107 relations: Absolute threshold of hearing, Adobe Photoshop, Ampex, Amplitude, Analog-to-digital converter, Audio engineer, Audio Engineering Society, Audio system measurements, Auditory masking, Background noise, Binary number, Bit, Bit error rate, Clipping (audio), CMOS, Color vision, Compact Cassette, Compact disc, Companding, Contrast ratio, Crest factor, Dbx (noise reduction), Decibel, Decimal, Digital audio workstation, Digital camera, Digital data, Digital holography, Digital imaging, Digital photography, Digital-to-analog converter, Distortion, Dither, Dodging and burning, Dolby noise-reduction system, DxO, DxOMark, Dynamic range compression, Electric current, Electronics, Equal-loudness contour, European Broadcasting Union, Exposure range, Floating-point arithmetic, Frequency, Gamma correction, Glare (vision), Graduated neutral-density filter, Hair cell, Hearing, ..., High dynamic range, High-dynamic-range imaging, High-dynamic-range rendering, High-dynamic-range video, Highlight headroom, Image file formats, Image noise, Image sensor, Interferometry, Light, Liquid-crystal display, Logarithm, Logarithmic scale, Loudness war, Loudspeaker, Luminance, Metrology, Microphone, Music, Musical instrument, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nikon D7000, Nikon D850, Noise, Noise (electronics), Noise floor, Noise shaping, Overcurrent, Parameter, Part (music), Photographic film, Photography, Power (physics), Professional video camera, Push processing, Quantization (signal processing), Range fractionation, Ratio, Red Digital Cinema, Rod cell, Sensitivity (electronics), Signal, Signal-to-noise ratio, Signaling (telecommunications), Sine wave, Sound, Soundproofing, Spurious-free dynamic range, SRGB, Stapedius muscle, Tensor tympani muscle, Threshold of pain, Transmission system, Triangle wave, Visual perception, Voltage, XDR (audio). Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
The absolute threshold of hearing (ATH) is the minimum sound level of a pure tone that an average human ear with normal hearing can hear with no other sound present.
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.
Ampex is an American electronics company founded in 1944 by Alexander M. Poniatoff.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
An audio engineer (also sometimes recording engineer or a vocal engineer) helps to produce a recording or a performance, editing and adjusting sound tracks using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound.
Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry.
Audio system measurements are made for several purposes.
Auditory masking occurs when the perception of one sound is affected by the presence of another sound.
Background noise or ambient noise is any sound other than the sound being monitored (primary sound).
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
Clipping is a form of waveform distortion that occurs when an amplifier is overdriven and attempts to deliver an output voltage or current beyond its maximum capability.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
The Compact Audio Cassette (CAC) or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
In telecommunication and signal processing companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of mitigating the detrimental effects of a channel with limited dynamic range.
The contrast ratio is a property of a display system, defined as the ratio of the luminance of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the system is capable of producing.
Crest factor is a parameter of a waveform, such as alternating current or sound, showing the ratio of peak values to the effective value.
dbx is a family of noise reduction systems developed by the company of the same name.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
A digital audio workstation (DAW) is an electronic device or application software used for recording, editing and producing audio files.
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
Digital holography refers to the acquisition and processing of holograms with a digital sensor array, typically a CCD camera or a similar device.
Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses cameras containing arrays of electronic photodetectors to capture images focused by a lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.
Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.
Dither is an intentionally applied form of noise used to randomize quantization error, preventing large-scale patterns such as color banding in images.
Dodging and burning are terms used in photography for a technique used during the printing process to manipulate the exposure of a selected area(s) on a photographic print, deviating from the rest of the image's exposure.
A Dolby noise-reduction system, or Dolby NR, is one of a series of noise reduction systems developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analog magnetic tape recording.
DxO is a French company dedicated to photography, founded in 2006, it is located in Boulogne-Billancourt.
DxOMark is a website providing image quality ratings for standalone cameras, lenses, and mobile devices that include cameras.
Dynamic range compression (DRC) or simply compression is an audio signal processing operation that reduces the volume of loud sounds or amplifies quiet sounds thus reducing or compressing an audio signal's dynamic range.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An equal-loudness contour is a measure of sound pressure (dB SPL), over the frequency spectrum, for which a listener perceives a constant loudness when presented with pure steady tones.
The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950.
In photography, exposure range may refer to any of several types of dynamic range.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Gamma correction, or often simply gamma, is a nonlinear operation used to encode and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.
Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light such as car headlamps at night.
A graduated neutral-density filter, also known as a graduated ND filter, split neutral-density filter, or just a graduated filter, is an optical filter that has a variable light transmission.
Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
High dynamic range (HDR) is a dynamic range higher than what is considered to be standard dynamic range.
High-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) is a high dynamic range (HDR) technique used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than is possible with standard digital imaging or photographic techniques.
High-dynamic-range rendering (HDRR or HDR rendering), also known as high-dynamic-range lighting, is the rendering of computer graphics scenes by using lighting calculations done in high dynamic range (HDR).
High-dynamic-range video (HDR video) describes video having a dynamic range greater than that of standard-dynamic-range video (SDR video), which uses a conventional gamma curve.
Highlight headroom is the measure of how much additional capacity a given photographic medium (such as film or digital image sensors) has in order to record the detail within the brightest parts of a scene.
Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images.
Image noise is random variation of brightness or color information in images, and is usually an aspect of electronic noise.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
The loudness war (or loudness race) refers to the trend of increasing audio levels in recorded music which many critics believe reduces sound quality and listener enjoyment.
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
Metrology is the science of measurement.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The Nikon D7000 is a 16.2-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) model announced by Nikon on September 15, 2010.
The Nikon D850 is a professional-grade full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) produced by Nikon. The camera was officially announced on July 25, 2017 (the 100th anniversary of Nikon's founding), launched on August 24, 2017, and first shipped on September 08, 2017. Nikon announced it could not fill the preorders on August 28, 2017 and filled less than 10% of preorders on the first shipping day. It is the successor to the Nikon D810. The D850 is the first Nikon DSLR featuring a back-illuminated image sensor claiming overall a one-stop image quality (image noise) improvement. Imaging Resource This camera was the first full frame DSLR achieving 100 points at Dxomark. The D850 also won Camera of the Year for 2017 at Imaging Resource.
Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing.
In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.
In signal theory, the noise floor is the measure of the signal created from the sum of all the noise sources and unwanted signals within a measurement system, where noise is defined as any signal other than the one being monitored.
Noise shaping is a technique typically used in digital audio, image, and video processing, usually in combination with dithering, as part of the process of quantization or bit-depth reduction of a digital signal.
In an electric power system, overcurrent or excess current is a situation where a larger than intended electric current exists through a conductor, leading to excessive generation of heat, and the risk of fire or damage to equipment.
A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.
A part (or voice) generally refers to a single strand or melody of music within a larger ensemble or a polyphonic musical composition.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
A professional video camera (often called a television camera even though the use has spread beyond television) is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images (as opposed to a movie camera, that earlier recorded the images on film).
Push processing in photography, sometimes called uprating, refers to a film developing technique that increases the effective sensitivity of the film being processed.
Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.
Range fractionation is a term used in biology.
In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.
The Red Digital Cinema is an American company that manufactures digital cinematography and photography cameras and accessories.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
The sensitivity of an electronic device, such as a communications system receiver, or detection device, such as a PIN diode, is the minimum magnitude of input signal required to produce a specified output signal having a specified signal-to-noise ratio, or other specified criteria.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a specified sound source and receptor.
Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is the strength ratio of the fundamental signal to the strongest spurious signal in the output.
sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) is an RGB color space that HP and Microsoft created cooperatively in 1996 to use on monitors, printers, and the Internet.
The stapedius is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body.
The tensor tympani is a muscle within the ear, located in the bony canal above the osseous portion of the auditory tube.
The threshold of pain or pain threshold is the point along a curve of increasing perception of a stimulus at which pain begins to be felt.
In telecommunications, a transmission system is a system that transmits a signal from one place to another.
A triangle wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
XDR (eXtended Dynamic Range, also known as SDR (Super Dynamic Range)) is a quality-control and duplication process for the mass-production of pre-recorded audio cassettes.