117 relations: Angular gyrus, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Auditory processing disorder, Autonomic nervous system, Autopsy, Blood vessel, Brain, Broca's area, Brodmann area 20, Cerebellum, Cerebral atrophy, Cerebral cortex, Child development, Chinese characters, Chromosome 15, Chromosome 6, Cognitive disorder, Corpus callosum, DCDC2, Deep dyslexia, Dementia, Developmental coordination disorder, DSM-5, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, Dyslexia in popular culture, Dyslexie, DYX1C1, Echoic memory, Elkonin boxes, Emotional and behavioral disorders, Epigenetics, Eye–hand coordination, Fetus, Fluency, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gene expression, Genetics, Grapheme, Handwriting, Hearing loss, Hemianopsia, Homonymous hemianopsia, Homophone, ICD-10, Inferior frontal gyrus, Inferior parietal lobule, Intelligence, International Dyslexia Association, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, ..., KIAA0319, Language center, Language processing in the brain, Languages of Europe, Lateral occipital sulcus, Latin alphabet, Learning, Learning disability, Lexicon, Linguistics, List of language disorders, List of people diagnosed with dyslexia, Logogram, Logographic cues, Management of dyslexia, Methylation, Microgyrus, Middle cerebral artery, Model organism, Morpheme, Motor skill, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neurodiversity, Neuroimaging, Neurolinguistics, Neurology, Occipital lobe, OpenDyslexic, Ophthalmology, Orthographic depth, Orthography, Oswald Berkhan, Pediatrics, Philosophy of language, Phoneme, Phonemic awareness, Phonemic orthography, Phonological awareness, Phonological dyslexia, Positron emission tomography, Proprioception, Pure alexia, Reading (process), Reading education in the United States, Rudolf Berlin, ScienceDirect, Seaford, East Sussex, Semantic dyslexia, Sequencing, Short-term memory, Speech delay, Spelling, Stroke, Stuttgart, Subvocalization, Surface dyslexia, The BMJ, Traumatic brain injury, Twin study, University of Twente, Visual cortex, Visual field, Visual impairment, Visual perception, Visual word form area, Working memory, Writing system. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
The angular gyrus is a region of the brain lying mainly in the anterolateral region of parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
Brodmann area 20, or BA20, is part of the temporal cortex in the human brain.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Cerebral atrophy is a common feature of many of the diseases that affect the brain.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chromosome 15 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.
The corpus callosum (Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals.
Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DCDC2 gene.
Deep dyslexia is a form of dyslexia that disrupts reading processes.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning facts in mathematics.
Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting, but also coherence.
This is a list of artistic depictions of dyslexia.
Dyslexie is a typeface/font designed to mitigate some of the issues that dyslexics experience when reading.
Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candidate gene 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DYX1C1 gene.
Echoic memory is the sensory memory register specific to auditory information (sounds).
Elkonin boxes are an instructional method used in the early elementary grades especially in children with reading difficulties and inadequate responders in order to build phonological awareness by segmenting words into individual sounds.
Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; sometimes called emotional disturbance or serious emotional disturbance) refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to students that have poor social or academic adjustment that cannot be better explained by biological abnormalities or a developmental disability.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Eye–hand coordination (also known as hand–eye coordination) is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement, and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a decreased vision or blindness (anopsia) in half the visual field, usually on one side of the vertical midline.
Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline.
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
The inferior frontal gyrus is a part of the frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe (the yellow area of the human brain image to the right).
The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The International Dyslexia Association (IDA) is a non-profit education and advocacy organization devoted to issues surrounding dyslexia.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
KIAA0319 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the KIAA0319 gene.
The term language center or language centre (or more accurately centers, e.g. Broca's area and Wernicke's area) refers to the areas of the brain which serve a particular function for speech processing and production.
Language processing refers to the way humans use words to communicate ideas and feelings, and how such communications are processed and understood.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
In the occipital lobe, the lateral occipital sulcus, where present, divides the lateral, or middle occipital gyrus into a superior and an inferior part, which are then continuous in front with the parietal and temporal lobes.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The following is a list of notable people who are listed or reported to be dyslexic, or who some people thought were dyslexic, or more generally whenever there is an urban legend or popular myth about their being dyslexic.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Logographic cues are visual images embedded with specific, widely understood meaning; they are pictures that represent certain words or concepts.
Management of dyslexia depends on a multiple of variables; there is no one specific strategy or set of strategies which will work for all who have dyslexia.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
A microgyrus is an area of the cerebral cortex that includes only four cortical layers instead of six.
The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is a part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Neurodiversity is an approach to learning and disability that argues diverse neurological conditions are the result of normal variations in the human genome.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
OpenDyslexic is a free typeface/font designed to mitigate some of the common reading errors caused by dyslexia.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
In linguistics, the orthographic depth of an alphabetic orthography indicates the degree to which a written language deviates from simple one-to-one letter–phoneme correspondence.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Oswald Berkhan (19 March 1834 – 15 February 1917) was a German physician.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest mental units of sound that helps to differentiate units of meaning (morphemes).
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonological awareness is an individual's awareness of the phonological structure, or sound structure, of words.
Phonological dyslexia is a reading disability that is a form of alexia (acquired dyslexia), resulting from brain injury, stroke, or progressive illness and that affects previously acquired reading abilities.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Pure alexia, also known as agnosic alexia or alexia without agraphia or pure word blindness, is one form of alexia which makes up "the peripheral dyslexia" group.
Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
Reading education is the process by which individuals are taught to derive meaning from text.
Rudolf August Johann Ludwig Wilhelm Berlin (2 May 1833 – 12 September 1897), also known as Rudolph Berlin, was a German ophthalmologist.
ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research.
Seaford is a coastal town in East Sussex, on the south coast of England.
Semantic dyslexia is, as the name suggests, a subtype of the group of cognitive disorders known as alexia (acquired dyslexia).
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.
Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
Speech delay, also known as alalia, refers to a delay in the development or use of the mechanisms that produce speech.
Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Subvocalization, or silent speech, is the internal speech typically made when reading; it provides the sound of the word as it is read.
Surface dyslexia is a type of dyslexia, or reading disorder.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.
The University of Twente (Dutch: Universiteit Twente;, abbr. UT) is a public research university located in Enschede, Netherlands.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
The visual word form area (VWFA) is a functional region of the left fusiform gyrus and surrounding cortex (right-hand side being part of the fusiform face area) that is hypothesized to be involved in identifying words and letters from lower-level shape images, prior to association with phonology or semantics.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Acquired dyslexia, Agnostic alexia, Alexia (acquired dyslexia), Alexia (aphasia), Alexia (condition), Alexia (disorder), Alexia (neurology), Alexia : Acquired dyslexia, Developmental dyslexia, Developmental reading disorder, Dilexia, Dilsexia, Dislexia, Dislexya, Dislexyia, Dsylexia, Dylsexia, Dylsexic, Dyselxia, Dyselxic, Dyslectic, Dyslexic, Dyslexics, Dysorthographia, Lysdexia, Lysdexia (colloquialism), Reading Difficulties and Dyslexia.