74 relations: Aisin Gioro, Borjigin, Cao (Chinese surname), China, Chinese Civil War, Chinese historiography, Chronology, Conquest dynasty, Draft History of Qing, Dynastic cycle, Dynasty, Eastern Zhou, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Free area of the Republic of China, Geography of Taiwan, Han dynasty, History of China, History of the People's Republic of China, History of the Republic of China, House of Zhao, House of Zhu, Ji (surname), Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty (265–420), Khitan language, Li (surname 李), Liao dynasty, List of Chinese monarchs, List of emperors of the Ming dynasty, List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, List of Presidents of the People's Republic of China, List of Presidents of the Republic of China, List of recipients of tribute from China, List of tributaries of China, Liu, Mainland China, Ming dynasty, Northern and Southern dynasties, Pinyin, Pretender, Qara Khitai, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Republic of China (1912–1949), Shang dynasty, Sima (Chinese surname), Simplified Chinese characters, Song dynasty, Spring and Autumn period, Sui dynasty, ..., Sun (surname), Taiwan, Tang dynasty, Three Kingdoms, Timeline of Chinese history, Toponymy, Traditional Chinese characters, Transition from Ming to Qing, Tribe, Twenty-Four Histories, Wang (surname), Wang Mang, Wanyan, Warring States period, Western Xia, Western Zhou, Xia dynasty, Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, Xin dynasty, Xinhai Revolution, Yang (surname), Yelü, Yuan dynasty, Yuan Shikai. Expand index (24 more) » « Shrink index
Aisin Gioro is the imperial clan of Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty.
Borjigin (plural Borjigid; Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script:, Borjigit) is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors.
Cao is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname 曹 (Cáo).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
A conquest dynasty in the history of imperial China refers to a dynasty established by non-Han peoples that ruled parts or all of the China proper, such as the Mongol Yuan dynasty and the Manchu Qing dynasty.
The Draft History of Qing is a draft of the official history of the Qing dynasty compiled and written by a team of over 100 historians led by Zhao Erxun who were hired by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China.
Dynastic cycle is an important political theory in Chinese history.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
The Eastern Zhou (東周; 770–255 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.
The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen.
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule.
The House of Zhao was the imperial clan of the Song Empire (960–1279) of China.
House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China.
Ji is the pinyin romanization of a number of distinct Chinese surnames that are written with different characters in Chinese.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Khitan or Kitan (in large script or in small, Khitai;, Qìdānyǔ), also known as Liao, is a now-extinct language once spoken by the Khitan people (4th to 13th century).
Li is the second most common surname in China, behind only Wang.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912.
The Ming dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644, succeeding the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty and falling amidst much peasant turmoil to the Manchu-ruled Qing dynasty.
The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) was the last imperial dynasty of China.
This is a list of the Presidents and other heads of state of the People's Republic of China.
This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present).
Chinese zhongyuan state entities have paid tribute to a number states and confederations throughout history.
This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.
劉 / 刘 (Liu, Lao, Lau, Low, Lauv, Lieh, Lieu, Liew, Loo, Lew, Liou or Yu) is a Chinese surname.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
A pretender is one who is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent (usually more recognised), or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Sima is a Chinese family name.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Sun is a transliteration of a common Chinese surname (simplified Chinese: 孙; traditional Chinese: 孫; pinyin: Sūn).
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
Wang is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surnames 王 (Wáng) and 汪 (Wāng).
Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.
The Wanyan (Manchu: Wanggiya; Jurchen script) clan was among of the clans of the Heishui Mohe tribe living in the drainage region of the Heilong River during the time of the Liao dynasty, which was ruled by the Khitan.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project was a multi-disciplinary project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties.
The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Yang is the transcription of a Chinese family name.
The Yaryul clan (or Yelü clan;; Khitan small script) of the Khitan people assumed leadership of the Khitan state in 907 when Abaoji became khan of the Khitan people.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
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