163 relations: Abbott Laboratories, Active metabolite, Adherence (medicine), Agonist, AKR1C1, AKR1C3, Amenorrhea, Ames test, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Antiandrogen, Antidote, Antiestrogen, Antiglucocorticoid, Antigonadotropin, Antimineralocorticoid, Aromatization, Asia, Atrophy, Australia, Binding selectivity, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Bloating, Blood lipids, Blood plasma, Bone resorption, Breast cancer, Breast pain, Canada, Carcinoma, Cell growth, Central America, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cmax (pharmacology), Cochrane Library, Combination therapy, CYP3A4, Decidualization, Defecation, Derivative (chemistry), Double bond, Drug, Drug metabolism, Drug overdose, DrugBank, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia, ..., Efficacy, Endometriosis, Endometriosis and infertility, Endometrium, Enzyme inhibitor, Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estrogen, Estrogen (medication), Estrogen receptor, Europe, Fetus, Fibrocystic breast changes, Glucocorticoid, Glucocorticoid receptor, Glucuronic acid, Gonadotropin, Headache, Health professional, Hormone, Hot flash, Human serum albumin, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hyperplasia, Hyperthermia, In utero, In vitro fertilisation, In vivo, Infertility, Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Ireland, Irregular menstruation, Ketone, Laparotomy, Ligand (biochemistry), Liver, Luteal phase, Luteal support, Medical prescription, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Menopause, Menstruation, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methyl group, Migraine, Mineralocorticoid receptor, Ministry of Health (Israel), Miscarriage, Mood swing, Mutagen, National Health Service, National Health Service (England), Nausea, Neurosteroid, New Zealand, Norethisterone acetate, North Africa, Ontogeny, Oral administration, Organic compound, Ovary, Ovulation, Pelvic pain, Pharmacokinetics, Plasma protein binding, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Pregnancy, Pregnane, Pregnanediol, Premenstrual syndrome, Prodrug, Progesterone, Progesterone (medication), Progesterone receptor, Progesterone receptor A, Progesterone receptor B, Progestin, Progestogen, Protein isoform, Recurrent miscarriage, Retroprogesterone, Ro 6-3129, Route of administration, Sedation, Sex hormone-binding globulin, Side effect, Solvay S.A., South Africa, South America, Steroid, Structural analog, Symptom, Tablet (pharmacy), The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Thermoregulation, Thrombus, Tissue (biology), Trademark distinctiveness, Transcortin, Transport maximum, Trengestone, Ultraviolet, United Kingdom, United States, United States National Library of Medicine, Urine, Venous thrombosis, Weight gain, Women's Health Initiative, 20α-Dihydrodydrogesterone, 5α-Reductase. Expand index (113 more) » « Shrink index
Abbott Laboratories is an American health care company with headquarters in Lake Bluff, Illinois, United States.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
In medicine, compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 also known as 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 1/2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C1 gene.
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3), also known as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17β-HSD5, HSD17B5) is a key steroidogenic enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1C3 gene.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
The Ames test is a widely employed method that uses bacteria to test whether a given chemical can cause mutations in the DNA of the test organism.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
Antiestrogens, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent estrogens like estradiol from mediating their biological effects in the body.
An antiglucocorticoid is a drug which reduces glucocorticoid activity in the body.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Abdominal bloating is a symptom that can appear at any age, generally associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but can also appear alone.
Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Decidualization is a process that results in significant changes to cells of the endometrium in preparation for, and during, pregnancy.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
The DrugBank database is a comprehensive, freely accessible, online database containing information on drugs and drug targets.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
In endometriosis, there is a risk of female infertility of up to 30% to 50%.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fibrocystic breasts or fibrocystic breast disease or fibrocystic breast condition commonly referred to as "FBC" is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.
Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).
Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).
Luteal support is the administration of medication, generally progesterone, progestins or GnRH agonists, to increase the success rate of implantation and early embryogenesis, thereby complementing and/or supporting the function of the corpus luteum.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
The mineralocorticoid receptor (or MR, MLR, MCR), also known as the aldosterone receptor or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR3C2 gene that is located on chromosome 4q31.1-31.2.
The Ministry of Health (מִשְׂרַד הַבְּרִיאוּת, translit. Misrad HaBri'ut) is a ministry in the Israeli government responsible for formulating health policies.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Norethisterone acetate (NETA), also known as norethindrone acetate and sold under the brand name Primolut-Nor among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Pelvic pain is pain in the area of the pelvis.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pregnane is a C21 steroid and, indirectly, a parent of progesterone.
Pregnanediol, or 5β-pregnane-3α,20α-diol, is an inactive metabolic product of progesterone.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's period.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
The progesterone receptor A (PR-A) is one of three known isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), the main biological target of the endogenous progestogen sex hormone progesterone.
The progesterone receptor B (PR-B) is one of three known isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR), the main biological target of the endogenous progestogen sex hormone progesterone.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Recurrent miscarriage, habitual abortion, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is three or more consecutive pregnancy losses.
Retroprogesterone, also known as 9β,10α-progesterone or as 9β,10α-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a progestin which was never marketed.
Ro 6-3129, also known as 16α-ethylthio-6-dehydroretroprogesterone or as 16α-ethylthio-9β,10α-pregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, as well as 16α-ethylthiodydrogesterone, is a progestogen of the retroprogesterone group which was developed by Roche but was never marketed.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones: androgen and estrogen.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Solvay S.A. is a Belgian chemical company founded in 1863, with its head office in Neder-Over-Heembeek, Brussels, Belgium.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of endocrinology and metabolism.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene.
In physiology, transport maximum (alternatively Tm or Tmax) refers to the point at which increases in concentration of a substance do not result in an increase in movement of a substance across a cell membrane.
Trengestone, sold under the brand names Reteroid, Retroid, and Retrone, is a progestin medication which was formerly used to treat menstrual disorders but is now no longer marketed.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
Weight gain is an increase in body weight.
The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991.
20α-Dihydrodydrogesterone (20α-DHD), also known as 20α-hydroxydydrogesterone, as well as 20(S)-hydroxy-9β,10α-pregna-4,6-dien-3-one, is a progestin and the major active metabolite of dydrogesterone.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.