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ABC Records was an American record label founded in New York City in 1955.
Abilene High School is a fully accredited public high school located in Abilene, Kansas, United States, serving grades 9-12.
Abilene (pronounced) is a city in and the county seat of Dickinson County, Kansas, United States.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress.
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat, noted for his intellectual demeanor, eloquent public speaking, and promotion of progressive causes in the Democratic Party.
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the British Royal Navy.
Admiralty Tunnel is a tunnel in Gibraltar.
The Africa Star is a military campaign medal, instituted by the United Kingdom on 8 July 1943 for award to subjects of the British Commonwealth who served in the Second World War, specifically in North Africa between 10 June 1940 and 12 May 1943 inclusive.
Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign for a United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albert A. Nofi (born January 6, 1944), is an American military historian, defense analyst, and designer of board and computer wargaming systems.
Alfred Maximilian Gruenther (March 3, 1899 – May 30, 1983) was a senior United States Army officer, Red Cross president, and bridge player.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II.
Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) is a small independent agency of the United States government that administers, operates, and maintains permanent U.S. military cemeteries, memorials and monuments both inside and outside the United States.
"." Houston Business Journal.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Contract Bridge League (ACBL) is the governing body for contract bridge in the United States, Mexico, Bermuda and Canada and is a member of the World Bridge Federation, the international bridge governing body.
The American Defense Service Medal was a military award of the United States Armed Forces, established by, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on June 28, 1941.
American Presidents: Life Portraits is a series produced by C-SPAN in 1999.
"And I don't care what it is" is a phrase attributed to U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower, and often misquoted.
An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.
Angels in the Outfield is a 1951 American comedy film produced and directed by Clarence Brown and starring Paul Douglas and Janet Leigh.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
The Arkansas Army National Guard is a component of the Arkansas National Guard and the United States National Guard.
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
The Army of Occupation Medal is a military award of the United States military which was established by the United States War Department on 5 April 1946.
The Army of the United States is one of the four major service components of the United States Army (the others being the Regular Army, the United States Army Reserve and the National Guard of the United States), but it has been inactive since the suspension of the draft in 1973 and the U.S. military's transition to a volunteer force.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, (11 July 1890 – 3 June 1967) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.
"Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Augusta National Golf Club, located in Augusta, Georgia, is one of the most famous golf clubs in the world.
The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Điện Biên, sometimes called Dienbien Phu (/ means Dienbien Prefecture), is a city in the northwestern region of Vietnam.
A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.
Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a battle of the Tunisia Campaign of World War II that took place in February 1943.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of the Scheldt in World War II was a series of military operations by Canadian, British and Polish formations to open up the shipping route to Antwerp so that its port could be used to supply the Allies in north-west Europe.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
Blanche Wiesen Cook (born April 20, 1941 in New York City) is a historian and professor of history.
Bolesław Bierut (18 April 1892 – 12 March 1956) was a Polish Communist leader, NKVD agent, and a hard-line Stalinist who became President of Poland after the defeat of the Nazi forces in.
The Bonus Army were the 43,000 marchers—17,000 U.S. World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
Boone is a city in Des Moines Township, and county seat of Boone County, Iowa, United States.
The Bricker Amendment is the collective name of a number of slightly different proposed amendments to the United States Constitution considered by the United States Senate in the 1950s.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Buddah Records (later known as Buddha Records) was an American record label founded in 1967 in New York City.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Caedmon Audio and HarperCollins Audio are record label imprints of HarperCollins Publishers specialising in audiobooks and other literary content.
Camille Nimr Chamoun (Arabic: كميل نمر شمعون, Kamīl Sham'ūn) (3 April 1900 – 7 August 1987) was President of Lebanon from 1952 to 1958, and one of the country's main Christian leaders during most of the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990).
Camp Colt was a military installation near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania used for Tank Corps recruit training prior to deployment in World War I. The camp used the Gettysburg Battlefield site of the previous Great Reunion of 1913 and the preceding 1917 World War I recruit training camp for U. S. troops along the Round Top Branch.
Camp David is the country retreat for the President of the United States.
Camp George G. Meade near Middletown, Pennsylvania was a camp established and subsequently abandoned by the U.S. Volunteers during the Spanish–American War.
In the United States Army (USA), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), captain (abbreviated "CPT" in the USA and "Capt" in the USMC and USAF) is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
The Carlisle Indians football team represented the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in intercollegiate football competition.
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.
The Chance for Peace speech, also known as the Cross of Iron speech, was an address given by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower on April 16, 1953, shortly after the death of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Evans Whittaker (February 22, 1901 – November 26, 1973) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1957 to 1962.
The Checkers speech or Fund speech was an address made on September 23, 1952, by the Republican candidate for vice president of the United States, California Senator Richard Nixon.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.
The Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (–337), sometimes called Enforcement Act or Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights", giving them equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and to prohibit exclusion from jury service.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957,, a federal voting rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was a United States federal law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote.
Civitan International, based in Birmingham, Alabama, is an association of community service clubs founded in 1917.
Clifford Roberts (March 6, 1894 – September 29, 1977) was an American investment dealer and golf administrator.
"Cold turkey" refers to the abrupt cessation of a substance dependence and the resulting unpleasant experience, as opposed to gradually easing the process through reduction over time or by using replacement medication.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Commandant of the United States Coast Guard is the service chief and highest-ranking member of the United States Coast Guard.
The Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.
The Committee on Scientists and Engineers was created by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower as the result of recommendations of an earlier Special Interdepartmental Committee and was charged with taking action in all appropriate ways to promote a substantial growth in the national supply of scientific and technological manpower.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Commonwealth de Filipinas; Komonwelt ng Pilipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Congo Crisis (Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965.
Conoco Inc. was an American oil company founded in 1875 as the Continental Oil and Transportation Company.
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.
Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Coombe is a historic neighbourhood within the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in London, England.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The County of Saarbrücken was an Imperial State in the Upper Lorraine region, with its capital at Saarbrücken.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
The Croix de guerre (French) or Oorlogskruis (Dutch), both literally translating as "War Cross", is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Belgium established by royal decree on 25 October 1915.
The Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (War Cross 1939–1945) is a French military decoration, a version of the Croix de guerre created on September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis forces at any time during World War II.
Crusade in Europe is a book of wartime memoirs by General Dwight D. Eisenhower published by Doubleday in 1948.
Culzean Castle (see yogh; Cullain) is a castle overlooking the Firth of Clyde, near Maybole, Carrick, on the Ayrshire coast of Scotland.
The Czechoslovak War Cross 1939–1945 (Československý válečný kříž 1939–1945 in Czech, Československý vojnový kríž 1939–1945 in Slovak) is a military decoration of the former state of Czechoslovakia which was issued for those who had provided great service to the Czechoslovak state (in exile) during the years of World War II.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dwight David Eisenhower II (born March 31, 1948) is an American author, public policy fellow, professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and eponym of the U.S. Presidential retreat, Camp David.
David Owen (born February 14, 1955) is an American journalist and author.
The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich) is a national honour awarded by the Republic of Austria.
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Denison is a city in Grayson County, Texas, United States.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races.
Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF), less commonly, Surrendered Enemy Forces, was a US designation for soldiers who surrendered to an adversary after hostilities ended and for those who had already surrendered POWs and held in camps in occupied German territory at that time.
The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a military award of the United States Army that is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility.
The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military decoration of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps which was first created in 1919.
The Distinguished Service Star is the third highest military award of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
The domino theory was a theory prominent from the 1950s to the 1980s that posited that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Doud Dwight "Ikky" Eisenhower (September 24, 1917 – January 2, 1921) was the first son of Dwight D. Eisenhower and Mamie Eisenhower.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
The Draft Eisenhower movement was the first successful political draft of the 20th century to take a private citizen to the Oval Office.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial is a United States presidential memorial under construction, honoring Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during World War II and the 34th President of the United States.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home is the presidential library and museum of Dwight David Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961), located in his hometown of Abilene, Kansas.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy (Eisenhower School), formerly known as the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF), is a part of the National Defense University.
Dwight David Eisenhower and American Power is a 1995 biography of the U.S. president and military leader by historian William B. Pickett, a professor (now emeritus) at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana.
Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Edgar N. Eisenhower (19 January 1889 – 12 July 1971) was a lawyer, and an older brother of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Edward E. "Swede" Hazlett (February 22, 1892 – November 2, 1958) and Dwight D. Eisenhower were natives of Abilene, Kansas who sparked a friendship that would last from their meeting in high school until Hazlett’s death from cancer in 1958.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
The Eisenhower baseball controversy refers to the allegations that the former general and President of the United States, Dwight Eisenhower, played minor league baseball for the Junction City Soldiers in the Central Kansas League the year before he attended the United States Military Academy at West Point.
The Eisenhower Commemorative Dollar is a United States commemorative coin minted in 1990 to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of the birth of General/President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Eisenhower Decides to Run: Presidential Politics and Cold War Strategy is a 2000 book by historian William B. Pickett, a professor (now emeritus) at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana.
The Eisenhower Doctrine was a policy enunciated by Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 5, 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East".
The Eisenhower dollar is a one-dollar coin issued by the United States Mint from 1971 to 1978; it was the first coin of that denomination issued by the Mint since the Peace dollar series ended in 1935.
The Eisenhower jacket, or "Ike" jacket, is a type of waist length jacket or blouson developed for the U.S. Army during the later stages of World War II.
Eisenhower National Historic Site preserves the home and farm of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States, and its surrounding property of.
The Eisenhower Tunnel, officially the Eisenhower–Edwin C. Johnson Memorial Tunnel, is a dual-bore, four-lane vehicular tunnel in the western United States, approximately west of Denver, Colorado.
Eisenhower's farewell address (sometimes referred to as "Eisenhower's farewell address to the nation") was the final public speech of Dwight D. Eisenhower as the 34th President of the United States, delivered in a television broadcast on January 17, 1961.
Elie Almon Culbertson (July 22, 1891 – December 27, 1955), known as Ely Culbertson, was an American contract bridge entrepreneur and personality dominant during the 1930s.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Allies took place in late April and early May 1945.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Ernest Joseph King (23 November 1878 – 25 June 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) and Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
The European Theater of Operations, United States Army (ETOUSA) was a United States Army formation which directed US Army operations in parts of Europe from 1942 to 1945.
The European–African–Middle Eastern Campaign Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces which was first created on November 6, 1942 by issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt The medal was intended to recognize those military service members who had performed military duty in the European Theater (to include North Africa and the Middle East) during the years of the Second World War.
Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was an American politician of the Republican Party.
An executive officer (XO) is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10450 on April 27, 1953.
Executive privilege is the power of the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch of the United States Government to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government in pursuit of information or personnel relating to the executive.
Exxon was the brand name of oil and natural resources company Exxon Corporation, prior to 1972 known as Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627), was enacted on June 29, 1956, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law.
The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944 (Pub. L. No. 78-521; 58 Stat. 838) is legislation enacted by the United States Congress and signed into law on December 20, 1944, which established a 50–50 formula for subsidizing the construction of national highways and secondary (or "feeder") roads.
Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle (1922 – December 26, 1942) was a member of the French resistance during World War II.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
The first inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower as the 34th President of the United States was held on Tuesday, January 20, 1953, at the east portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
The first inauguration of Richard Nixon as the 37th President of the United States was held on Monday, January 20, 1969, at the east portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
A five-star rank is a very senior military rank, first established in the United States in 1944, with a five-star general insignia, and corresponding ranks in other countries.
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.
The Former Presidents Act (known also as FPA; 3 U.S.C. § 102) is a 1958 U.S. federal law that provides several lifetime benefits to former presidents of the United States who have not been removed from office.
The Formosa Resolution was a bill enacted by the U.S. Congress on 29 January 1955 that established an American commitment to defend Formosa (now called Taiwan).
Fort Benning is a United States Army base straddling the Alabama-Georgia border next to Columbus, Georgia.
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, immediately north of the city of Leavenworth, in the northeast part of the state.
Fort Lesley J. McNair is a United States Army post located on the tip of Greenleaf Point, the peninsula that lies at the confluence of the Potomac River and the Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. To the peninsula's west is the Washington Channel, while the Anacostia River is on its south side.
Fort Lewis is a United States military facility located south-southwest of Tacoma, Washington, under the jurisdiction of the United States Army Joint Base Garrison, Joint Base Lewis–McChord.
Fort Sam Houston is a U.S. Army post in San Antonio, Texas.
Fox Conner (November 2, 1874 – October 13, 1951) was a major general of the United States Army.
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.
Francis Gary Powers (August 17, 1929 – August 1, 1977)—often referred to as simply Gary Powers—was an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission in Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960 U-2 incident.
Frank Diehl Fackenthal (February 22, 1883 – September 5, 1968) was an American academic administrator best known for his long association with Columbia University.
Frank Gasparro (August 26, 1909 – September 29, 2001) was the tenth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint, holding this position from February 23, 1965, to January 16, 1981.
Frank Owen Gehry,, FAIA (born Frank Owen Goldberg)Reinhart, Anthony (July 28, 2010), Globe and Mail is a Canadian-born American architect, residing in Los Angeles.
Lieutenant General Frank Maxwell Andrews (February 3, 1884 – May 3, 1943) was a senior officer of the United States Army and one of the founders of the United States Army Air Forces, which was later to become the United States Air Force.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Fraternization (from Latin frater, brother) is "turning people into brothers" by conducting social relations with people who are actually unrelated and/or of a different class (especially those with whom one works) as if they were siblings, family members, personal friends, or lovers.
The French Armed Forces (Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the National Guard and the Gendarmerie of the French Republic.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
A funeral train is a train specially chartered in order to carry a coffin or coffins to a place of interment.
Gallup's most admired man and woman poll is an annual poll that Gallup has conducted at the end of most years since 1948.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.
General Foods Corporation was a company whose direct predecessor was established in the USA by Charles William Post as the Postum Cereal Company in 1895.
General of the Army (abbreviated as GA) is a five-star general officer and the second highest possible rank in the United States Army.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
George Magoffin Humphrey (March 8, 1890January 20, 1970) was an American lawyer, businessman and banker.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
In early August 1943, Lieutenant General George S. Patton slapped two United States Army soldiers under his command during the Sicily Campaign of World War II.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gettysburg is a borough and the county seat of Adams County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.
Graham Holdings Company (formerly The Washington Post Company) is a diversified American conglomerate, best known for formerly owning the newspaper for which it was once named, The Washington Post, and Newsweek.
Grayson Louis Kirk (October 12, 1903 – November 21, 1997) was president of Columbia University during the Columbia University protests of 1968.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
Grinnell College is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational, liberal arts college in Grinnell, Iowa.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was one of the major twentieth-century figures in the study of international politics.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Henri Honoré Giraud (18 January 1879 – 11 March 1949) was a French general who was captured in both World Wars, but escaped both times.
Henry Barbosa González (born Enrique Barbosa González; May 3, 1916 – November 28, 2000) was a Democratic politician from the U.S. state of Texas, who represented Texas's 20th congressional district from 1961 to 1999.
Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an American general officer holding the grades of General of the Army and General of the Air Force.
Herbert Brownell Jr. (February 20, 1904 – May 1, 1996) was an attorney and a Republican Party organizer.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
In political studies, surveys have been conducted in order to construct historical rankings of the success of individuals who have served as President of the United States.
For the United States of America, 1945 to 1964 was a time of high economic growth and general prosperity.
The history of the United States Army began in 1775.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
Hope is a city in southern Dickinson County, Kansas, United States.
Major General Howard McCrum Snyder (February 7, 1881 – September 22, 1970) was a member of the United States Army Medical Corps, and Physician to the President for Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Ida Elizabeth Stover Eisenhower (May 1, 1862 – September 11, 1946) was the mother of U.S. President Dwight David Eisenhower (1890–1969), university president Milton Stover Eisenhower (1899–1985), Edgar N. Eisenhower (1889–1971), and Earl D. Eisenhower (1898–1968).
The IG Farben Building, also known as the Poelzig Building, formerly informally called The Pentagon of Europe, is a building complex in Frankfurt, Germany, which currently serves as the main building of the West End Campus of the University of Frankfurt.
The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.
Ike: Countdown to D-Day is a 2004 American television film originally aired on the American television channel A&E, directed by Robert Harmon and written by Lionel Chetwynd.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Internet Public Library (IPL, ipl2) was a non-profit, largely student-run website managed by a consortium, headed by Drexel University.
Interstate 290 (I-290) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that runs westwards from the Chicago Loop.
Interstate 70 (I-70) is a major Interstate Highway in the United States that runs from I-15 near Cove Fort, Utah to I-695 near Baltimore, Maryland.
Interstate 80 (I-80) is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, running between the U.S. states of California and New Jersey.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States.
IX Corps was a corps of the United States Army.
General Joseph "Lightning Joe" Lawton Collins (May 1, 1896 – September 12, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer who served in World War II and became Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the Korean War.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jacob Loucks Devers (8 September 1887 – 15 October 1979) was a general in the United States Army who commanded the 6th Army Group in the European Theater during World War II.
James Buchanan Jr. (April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American politician who served as the 15th President of the United States (1857–61), serving immediately prior to the American Civil War.
James Eucene Chaney (1885-1967) was an American military officer in the army before moving to the air force.
James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was the last Cabinet-level United States Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
James Francis Thorpe (Sac and Fox (Sauk): Wa-Tho-Huk, translated as "Bright Path"; May 22 or 28, 1887March 28, 1953) was an American athlete and Olympic gold medalist.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower (August 3, 1922 – December 21, 2013) was a United States Army officer, diplomat, and military historian.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was a senior United States Army officer.
John Lewis Gaddis (born 1941) is the Robert A. Lovett Professor of Military and Naval History at Yale University.
John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971.
John William Goode Jr. (March 10, 1923 – February 5, 1994) was a lawyer in San Antonio who was a figure in the 1950s and 1960s rebirth of the Republican Party in Texas.
Lieutenant General John Wilson O'Daniel (February 15, 1894 – March 27, 1975), nicknamed "Iron Mike", was a senior United States Army officer who served in World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joseph Morrell Dodge (November 18, 1890 – December 2, 1964) was a chairman of the Detroit Bank, now Comerica.
Joseph Little Bristow (22 July 186114 July 1944) was a Republican politician from the American state of Kansas.
Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician who served as U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957.
Joseph Taggart McNarney (August 28, 1893 – February 1, 1972) was a United States Army Air Forces (and later Air Force) general officer who served as Military Governor of occupied Germany.
Joseph William Martin Jr. (November 3, 1884 – March 6, 1968) was an American politician who served as the 44th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1947 to 1949 and 1953 to 1955; he represented the district covering North Attleborough, Massachusetts.
Julie Nixon Eisenhower (born July 5, 1948) is an American author who is the younger daughter of Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States, and Pat Nixon, First Lady of the United States.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
Karlsbrunn is a German village, part of the municipality of Großrosseln, situated in the district of Saarbrücken, part of the federal state of Saarland.
Kathleen Helen Summersby BEM (née MacCarthy-Morrogh; 23 November 1908 – 20 January 1975), known as Kay Summersby, was a member of the British Mechanised Transport Corps during World War II, who served as a chauffeur and later as personal secretary to Dwight D. Eisenhower during his period as Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force in command of the Allied forces in north west Europe.
Kenyon A. Joyce was a major general in the United States Army.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kingston upon Thames, also known as Kingston, is an area in the southwest of Greater London, England, southwest of Charing Cross.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States.
Lane University was a college located in Lecompton, Kansas.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The lavender scare refers to a witch hunt and the mass firings of homosexual people in the 1950s from the United States government.
This is a list of leaders of South Vietnam, since the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina in 1946 until the fall of the Republic of Vietnam in 1975, and the reunification of Vietnam in 1976.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lecompton (pronounced) is a city in Douglas County, Kansas, United States.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements.
General Leonard Townsend Gerow (July 13, 1888 – October 12, 1972) was a highly decorated senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in both World War I and World War II.
Leonard Wood Hall (October 2, 1900 – June 2, 1979) was a United States Representative from New York.
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general (abbreviated LTG in the Army, Lt Gen in the Air Force, and LtGen in the Marine Corps) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9.
A limber is a two-wheeled cart designed to support the trail of an artillery piece, or the stock of a field carriage such as a caisson or traveling forge, allowing it to be towed.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Belgium, excluding honorary consulates.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States.
National memorial is a designation for an officially recognized area that memorializes a historic person or event.
This is a list of Presidents of Columbia University in the state of New York.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
Although many paths may lead to the Presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been lawyer.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the United States.
Little Rock Central High School (LRCHS) is an accredited comprehensive public high school in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States.
The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957.
Lieutenant General Lloyd Ralston Fredendall (December 28, 1883 – October 4, 1963) was a senior officer of the United States Army who fought during World War II.
The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The Louisiana Maneuvers were a series of U.S. Army exercises held around Northern and Western-Central Louisiana, including Fort Polk, Camp Claiborne and Camp Livingston, in 1940 and 1941.
General Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1898 – April 16, 1978) was a senior officer of the United States Army who was known for his administration of occupied Germany after World War II.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lying in state is the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, major is a field grade military officer rank above the rank of captain and below the rank of lieutenant colonel.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8.
Malcolm Sinclair (born 5 June 1950) is an English stage and television actor and President of Trade Union, Equity.
Marie Geneva "Mamie" Doud Eisenhower (November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979) was the wife of United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Manuel L. Quezon (born Manuel Luís Quezon y Molina; August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was a Filipino statesman, soldier, and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Mary Jean Eisenhower (born December 21, 1955) is the President and Chief Executive Officer (and former President and Chairman Emeritus) of People to People International.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
The Matsu Islands (Fuzhou dialect: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently,; Fuzhou dialect: 馬祖島 Mā-cū-dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣;; Lièng-gŏng-gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China (ROC).
General Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895 – July 26, 1993) was the 19th Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
The Médaille militaire (Military Medal) is a military decoration of the French Republic for other ranks for meritorious service and acts of bravery in action against an enemy force.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
The Mediterranean Theater of Operations, United States Army (MTOUSA), originally called the North African Theater of Operations (NATOUSA), was the American term for the theater of operations covering North Africa and Italy during World War II.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
The Mexican Border Service Medal was a United States military award which was established by an act of the United States Congress on July 9, 1918.
MGM Records was a record label started by the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio in 1946 for the purpose of releasing soundtrack albums of their musical films.
The Military Demarcation Line (MDL), sometimes referred to as the Armistice Line, is the land border or demarcation line between North Korea and South Korea.
The Military Medal (Médaille militaire Militärmedaille) is the highest military decoration of Luxembourg.
The Military Order of Italy (Italian: Ordine Militare d'Italia) is the highest military order of the Italian Republic and the former Kingdom of Italy.
The Military Order of the White Lion (Vojenský řád Bílého lva „Za vítězství“), also known as the Military Order of the White Lion "For Victory", was an award established on 9 February 1945 to reward military merit, either personal acts of bravery or leadership.
The military–industrial complex (MIC) is an informal alliance between a nation's military and the defense industry which supplies it, seen together as a vested interest which influences public policy.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
Milton Stover Eisenhower (September 15, 1899 – May 2, 1985) was an American educational administrator.
Created in 1981, the Eisenhower Foundation is the private sector continuation of two Presidential Commissions – the 1967-1968 bipartisan National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (the Kerner Riot Commission, after the big city protests in Detroit, Newark, Los Angeles and many other cities) and the 1968-1969 bipartisan National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (the National Violence Commission, after the assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther King and Senator Robert F. Kennedy).
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
The Morgenthau Plan (Morgenthau-Plan) by the Allied occupation of Germany following World War II was a proposal to eliminate Germany's ability to wage war by eliminating its arms industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries basic to military strength.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was signed into law on September 2, 1958, providing funding to United States education institutions at all levels.
The National Defense Service Medal (NDSM) is a service medal of the United States Armed Forces established by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953. The medal was first intended to be a "blanket campaign medal" awarded to service members who served honorably during a designated time period of which a "national emergency" had been declared during a time of war or conflict. It may also be issued to active military members for any other period that the Secretary of Defense designates. Currently, the National Defense Service Medal is the oldest service medal in use by the United States Armed Forces. The oldest continuously issued combat medal is the Medal of Honor.
The National Defense University (NDU) is an institution of higher education funded by the United States Department of Defense, intended to facilitate high-level training, education, and the development of national security strategy.
The National Mall is a landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the United States National Park System.
The National Order of Honour and Merit (Ordre National Honneur et Mérite) is the highest honour of merit awarded by the President of the Republic of Haiti.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Naval History and Heritage Command, formerly the Naval Historical Center, is an Echelon II command responsible for the preservation, analysis, and dissemination of U.S. naval history and heritage located at the historic Washington Navy Yard.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newsday is an American daily newspaper that primarily serves Nassau and Suffolk counties and the New York City borough of Queens on Long Island, although it is sold throughout the New York metropolitan area.
Ngô Đình Diệm (3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Bulganin (– 24 February 1975) was a Soviet politician who served as Minister of Defense (1953–1955) and Premier of the Soviet Union (1955–1958) under Nikita Khrushchev, following service in the Red Army and as defense minister under Joseph Stalin.
The Nishan-e-Pakistan (نشان پاکستان, English: Order of Pakistan) is the highest of civil awards and decorations given by the Government of Pakistan for the highest degree of service to the country and nation of Pakistan.
Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
NSC 162/2 was a policy paper of the United States National Security Council approved by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 30 October 1953 which defined the Cold War national security policy during the Eisenhower administration.
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
A nuclear triad is a three-pronged military force structure that consists of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The United States was the first country to manufacture nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in combat, with the separate bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
An oak leaf cluster is a miniature bronze or silver twig of four oak leaves with three acorns on the stem that is authorized by the United States Armed Forces as a ribbon device for a specific set of decorations and awards of the Department of Defense, Department of the Army, and Department of the Air Force to denote subsequent decorations and awards.
The Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS; Amt der Militärregierung für Deutschland (U.S.)) was the United States military-established government created shortly after the end of hostilities in occupied Germany in World War II.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder.
The Old Right was an informal designation used for a branch of American conservatism, which never became an organized movement.
General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a senior officer of the United States Army during and after World War II.
Vom Kriege is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife Marie von Brühl in 1832.
Open skies is an international policy concept that calls for the liberalization of the rules and regulations of the international aviation industry—especially commercial aviation—in order to create a free-market environment for the airline industry.
Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Teapot was a series of fourteen nuclear test explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site in the first half of 1955.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
The Order of Abdón Calderón is an Ecuadorian decoration instituted in 1904 and awarded for extraordinary military service.
The Order of Aeronautical Merit (Ordem do Mérito Aeronáutico) is an award of the Brazilian Air Force, established on 1 November 1943 by President Getúlio Vargas.
The Royal Order of George I (Βασιλικόν Τάγμα Γεωργίου Α') is a Greek order instituted by King Constantine I in 1915.
The Order of Glory (Nichan Iftikhar or Atiq Nishan-i-Iftikhar) was a Tunisian honorary order founded in 1835 by Al-Mustafa ibn Mahmud the Bey of Tunisia.
The Order of the Ismail (Nishan al-Ismail) was an order of chivalry and state honour in the Kingdom of Egypt.
The Order of Leopold (Leopoldsorde, Ordre de Léopold) is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood.
The Order of Liberation ("Ordre de la Libération") is a French Order which was awarded to heroes of the Liberation of France during World War II.
The Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero (Orden de Manuel Amador Guerrero) is the highest honour of Panama.
The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.
The Order of Merit (Orden del Mérito) is a Chilean military order and was created in 1929.
The Order of Military Merit (Ordem do Mérito Militar) is an award of the Brazilian Army, established on 11 June 1943 by President Getúlio Vargas.
The Order of Ouissam Alaouite or the Sharifian Order of Al-Alaoui is a military decoration of Morocco which is bestowed by the King of Morocco upon those civilians and military officers who have displayed heroism in combat or have contributed meritorious service to the Moroccan state.
The Order of Polonia Restituta (Order Odrodzenia Polski, Order of the Rebirth of Poland) is a Polish state order established 4 February 1921.
The Order of Sikatuna (Orden ni Sikatuna) is the national order of diplomatic merit of the Republic of the Philippines.
The Imperial Order of Solomon was an order of knighthood of the Ethiopian Empire founded in 1874.
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav (Den Kongelige Norske Sankt Olavs Orden; or Sanct Olafs Orden, the old Norwegian name) is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on August 21, 1847.
The Order of Suvorov (Russian Орден Суворова) is a military decoration of the Russian Federation named in honor of Russian Field Marshal Count Alexander Suvorov (1729–1800).
The Order of the Aztec Eagle (Orden Mexicana del Águila Azteca) forms part of the Mexican Honours System and is the highest Mexican order awarded to foreigners in the country.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
is Japan's highest order.
The Order of the Cloud and Banner also known as the Order of the Resplendent Banner is a military award of the Republic of China.
The Order of the Cross of Grunwald was a military decoration created in Poland in November 1943 by the High Command of Gwardia Ludowa, a World War II Polish resistance movement organised by the Polish Workers Party.
The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour.
The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (Ordo Equestris Sancti Sepulcri Hierosolymitani, OESSH), also called Order of the Holy Sepulchre or Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood under the protection of the Holy See.
The Order of the Liberator General San Martin (Orden del Libertador General San Martín) is the highest decoration in Argentina.
The Order of the Netherlands Lion, also referred to as the Order of the Lion of the Netherlands (De Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, L'Ordre du Lion Néerlandais) is a Dutch order of chivalry founded by King William I of the Netherlands on 29 September 1815.
The Order of the Oak Crown (Ordre de la Couronne de chêne, Eichenlaubkronenorden, Eechelaafkrounenuerden) is an order of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
The Order of the Queen of Sheba was originally instituted as a ladies' order in 1922 in the Ethiopian Empire by Empress Zawditu.
The Order of the Redeemer (translit), also known as the Order of the Saviour, is an order of merit of Greece.
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri (เครื่องขัตติยราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันมีเกียรติคุณรุ่งเรืองยิ่งมหาจักรีบรมราชวงศ์) was established in 1882 by King Rama V of the Kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) to commemorate the Bangkok Centennial.
The National Order of the Southern Cross (Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
The Order of Vasco Núñez de Balboa is an order of Panama, instituted on 1 July 1941 (Ley No. 94 de 1 de julio de 1941).
The Order of Victory (translit) was the highest military decoration awarded for World War II service in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world.
The Order pro Merito Melitensi is the order of merit of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, established in 1920.
Orval Eugene Faubus (January 7, 1910 – December 14, 1994) was an American politician who served as 36th Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967.
Oswald "Ozzie", "Jake" Jacoby (December 8, 1902 – June 27, 1984) was an American contract bridge player and author, considered one of the greatest bridge players of all time.
The Oval Office is the working office space of the President of the United States located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
Oveta Culp Hobby (January 19, 1905 – August 16, 1995) was the first secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first director of the Women's Army Corps, and a chairperson of the board of the Houston Post.
Pactomania was a term used to describe period of treaty making by the United States during the early Cold War.
Palm Desert is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, in the Coachella Valley, approximately 14 miles (23 km) east of Palm Springs, 121 miles (194 km) northeast of San Diego and 122 miles (196 km) east of Los Angeles.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Panama Canal Zone (Zona del Canal de Panamá) was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centered on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama.
Paul Dudley White (June 6, 1886 – October 31, 1973), American physician and cardiologist, was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, the son of Herbert Warren White and Elizabeth Abigail Dudley.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.
People to People International (PTPI) was established on September 11, 1956, by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, as part of the United States Information Agency.
The People to People Student Ambassador Program was a travel service based in Spokane, Washington, offering domestic and international travel opportunities to middle and high school students.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
The Phi Beta Kappa Society (ΦΒΚ) is the oldest academic honor society in the United States.
Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.
The Philippine Army (PA; Filipino: Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Ejército Filipino) is the main, oldest and largest branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) responsible for ground warfare.
The Philippine Legion of Honor (Lehiyong Pandangal ng Pilipinas) was established by President Manuel Roxas, through Philippine Army Circular No.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from 1958 to 1981.
The Presbyterian Church (USA), or PC (USA), is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States.
The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower began on January 20, 1953, when he was inaugurated as the 34th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1961.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Pressure is a play written by David Haig.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Project Genetrix, also known as WS-119L, was a United States Air Force program designed to launch General Mills manufactured surveillance balloons over Communist China, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to take aerial photographs and collect intelligence.
Project Solarium was an American national-level exercise in strategy and foreign policy design convened by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the summer of 1953.
Quezon City (Lungsod Quezon,; Ciudad Quezón; also known as QC or Kyusi) is the most populous city in the Philippines.
Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.
RDS-37 was the Soviet Union's first two-stage hydrogen bomb, first tested on November 22, 1955.
The Recession of 1958, also known as the Eisenhower Recession, was a sharp worldwide economic downturn in 1958.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Regular Army of the United States succeeded the Continental Army as the country's permanent, professional land-based military force.
The Reichsautobahn system was the beginning of the German autobahns under the Third Reich.
The Republican National Committee (RNC) is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The River Brethren is a name used to indicate certain Christian groups originating in 1770, during a revival movement among German colonizers in Pennsylvania.
Robert Alphonso Taft Sr. (September 8, 1889 – July 31, 1953) was an American conservative politician, lawyer, and scion of the Taft family.
Robert Bernerd Anderson (June 4, 1910 August 14, 1989) was an American administrator and businessman.
The Rock of Gibraltar, also known as the Pillars of Hercules, is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, near the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Rudolf Ivanovich Abel (Рудо́льф Ива́нович А́бель), real name Vilyam "Willie" Genrikhovich Fisher (Ви́льям "Ви́лли" Ге́нрихович Фи́шер; 11 July 1903 – 15 November 1971) was a Soviet intelligence officer.
Samuel Taliaferro Rayburn (January 6, 1882 – November 16, 1961) was an American politician who served as the 43rd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.
Brigadier General Sereno Elmer Brett (October 31, 1891 – September 9, 1952) was a highly decorated United States Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II and played a key, if little recognized today, role in the development of armored warfare.
A service star is a miniature bronze or silver five-pointed star inch (4.8 mm) in diameter that is authorized to be worn by members of the seven uniformed services of the United States on medals and ribbons to denote an additional award or service period.
Llewelyn Sherman Adams (January 8, 1899 – October 27, 1986) was an American politician, best known as White House Chief of Staff for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the culmination of an 18-year political career that also included a stint as Governor of New Hampshire.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
The Sixth United States Army Group was an Allied Army Group that fought in the European Theater of Operations during World War II.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
The Smoky Hill River is a river in the central Great Plains of North America, running through the U.S. states of Colorado and Kansas.
In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
Southern Germany as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of that country's head of state, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Sun-Sentinel is the main daily newspaper of Broward County, Florida.
The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) is the head of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), also known as Allied Command Operations (ACO), of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), based in Casteau, Belgium.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.
Susan Elaine Eisenhower (born December 31, 1951) is a consultant, author, and expert on international security, space policy, energy, and relations between the Russian Federation and the United States of America.
Syngman Rhee (April 18, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was a South Korean politician, the first and the last Head of State of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Crisis of 1957 was a period of severe diplomatic confrontations during the Cold War that involved Syria and the Soviet Union on one hand, and the United States and its allies, including Turkey and the Baghdad Pact, on the other.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tank Corps, National Army, was the stateside tank unit of the United States Army during and after World War I. Preceded by the Tank Service of the National Army of 15 February 1918 in the 65th Engineers at Camp Meade, the service was removed from the Engineer Corps and organized as the Tank Corps, National Army, with command transferring from Col H. H. Ferguson to Col Ira Clinton Welborn on 9 March.
Tau Epsilon Phi (ΤΕΦ), commonly known as TEP or Tep, is an American fraternity with 12 active chapters, 7 active colonies, and 9 official alumni clubs chiefly located at universities and colleges on the East Coast.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Texas District 20 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the western half of San Antonio and Bexar County in Texas.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The American Assembly is a think tank at Columbia University, founded in 1950 by General Dwight Eisenhower.
The class the stars fell on is an expression used to describe the United States Military Academy Class of 1915.
The Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was an American lawyer, prosecutor, and politician.
Thomas Edgar Stephens (November 18, 1884 – January 4, 1966) was a Welsh-American artist and portrait painter.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time management is the process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.
The Transcontinental Motor Convoys were early 20th century vehicle convoys, including three US Army truck trains, that crossed the United States (one was coast-to-coast) to the west coast.
The Treaty establishing the European Defence Community is an unratified treaty signed on 27 May 1952 by the six 'inner' countries of European integration; West Germany, France, Italy, and the Benelux countries.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful United States Army formation ever to take to the field, commanding four field armies at its peak in 1945: First United States Army, Third United States Army, Ninth United States Army and Fifteenth United States Army.
The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) to the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times a person is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army Central, formerly the Third United States Army, commonly referred to as the Third Army and as ARCENT is a military formation of the United States Army, which saw service in World War I and World War II, in the 1991 Gulf War, and in the coalition occupation of Iraq.
The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.
United States Army Europe (USAREUR), formally United States Army Europe and Seventh Army, is an Army Service Component Command of the United States Army.
The United States Army War College (USAWC) is a U.S. Army educational institution in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500-acre (2 km²) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Capitol rotunda is the central rotunda (built 1818–1824) of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C..
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is a bipartisan, independent commission of the United States federal government, created in 1957, that is charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations concerning civil rights issues in the United States.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, Maryland.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States presidential election of 1952 was the 42nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1952.
The United States presidential election of 1956 was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956.
The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The Secretary of the Navy (or SECNAV) is a statutory officer and the head (chief executive officer) of the Department of the Navy, a military department (component organization) within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The United States Senate elections of 1954 was a midterm election in the first term of Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidency.
In a hierarchical organization, "up or out", also known as a tenure or partnership system, is the requirement that each member of the organization must achieve a certain rank within a certain period of time.
USS Washington (BB-56), the second of two battleships in the, was the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 42nd state.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The War Order of Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue", Polish: Order Wojenny Virtuti Militari) is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war.
Walter Krueger (26 January 1881 – 20 August 1967) was an American soldier and general officer in the first half of the 20th century.
The Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) — known as Walter Reed General Hospital (WRGH) until 1951 — was the U.S. Army's flagship medical center from 1909 to 2011.
The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the City and Diocese of Washington, commonly known as Washington National Cathedral, is a cathedral of the Episcopal Church located in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wendy Beckett (born 25 February 1930), better known as Sister Wendy, is a British religious sister, hermit, consecrated virgin, and art historian who became well known internationally during the 1990s when she presented a series of documentaries for the BBC on the history of art.
The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking non-elected employee of the White House.
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
William Joseph Brennan Jr. (April 25, 1906 – July 24, 1997) was an American judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1956 to 1990.
William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was an American politician, newspaper publisher, and Republican Party leader.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Golf Hall of Fame is located at World Golf Village near St. Augustine, Florida, in the United States, and it is unusual among sports halls of fame in that a single site honors both men and women.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The World War I Victory Medal is a service medal of the United States military which was first created in 1919, designed by James Earle Fraser.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World War II Victory Medal is a service medal of the United States military which was established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 (Public Law 135, 79th Congress) and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
York (Pennsylvania German: Yarrick), known as the White Rose City (after the symbol of the House of York), is the county seat of York County, Pennsylvania, United States, located in the south-central region of the state.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
Pearl Zane Grey (January 31, 1872 – October 23, 1939) was an American author and dentist best known for his popular adventure novels and stories associated with the Western genre in literature and the arts; he idealized the American frontier.
The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.
The 15th United States Infantry Regiment is a parent regiment in the United States Army.
The 1948 Republican National Convention was held at the Municipal Auditorium, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from June 21 to 25, 1948.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").
The 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état was a covert operation carried out by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that deposed the democratically elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz and ended the Guatemalan Revolution of 1944–1954.
The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention.
On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.
The 1964 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States took place in the Cow Palace, Daly City, California, on July 13 to July 16, 1964.
The 21st Army Group was a World War II British headquarters formation, in command of two field armies and other supporting units, consisting primarily of the British Second Army and the First Canadian Army.
The Seventy-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
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