creole is a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Elmina is a town and the capital of the Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem District on the south coast of South Ghana in the Central Region, situated on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, west of Cape Coast.
Elmina Castle was erected by the Portuguese in 1482 as São Jorge da Mina (St. George of the Mine) Castle, also known simply as Mina or Feitoria da Mina) in present-day Elmina, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). It was the first trading post built on the Gulf of Guinea, so is the oldest European building in existence south of the Sahara. First established as a trade settlement, the castle later became one of the most important stops on the route of the Atlantic slave trade. The Dutch seized the fort from the Portuguese in 1637, and took over all the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1642. The slave trade continued under the Dutch until 1814; in 1872, the Dutch Gold Coast, including the fort, became a possession of the British Empire. Britain granted the Gold Coast its independence in 1957, and control of the castle was transferred to the nation formed out of the colony, present-day Ghana. Today Elmina Castle is a popular historical site, and was a major filming location for Werner Herzog's 1987 drama film Cobra Verde. The castle is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois (28 January 1858 – 16 December 1940) was a Dutch paleoanthropologist and geologist.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Fort (කොටුව Kotuwa: translit) is the central business district of Colombo in Sri Lanka.
Fort Nassau (a.k.a. Fort van Nassouwen) was the first Dutch settlement in North America, located beside the "North River" (the modern Hudson) within present-day Albany, New York, in the United States.
Fort Orange (Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site.
Fort Rotterdam is a 17th-century fort in Makassar on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia.
Fort Zeelandia is a fortress in Paramaribo, Suriname, that was built in 1640 French as a wooden structure The British took the fort and called it Fort Willoughby.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The establishment of a British trading post in Singapore in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles led to its founding as a British colony in 1824.
The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (Vierde Engels-Nederlandse Oorlog; 1780–1784) was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frederick Coyett, born in Stockholm c. 1615, buried in Amsterdam on 17 October 1687, was a Swedish nobleman and the last colonial governor for the Dutch colony of Formosa.
Galle Fort (ගාලු කොටුව Galu Kotuwa; translit), in the Bay of Galle on the southwest coast of Sri Lanka, was built first in 1588 by the Portuguese, then extensively fortified by the Dutch during the 17th century from 1649 onwards.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
italic ("Gorée Island") is one of the 19 communes d'arrondissement (i.e. districts) of the city of Dakar, Senegal.
Graaff-Reinet is a town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.
The Great Post Road (Jalan Raya Pos or De Grote Postweg) is the name for the historical road that runs across Java that connects Anyer and Panarukan.
Groningen is the capital town of the Saramacca District, Suriname.
The Groot Desseyn (Dutch for "Grand Design") was a plan devised in 1623 by the Dutch West India Company to seize the Portuguese/Spanish possessions of Iberian Union in Africa and the Americas, in order that the Spanish would not collect enough money for their war against The Netherlands.
Groote Eylandt is the largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria and the fourth largest island in Australia.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
The Harmony Society was an elite social club in Batavia, Dutch East Indies.
Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut.
Haverstraw is a town in Rockland County, New York, United States, located north of the Town of Clarkstown and the Town of Ramapo; east of Orange County, New York; south of the Town of Stony Point; and west of the Hudson River.
Hendricus Josephus Franciscus Marie (Henk) Sneevliet, known as Henk Sneevliet or by the pseudonym "Maring" (1883 - 1942), was a Dutch Communist, who was active in both the Netherlands and the Dutch East-Indies.
Henri Maclaine Pont (21 June 1884 – 3 December 1971) was a Dutch architect and archaeologist active in Indonesia, acclaimed for his synthesis of Javanese and western architecture.
Henry Hudson (1565–1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.
Herman Willem Daendels (21 October 1762 – 2 May 1818) was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 and 1811.
, historically known as Firando is a city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Sugar is a common part of human life.
Hoboken (Unami: Hupokàn) is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
Hotel des Indes was one of the oldest and most prestigious hotels in Asia.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
House of Hope (Huys de Hoop), also known as Fort Good Hope (Fort de Goede Hoop), was a redoubt and factory in the seventeenth-century Dutch colony of New Netherland.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
The Indo people or Indos are Eurasian people, descendants of various indigenous peoples of Indonesia and Dutch settlers. Indos are associated with colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia and a predecessor to modern Indonesia after its proclamation of independence shortly after World War II. It was used to describe people acknowledged to be of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, or it was a term used in the Dutch East Indies to apply to Europeans who had partial Asian ancestry. "Indos–people of Dutch descent who stayed in the new republic Indonesia after it gained independence, or who emigrated to Indonesia after 1949–are called Dutch-Indonesians. Although the majority of the Indos are found in the lowest strata of European society, they do not represent a solid social or economic group." The European ancestry of these people was predominantly Dutch, but also included Portuguese, British, French, Belgian, German, and others. Other terms used were Indos, Dutch Indonesians, Eurasians, Indo-Europeans, Indo-Dutch, and Dutch-Indos.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence (Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia; Indonesische Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog), was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.
The invasion of Java in 1811 was a successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Invasion of the Cape Colony was a British military expedition launched in 1795 against the Dutch Cape Colony at the Cape of Good Hope, the southern tip of Southern Africa.
Isla de los Estados (English: Staten Island, from the Dutch Stateneiland) is an Argentine island that lies off the eastern extremity of the Argentine portion of Tierra del Fuego, from which it is separated by the Le Maire Strait.
Jacob Le Maire (c. 1585, Antwerp or Amsterdam - 22 December 1616, at sea) was a Dutch mariner who circumnavigated the earth in 1615 and 1616.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende Jr. (born 7 May 1956) is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 until 14 October 2010.
Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was an officer of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.
The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the War in September 1945.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Java Man (Homo erectus erectus; Javanese: Manungsa Jawa; Indonesian: Manusia Jawa) is early human fossils discovered on the island of Java (Indonesia) in 1891 and 1892.
Javindo, also known by the pejorative name Krontjong, was a Dutch-based creole language spoken on Java, Indonesia.
Jersey Dutch was an archaic Dutch dialect formerly spoken in and around Bergen and Passaic counties in New Jersey from the late 17th century until the early 20th century.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Maurice of Nassau (Dutch: Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen; German: Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen; Portuguese: João Maurício de Nassau-Siegen; 17 June 1604 – 20 December 1679) was called "the Brazilian" for his fruitful period as governor of Dutch Brazil.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Sardar Kavalam Madhava Panikkar (3 June 1895 – 10 December 1963) was an Indian statesman and diplomat also famed as a Professor, newspaper editor, historian and novelist.
Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).
Kinderhook is a town in the northern part of Columbia County, New York, United States.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kodungallur (anglicised name: Cranganore), is a municipality in the South Western border of Thrissur district of Kerala, India.
Komodo (Indonesian Pulau Komodo) is one of the 17,508 islands that compose the Republic of Indonesia.
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.
Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.
A landhuis (plural landhuizen) is a Dutch colonial country house, often the administrative heart of a particuliere land or private domain in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The following were trading posts owned by the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, presented in geographical sequence from west to east.
The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian archipelago and formerly known as the Indian archipelago, may refer either to the islands comprising the nation-state of Indonesia or to the geographical groups which include its islands.
This is a list of municipalities of South Africa.
The Dutch, aided by their skills in shipping, map making, finance and trade, traveled to every corner of the world and left their language embedded in names of places they visited.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Makassar (Buginese-Makassar language: ᨀᨚᨈ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ) – sometimes spelled Macassar – is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malang is the second largest city in Jawa Timur (East Java), Indonesia. It has a history dating back to the age of Singhasari Kingdom. As the second most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 887,443 people in the city. Its built-up (metro) area was home to 2,795,209 inhabitants spread on 2 cities and 22 districts (21 in Malang Regency and 1 in Pasuruan Regency). The city is well known for its mild climate. During the period of Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. Until now, Malang still holds its position a popular destination for international tourists. Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Manado (pronounced in Manado Malay, in Indonesian) is the capital city of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Maarten "Martin" Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was an American statesman who served as the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841.
Maurice of Orange (Dutch: Maurits van Oranje) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Medan; is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Menteng is a subdistrict of Central Jakarta, one of the administrative municipalities in the special capital territory of Jakarta, Indonesia.
The Ministry of Colonies was a Dutch ministry that arranged all matters relating to the Dutch colonies.
Mohammad Hatta (12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was Indonesia's first vice president, later also serving as the country's prime minister.
Mohawk Dutch is a now extinct Dutch-based creole language mainly spoken during the 17th century west of Albany, New York in the area around the Mohawk River, by the Dutch colonists who traded with or to a lesser extent mixed with the local population from the Mohawk nation.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.
The or the in the history of Japan extends from the arrival of the first Europeans – Portuguese explorers, missionaries and merchants – to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.
Naresuan (นเรศวร) or Sanphet II (สรรเพชญ์ที่ 2) was the King of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1590 and overlord of Lan Na from 1602 until his death in 1605.
Nassau County or is a suburban county comprising much of western Long Island in the U.S. state of New York.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Navigation Acts were a series of English laws that restricted colonial trade to England.
Negerhollands (English translation: Negro-Dutch) was a Dutch-based creole language that was once spoken in the Danish West Indies, now known as the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Netherlands New Guinea (Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea) refers to the Papua region of Indonesia while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1962.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New Indies Style (from Dutch Nieuwe Indische Bouwstijl) is a modern architectural style used in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) between the late 19th-century through pre-World War II 20th-century.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Netherland Company was a chartered company of Dutch merchants.
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige; Uusi Ruotsi; Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in North America from 1638 to 1655, established during the Thirty Years' War, when Sweden was a great power.
An Agreement signed by the Netherlands and Indonesia regarding the administration of the territory of West New Guinea.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Newburgh is a town in Orange County, New York, United States.
Nieuwe Zakelijkheid, translated as New Objectivity or New Pragmatism, is a Dutch period of modernist architecture that started in the 1920s and continued into the 1930s.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Nusa Laut is the smallest inhabited island in the Lease Islands group east of Ambon, in Indonesia's Maluku province.
The Old Colombo Dutch Hospital (known as The Dutch Hospital) is considered to be the oldest building in the Colombo Fort area dating back to the Dutch colonial era in Sri Lanka.
Oranjestad (literally "Orange Town") is the capital and largest city of Aruba.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Padang (Jawi) is the capital of the province of West Sumatra in Indonesia.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
Pasuruan (Pasoeroean) is a city of East Java, Java, Indonesia.
The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country.
Pieter Antonie Ouwens (14 February 1849, Amsterdam – 5 March 1922, Buitenzorg) was a Dutch scientist and Director of the Java Zoological Museum and Botanical Gardens.
Peter Stuyvesant (English pronunciation /ˈstaɪv.ə.sənt/; in Dutch also Pieter and Petrus Stuyvesant; (1610Mooney, James E. "Stuyvesant, Peter" in p.1256–1672) served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City and his name has been given to various landmarks and points of interest throughout the city (e.g. Stuyvesant High School, Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village, Stuyvesant Plaza, Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood, etc.). Stuyvesant's accomplishments as director-general included a great expansion for the settlement of New Amsterdam beyond the southern tip of Manhattan. Among the projects built by Stuyvesant's administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal that became Broad Street, and Broadway. Stuyvesant, himself a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, opposed religious pluralism and came into conflict with Lutherans, Jews, Roman Catholics and Quakers as they attempted to build places of worship in the city and practice their faiths.
Petjo, also known as Petjoh, Petjok, Pecok, is a Dutch-based creole language that originated among the Indos, people of mixed Dutch and Indonesian ancestry in the former Dutch East Indies.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pieter Pietersen Heyn (Hein) (25 November 1577 – 18 June 1629) was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese Ceylon (Ceilão Português, Sinhala: පෘතුගීසි ලංකාව Puruthugisi Lankawa) was the control of the Kingdom of Kotte by the Portuguese Empire, in present-day Sri Lanka, after the country's Crisis of the Sixteenth Century and into the Kandyan period.
The real (meaning "royal", plural: réis or reais) was the unit of currency of Portugal from around 1430 until 1911.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer (EYD: Pramudya Ananta Tur) (6 February 1925 – 30 April 2006) was an Indonesian author of novels, short stories, essays, polemics and histories of his homeland and its people.
The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence (Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi) was read at 10:00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August 1945.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.
Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a broad designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.
Rensselaer is a city in Rensselaer County, New York, United States, and is located on the east side of the Hudson River directly opposite Albany.
Saba is a Caribbean island which is the smallest special municipality (officially “public body”) of the Netherlands.
was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreigners were barred from entering Japan, and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.
San Francisco Bay salt ponds salar'' is rich in lithium, and the mine concentrates the brine in the ponds Contemporary solar evaporation salt pans on the island of Lanzarote at Salinas de Janubio Solar evaporation ponds in the Atacama Desert Solar evaporation ponds in the Salt Valley of Añana, Spain Solar evaporation ponds in the Salt Valley of Añana, Spain A salt evaporation pond is a shallow artificial salt pan designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines.
Saparua is an island east of Ambon Island in the Indonesian province of Maluku; the island of Haruku lies between Saparua and Ambon.
Saramaccan (autonym: Saamáka) is a creole language spoken by about 58,000 ethnic African people near the Saramacca and upper Suriname River, as well as in the capital Paramaribo, in Suriname (formerly also known as Dutch Guiana), 25,000 in French Guiana, and 8,000 in the Netherlands.
Sarekat Islam, formerly Islamists Trade Union (Indonesian: Sarekat Dagang Islam), was a cooperative of Javanese batik traders in the Dutch East Indies and a predecessor of independent Indonesia.
Sawahlunto (Jawi) is a city in West Sumatra, Indonesia, 90 kilometres from Padang.
São Luís (Saint Louis) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão.
The Schuylkill River is an important river running northwest to southeast in eastern Pennsylvania, which was improved by navigations into the Schuylkill Canal.
Dom Sebastian I (Portuguese: Sebastião I; 20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) was King of Portugal and the Algarves from 11 June 1557 to 4 August 1578 and the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
Semarang (formerly Dutch: Samarang), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia.
Sergipe, officially State of Sergipe, is a state of Brazil.
The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.
The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
The Siege of Fort Zeelandia of 1661-1662 ended the Dutch East India Company's rule over Taiwan and began the Kingdom of Tungning's rule over the island. Taiwanese scholar Lu Chien-jung described this event as "a war that determined the fate of Taiwan in the four hundred years that followed".
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sint Eustatius, also known affectionately to the locals as Statia,Tuchman, Barbara W. The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution New York: Ballantine Books, 1988.
Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.
Skepi is an extinct Dutch-based creole language of Guyana, spoken in the region of Essequibo.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Sranan Tongo (also Sranantongo "Surinamese tongue", Sranan, Surinaams, Surinamese, Surinamese Creole, Taki Taki) is an English-based creole language that is spoken as a lingua franca by approximately 500,000 people in Suriname.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Staatsburg is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in Hyde Park, a town in Dutchess County, New York.
In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.
The Stadthuys (an old Dutch spelling, meaning city hall) is a historical structure situated in the heart of Malacca City, the administrative capital of the state of Malacca, Malaysia in a place known as the Red Square.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
Stellenbosch Thomas Baldwin, 1852.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
Stuyvesant is a town in Columbia County, New York, United States.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Swellendam is the 4th oldest town in the Republic of South Africa, a town with 17,537 inhabitants situated in the Western Cape province.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Toko Merah (Indonesian "Red Shop") is a Dutch colonial landmark in Jakarta Old Town, Indonesia.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty of Antwerp, which initiated the Twelve Years' Truce, was an armistice signed in Antwerp on 9 April 1609 between Spain and the Netherlands, creating the major break in hostilities during the Eighty Years' War for independence conducted by the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries.
The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July (Gregorian calendar), 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway.
The Treaty of The Hague (also known as the Treaty of Den Haag) was signed in 1661 between representatives of the Dutch Empire and the Portuguese Empire.
Tulbagh, named after Dutch Cape Colony Governor Ryk Tulbagh, is a town located in the "Land van Waveren" mountain basin (also known as the Tulbagh basin), in the Winelands of the Western Cape, South Africa.
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it existed between 1815 and 1839.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.
The Fort System of Valdivia are a series of Spanish colonial fortifications at Corral Bay, Valdivia and Cruces River established to protect the city of Valdivia, in southern Chile.
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia.
Vanderbijlpark is an industrial city with 95 000 inhabitants on the Vaal River in the south of the Gauteng province of South Africa.
Vereeniging is a city in Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River.
Verwantschapslanden (Kindred Countries) is an umbrella term used by some cultural institutions to refer to countries that were once, either fully or partly, Dutch colonial possessions.
Vlissingen (Zeelandic: Vlissienge; historical name in Flushing) is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren.
Watervliet is a city in Albany County in the U.S. state of New York.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The West New Guinea dispute (1950–1962), also known as the West Irian dispute, was a diplomatic and political conflict between the Netherlands and Indonesia over the territory of Netherlands New Guinea.
Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and West Papua, is the part of the island of New Guinea (also known as Papua) annexed by Indonesia in 1962.
Willemstad is the capital city of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean Sea that forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
Wolvendaal Church (Wolvendaalse Kerk) is located in Pettah, a neighbourhood of Colombo.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.
The Xhosa Wars (also known as the Cape Frontier Wars, or Africa's 100 Years War) were a series of nine wars or flare-ups (from 1779 to 1879) between the Xhosa tribes and European settlers in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Yogyakarta (also Jogja or Jogjakarta; ꦛꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ; formerly Dutch: Djokjakarta/Djocjakarta or Djokja) is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia.
Yonkers is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of New York, behind New York City, Buffalo, and Rochester.
Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.
The 1969 Curaçao uprising (known as Trinta di Mei in Papiamentu, the local language) was a series of riots on the Caribbean island of Curaçao, then part of the Netherlands Antilles, a semi-independent country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Colonial History of the Netherlands, Colonial history of the Netherlands, Duch colonial possesions, Duch colonial possessions, Dutch Colonial Empire, Dutch Empire., Dutch colonial empire, Dutch colonial possessions, Dutch colonialism, Dutch colonies, Dutch colony, Dutch empire, Dutch seaborne empire, Dutch trading empire, History of the Dutch Empire, Holland empire, Nederlands-koloniale Rijk, Netherlands empire, The Dutch Empire.