73 relations: A, Acute accent, All caps, Amsterdam, Arabic, Article (grammar), Assimilation (phonology), B, C, Cedilla, Checked and free vowels, Circumflex, Consonant, D, Diaeresis (diacritic), Diphthong, Dutch Braille, Dutch language, Dutch Language Union, Dutch phonology, E, English orthography, F, French language, G, Grand Dictation of the Dutch Language, Grave accent, H, Helvoirt, History of Dutch orthography, I, IJ (digraph), International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO basic Latin alphabet, J, K, L, Labiodental approximant, Lambert Jacobsz, Latin, Latin alphabet, Loanword, M, Matthijs Siegenbeek, Middle Dutch, N, NATO phonetic alphabet, O, Oisterwijk, Old Dutch, ..., P, Primary education, Q, R, S, Ski resort, T, The Hague, Transliteration, U, Upsilon, V, Voice (phonetics), Voiced glottal fricative, Voiced velar fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Vowel, W, X, Y, Z, Zutphen, 1. Expand index (23 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
In phonetics and phonology, checked vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed closed syllable; and free vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed open syllable.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Dutch Braille is the braille alphabet used for the Dutch language in the Netherlands (but not in Flanders).
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Language Union (Dutch:, NTU) is an international regulatory institution that governs issues regarding the Dutch language.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Grand Dictation of the Dutch Language (Dutch: Groot Dictee der Nederlandse Taal) was a televised spelling test for adults organized by the Belgian newspaper De Morgen, the Dutch newspaper de Volkskrant and the Dutch public broadcaster NTR.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
Helvoirt is a village and part of the municipality of Haaren, North Brabant, Netherlands.
The history of Dutch orthography covers the changes in spelling of Dutch both in the Netherlands itself and in the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in Belgium.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Lambert Jacobsz, also Lambert Jacobsz.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Matthijs Siegenbeek (23 June 1774 in Amsterdam – 26 November 1854 in Leiden) was a Dutch academic.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Oisterwijk is a municipality and a city in the South of the Netherlands.
In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.
1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.