Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!


Index Dyslexia

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. [1]

117 relations: Angular gyrus, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Auditory processing disorder, Autonomic nervous system, Autopsy, Blood vessel, Brain, Broca's area, Brodmann area 20, Cerebellum, Cerebral atrophy, Cerebral cortex, Child development, Chinese characters, Chromosome 15, Chromosome 6, Cognitive disorder, Corpus callosum, DCDC2, Deep dyslexia, Dementia, Developmental coordination disorder, DSM-5, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, Dyslexia in popular culture, Dyslexie, DYX1C1, Echoic memory, Elkonin boxes, Emotional and behavioral disorders, Epigenetics, Eye–hand coordination, Fetus, Fluency, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gene expression, Genetics, Grapheme, Handwriting, Hearing loss, Hemianopsia, Homonymous hemianopsia, Homophone, ICD-10, Inferior frontal gyrus, Inferior parietal lobule, Intelligence, International Dyslexia Association, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, ..., KIAA0319, Language center, Language processing in the brain, Languages of Europe, Lateral occipital sulcus, Latin alphabet, Learning, Learning disability, Lexicon, Linguistics, List of language disorders, List of people diagnosed with dyslexia, Logogram, Logographic cues, Management of dyslexia, Methylation, Microgyrus, Middle cerebral artery, Model organism, Morpheme, Motor skill, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neurodiversity, Neuroimaging, Neurolinguistics, Neurology, Occipital lobe, OpenDyslexic, Ophthalmology, Orthographic depth, Orthography, Oswald Berkhan, Pediatrics, Philosophy of language, Phoneme, Phonemic awareness, Phonemic orthography, Phonological awareness, Phonological dyslexia, Positron emission tomography, Proprioception, Pure alexia, Reading (process), Reading education in the United States, Rudolf Berlin, ScienceDirect, Seaford, East Sussex, Semantic dyslexia, Sequencing, Short-term memory, Speech delay, Spelling, Stroke, Stuttgart, Subvocalization, Surface dyslexia, The BMJ, Traumatic brain injury, Twin study, University of Twente, Visual cortex, Visual field, Visual impairment, Visual perception, Visual word form area, Working memory, Writing system. Expand index (67 more) »

Angular gyrus

The angular gyrus is a region of the brain lying mainly in the anterolateral region of parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus.

New!!: Dyslexia and Angular gyrus · See more »

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

New!!: Dyslexia and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder · See more »

Auditory processing disorder

Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.

New!!: Dyslexia and Auditory processing disorder · See more »

Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

New!!: Dyslexia and Autonomic nervous system · See more »


An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

New!!: Dyslexia and Autopsy · See more »

Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

New!!: Dyslexia and Blood vessel · See more »


The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

New!!: Dyslexia and Brain · See more »

Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

New!!: Dyslexia and Broca's area · See more »

Brodmann area 20

Brodmann area 20, or BA20, is part of the temporal cortex in the human brain.

New!!: Dyslexia and Brodmann area 20 · See more »


The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

New!!: Dyslexia and Cerebellum · See more »

Cerebral atrophy

Cerebral atrophy is a common feature of many of the diseases that affect the brain.

New!!: Dyslexia and Cerebral atrophy · See more »

Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

New!!: Dyslexia and Cerebral cortex · See more »

Child development

Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.

New!!: Dyslexia and Child development · See more »

Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

New!!: Dyslexia and Chinese characters · See more »

Chromosome 15

Chromosome 15 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

New!!: Dyslexia and Chromosome 15 · See more »

Chromosome 6

Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

New!!: Dyslexia and Chromosome 6 · See more »

Cognitive disorder

Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.

New!!: Dyslexia and Cognitive disorder · See more »

Corpus callosum

The corpus callosum (Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals.

New!!: Dyslexia and Corpus callosum · See more »


Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DCDC2 gene.

New!!: Dyslexia and DCDC2 · See more »

Deep dyslexia

Deep dyslexia is a form of dyslexia that disrupts reading processes.

New!!: Dyslexia and Deep dyslexia · See more »


Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

New!!: Dyslexia and Dementia · See more »

Developmental coordination disorder

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood.

New!!: Dyslexia and Developmental coordination disorder · See more »


The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

New!!: Dyslexia and DSM-5 · See more »


Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning facts in mathematics.

New!!: Dyslexia and Dyscalculia · See more »


Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting, but also coherence.

New!!: Dyslexia and Dysgraphia · See more »

Dyslexia in popular culture

This is a list of artistic depictions of dyslexia.

New!!: Dyslexia and Dyslexia in popular culture · See more »


Dyslexie is a typeface/font designed to mitigate some of the issues that dyslexics experience when reading.

New!!: Dyslexia and Dyslexie · See more »


Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candidate gene 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYX1C1 gene.

New!!: Dyslexia and DYX1C1 · See more »

Echoic memory

Echoic memory is the sensory memory register specific to auditory information (sounds).

New!!: Dyslexia and Echoic memory · See more »

Elkonin boxes

Elkonin boxes are an instructional method used in the early elementary grades especially in children with reading difficulties and inadequate responders in order to build phonological awareness by segmenting words into individual sounds.

New!!: Dyslexia and Elkonin boxes · See more »

Emotional and behavioral disorders

Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; sometimes called emotional disturbance or serious emotional disturbance) refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor social or academic adjustment that cannot be better explained by biological abnormalities or a developmental disability.

New!!: Dyslexia and Emotional and behavioral disorders · See more »


Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

New!!: Dyslexia and Epigenetics · See more »

Eye–hand coordination

Eye–hand coordination (also known as hand–eye coordination) is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.

New!!: Dyslexia and Eye–hand coordination · See more »


A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

New!!: Dyslexia and Fetus · See more »


Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.

New!!: Dyslexia and Fluency · See more »

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

New!!: Dyslexia and Functional magnetic resonance imaging · See more »

Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

New!!: Dyslexia and Gene expression · See more »


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

New!!: Dyslexia and Genetics · See more »


In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.

New!!: Dyslexia and Grapheme · See more »


Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.

New!!: Dyslexia and Handwriting · See more »

Hearing loss

Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.

New!!: Dyslexia and Hearing loss · See more »


Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a decreased vision or blindness (anopsia) in half the visual field, usually on one side of the vertical midline.

New!!: Dyslexia and Hemianopsia · See more »

Homonymous hemianopsia

Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline.

New!!: Dyslexia and Homonymous hemianopsia · See more »


A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.

New!!: Dyslexia and Homophone · See more »


ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

New!!: Dyslexia and ICD-10 · See more »

Inferior frontal gyrus

The inferior frontal gyrus is a part of the frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe (the yellow area of the human brain image to the right).

New!!: Dyslexia and Inferior frontal gyrus · See more »

Inferior parietal lobule

The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus.

New!!: Dyslexia and Inferior parietal lobule · See more »


Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

New!!: Dyslexia and Intelligence · See more »

International Dyslexia Association

The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) is a non-profit education and advocacy organization devoted to issues surrounding dyslexia.

New!!: Dyslexia and International Dyslexia Association · See more »

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.

New!!: Dyslexia and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems · See more »


KIAA0319 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the KIAA0319 gene.

New!!: Dyslexia and KIAA0319 · See more »

Language center

The term language center or language centre (or more accurately centers, e.g. Broca's area and Wernicke's area) refers to the areas of the brain which serve a particular function for speech processing and production.

New!!: Dyslexia and Language center · See more »

Language processing in the brain

Language processing refers to the way humans use words to communicate ideas and feelings, and how such communications are processed and understood.

New!!: Dyslexia and Language processing in the brain · See more »

Languages of Europe

Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.

New!!: Dyslexia and Languages of Europe · See more »

Lateral occipital sulcus

In the occipital lobe, the lateral occipital sulcus, where present, divides the lateral, or middle occipital gyrus into a superior and an inferior part, which are then continuous in front with the parietal and temporal lobes.

New!!: Dyslexia and Lateral occipital sulcus · See more »

Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

New!!: Dyslexia and Latin alphabet · See more »


Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

New!!: Dyslexia and Learning · See more »

Learning disability

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.

New!!: Dyslexia and Learning disability · See more »


A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).

New!!: Dyslexia and Lexicon · See more »


Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

New!!: Dyslexia and Linguistics · See more »

List of language disorders

No description.

New!!: Dyslexia and List of language disorders · See more »

List of people diagnosed with dyslexia

The following is a list of notable people who are listed or reported to be dyslexic, or who some people thought were dyslexic, or more generally whenever there is an urban legend or popular myth about their being dyslexic.

New!!: Dyslexia and List of people diagnosed with dyslexia · See more »


In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.

New!!: Dyslexia and Logogram · See more »

Logographic cues

Logographic cues are visual images embedded with specific, widely understood meaning; they are pictures that represent certain words or concepts.

New!!: Dyslexia and Logographic cues · See more »

Management of dyslexia

Management of dyslexia depends on a multiple of variables; there is no one specific strategy or set of strategies which will work for all who have dyslexia.

New!!: Dyslexia and Management of dyslexia · See more »


In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

New!!: Dyslexia and Methylation · See more »


A microgyrus is an area of the cerebral cortex that includes only four cortical layers instead of six.

New!!: Dyslexia and Microgyrus · See more »

Middle cerebral artery

The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum.

New!!: Dyslexia and Middle cerebral artery · See more »

Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

New!!: Dyslexia and Model organism · See more »


A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

New!!: Dyslexia and Morpheme · See more »

Motor skill

A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.

New!!: Dyslexia and Motor skill · See more »

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is a part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH).

New!!: Dyslexia and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke · See more »


Neurodiversity is an approach to learning and disability that argues diverse neurological conditions are the result of normal variations in the human genome.

New!!: Dyslexia and Neurodiversity · See more »


Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

New!!: Dyslexia and Neuroimaging · See more »


Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.

New!!: Dyslexia and Neurolinguistics · See more »


Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

New!!: Dyslexia and Neurology · See more »

Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

New!!: Dyslexia and Occipital lobe · See more »


OpenDyslexic is a free typeface/font designed to mitigate some of the common reading errors caused by dyslexia.

New!!: Dyslexia and OpenDyslexic · See more »


Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

New!!: Dyslexia and Ophthalmology · See more »

Orthographic depth

In linguistics, the orthographic depth of an alphabetic orthography indicates the degree to which a written language deviates from simple one-to-one letter–phoneme correspondence.

New!!: Dyslexia and Orthographic depth · See more »


An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

New!!: Dyslexia and Orthography · See more »

Oswald Berkhan

Oswald Berkhan (19 March 1834 – 15 February 1917) was a German physician.

New!!: Dyslexia and Oswald Berkhan · See more »


Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.

New!!: Dyslexia and Pediatrics · See more »

Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.

New!!: Dyslexia and Philosophy of language · See more »


A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

New!!: Dyslexia and Phoneme · See more »

Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest mental units of sound that helps to differentiate units of meaning (morphemes).

New!!: Dyslexia and Phonemic awareness · See more »

Phonemic orthography

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

New!!: Dyslexia and Phonemic orthography · See more »

Phonological awareness

Phonological awareness is an individual's awareness of the phonological structure, or sound structure, of words.

New!!: Dyslexia and Phonological awareness · See more »

Phonological dyslexia

Phonological dyslexia is a reading disability that is a form of alexia (acquired dyslexia), resulting from brain injury, stroke, or progressive illness and that affects previously acquired reading abilities.

New!!: Dyslexia and Phonological dyslexia · See more »

Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

New!!: Dyslexia and Positron emission tomography · See more »


Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

New!!: Dyslexia and Proprioception · See more »

Pure alexia

Pure alexia, also known as agnosic alexia or alexia without agraphia or pure word blindness, is one form of alexia which makes up "the peripheral dyslexia" group.

New!!: Dyslexia and Pure alexia · See more »

Reading (process)

Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).

New!!: Dyslexia and Reading (process) · See more »

Reading education in the United States

Reading education is the process by which individuals are taught to derive meaning from text.

New!!: Dyslexia and Reading education in the United States · See more »

Rudolf Berlin

Rudolf August Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Berlin (2 May 1833 – 12 September 1897), also known as Rudolph Berlin, was a German ophthalmologist.

New!!: Dyslexia and Rudolf Berlin · See more »


ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research.

New!!: Dyslexia and ScienceDirect · See more »

Seaford, East Sussex

Seaford is a coastal town in East Sussex, on the south coast of England.

New!!: Dyslexia and Seaford, East Sussex · See more »

Semantic dyslexia

Semantic dyslexia is, as the name suggests, a subtype of the group of cognitive disorders known as alexia (acquired dyslexia).

New!!: Dyslexia and Semantic dyslexia · See more »


In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.

New!!: Dyslexia and Sequencing · See more »

Short-term memory

Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.

New!!: Dyslexia and Short-term memory · See more »

Speech delay

Speech delay, also known as alalia, refers to a delay in the development or use of the mechanisms that produce speech.

New!!: Dyslexia and Speech delay · See more »


Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.

New!!: Dyslexia and Spelling · See more »


A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

New!!: Dyslexia and Stroke · See more »


Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

New!!: Dyslexia and Stuttgart · See more »


Subvocalization, or silent speech, is the internal speech typically made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it is read.

New!!: Dyslexia and Subvocalization · See more »

Surface dyslexia

Surface dyslexia is a type of dyslexia, or reading disorder.

New!!: Dyslexia and Surface dyslexia · See more »


The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

New!!: Dyslexia and The BMJ · See more »

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.

New!!: Dyslexia and Traumatic brain injury · See more »

Twin study

Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.

New!!: Dyslexia and Twin study · See more »

University of Twente

The University of Twente (Dutch: Universiteit Twente;, abbr. UT) is a public research university located in Enschede, Netherlands.

New!!: Dyslexia and University of Twente · See more »

Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.

New!!: Dyslexia and Visual cortex · See more »

Visual field

The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".

New!!: Dyslexia and Visual field · See more »

Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

New!!: Dyslexia and Visual impairment · See more »

Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

New!!: Dyslexia and Visual perception · See more »

Visual word form area

The visual word form area (VWFA) is a functional region of the left fusiform gyrus and surrounding cortex (right-hand side being part of the fusiform face area) that is hypothesized to be involved in identifying words and letters from lower-level shape images, prior to association with phonology or semantics.

New!!: Dyslexia and Visual word form area · See more »

Working memory

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.

New!!: Dyslexia and Working memory · See more »

Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

New!!: Dyslexia and Writing system · See more »

Redirects here:

Acquired dyslexia, Agnostic alexia, Alexia (acquired dyslexia), Alexia (aphasia), Alexia (condition), Alexia (disorder), Alexia (neurology), Alexia : Acquired dyslexia, Developmental dyslexia, Developmental reading disorder, Dilexia, Dilsexia, Dislexia, Dislexya, Dislexyia, Dsylexia, Dylsexia, Dylsexic, Dyselxia, Dyselxic, Dyslectic, Dyslexic, Dyslexics, Dysorthographia, Lysdexia, Lysdexia (colloquialism), Reading Difficulties and Dyslexia.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslexia

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »