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Index Dystonia

Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. [1]

114 relations: Acetylcholine, Anismus, ANO3, Anticholinergic, Antiemetic, Antihistamine, Antipsychotic, Ataxia, ATP1A3, Atropine, Baclofen, Basal ganglia, Benzatropine, Bernardino Ramazzini, Birth trauma (physical), Blepharospasm, Botulinum toxin, Brain, Bromocriptine, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Chin, Chlorpromazine, CIZ1, Clonazepam, Constipation, Constraint-induced movement therapy, Conversion disorder, Deep brain stimulation, Diazepam, Diphenhydramine, Diplopia, Dopamine agonist, Dopamine antagonist, Dopamine receptor D2, Dysautonomia, Dystonia, Edward Flatau, Electrical muscle stimulation, Encopresis, Essential tremor, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Gait training, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene, GLUT1, GNAL, GTP cyclohydrolase I, Heredity, ..., Hermann Oppenheim, Human eye, Huntington's disease, Hypertonia, Infection, Injury, Joint mobilization, L-DOPA, Larynx, Lead poisoning, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Medication, Meige's syndrome, Metoclopramide, Missense mutation, Mouse, Movement disorders, Muscle relaxant, Myoclonic dystonia, Na+/K+-ATPase, Neck, Neurology, Neuroplasticity, Occupational therapy, Oculogyric crisis, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Oromandibular dystonia, Ouabain, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, PBS, Physical therapy, PNKD, PRKRA, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, PRRT2, Purkinje cell, Rectum, Restless legs syndrome, Ropinirole, Segawa Syndrome, SGCE, SLC20A2, Spasmodic dysphonia, Spasmodic torticollis, Stretching, Sydenham's chorea, TAF1, Tardive dyskinesia, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, THAP1, The Washington Post, Thoracic diaphragm, Tongue, Torsin A, Torsion dystonia, Tourette syndrome, Tremor, Tubulin beta-4A chain, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Ulegyria, Wilson's disease, Writer's cramp. Expand index (64 more) »


Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Anismus (or dyssynergic defecation) refers to the failure of the normal relaxation of pelvic floor muscles during attempted defecation.

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ANO3 is a gene that in humans is located on chromosome 11 and encodes the protein anoctamin 3.

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An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

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An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.

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Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.

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Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP1A3 gene.

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Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.

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Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.

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Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.

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Benzatropine, also known as benztropine, is an anticholinergic marketed under the trade name Cogentin which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, and dystonia.

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Bernardino Ramazzini

Bernardino Ramazzini (4 October 1633 – 5 November 1714) was an Italian physician.

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Birth trauma (physical)

Birth trauma (BT) refers to damage of the tissues and organs of a newly delivered child, often as a result of physical pressure or trauma during childbirth.

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Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid.

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Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Bromocriptine (originally marketed as Parlodel, subsequently under many names) is an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease (PD), hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.

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Carpal tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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The chin or the mental region is the area of the face below the lower lip and including the mandibular prominence.

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Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.

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Cip1-interacting zinc finger protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CIZ1 gene.

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Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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Constraint-induced movement therapy

Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI, CIT, or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.

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Conversion disorder

Conversion disorder (CD) is a diagnostic category used in some psychiatric classification systems.

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Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.

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Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or rotationally in relation to each other.

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Dopamine agonist

A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors.

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Dopamine antagonist

A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.

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Dopamine receptor D2

Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.

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Dysautonomia or autonomic dysfunction is a condition in which the autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not work properly.

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Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.

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Edward Flatau

Edward Flatau (27 December 1868, Płock – 7 June 1932, Warsaw) was a Polish-Jewish neurologist and psychiatrist.

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Electrical muscle stimulation

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses.

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Encopresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐγκόπρησις / egkóprēsis), also known as paradoxical diarrhea, is voluntary or involuntary passage of feces (fecal soiling) in children who are four years or older and after an organic cause has been excluded.

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Essential tremor

Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder.

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Extrapyramidal symptoms

Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.

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Gait training

Gait training or gait rehabilitation is the act of learning how to walk, either as a child, or, more frequently, after sustaining an injury or disability.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Glucose transporter 1 (or GLUT1), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1), is a uniporter protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A1 gene.

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Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(olf) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAL gene.

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GTP cyclohydrolase I

GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is a member of the GTP cyclohydrolase family of enzymes.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Hermann Oppenheim

Hermann Oppenheim (1 January 1858 – 5 May 1919) was one of the leading neurologists in Germany.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.

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Hypertonia is a term sometimes used synonymously with spasticity and rigidity in the literature surrounding damage to the central nervous system, namely upper motor neuron lesions.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Joint mobilization

Joint mobilization is a manual therapy intervention, a type of passive movement of a skeletal joint.

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L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.

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The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.

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Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Meige's syndrome

Meige's syndrome is a type of dystonia.

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Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.

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Missense mutation

In genetics, a missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.

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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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Movement disorders

Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.

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Muscle relaxant

A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.

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Myoclonic dystonia

Myoclonic dystonia or Myoclonus dystonia syndrome is a rare movement disorder that induces spontaneous muscle contraction causing abnormal posture.

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-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.

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The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.

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Oculogyric crisis

Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is the name of a dystonic reaction to certain drugs or medical conditions characterized by a prolonged involuntary upward deviation of the eyes.

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Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a continuously updated catalog of human genes and genetic disorders and traits, with a particular focus on the gene-phenotype relationship.

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Oromandibular dystonia

Oromandibular dystonia is a form of focal dystonia affecting the mouth, jaw and tongue, and in this disease it is hard to speak.

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Ouabain or (from Somali waabaayo, "arrow poison" through French ouabaïo) also known as g-strophanthin, is a plant derived toxic substance that was traditionally used as an arrow poison in eastern Africa for both hunting and warfare.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.

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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

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PNKD is the abbreviation for a human neurological movement disorder paroxysmal nonkinesiogenic dyskinesia.

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Protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator, also known as interferon-inducible double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activator A or Protein ACTivator of the interferon-induced protein kinase (PACT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRKRA gene.

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Prochlorperazine is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic agents that are used for the antiemetic treatment of nausea and vertigo.

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Procyclidine is an anticholinergic drug principally used for the treatment of drug-induced parkinsonism, akathisia and acute dystonia; Parkinson disease; and idiopathic or secondary dystonia.

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Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRRT2 gene.

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Purkinje cell

Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Restless legs syndrome

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.

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Ropinirole (INN; trade names Requip, Repreve, Ronirol, Adartrel) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class of medications.

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Segawa Syndrome

Segawa Syndrome (SS) also known as Dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD), Segawa's disease, Segawa's dystonia and hereditary progressive dystonia with diurnal fluctuation, is a genetic movement disorder which usually manifests itself during early childhood at around ages 5–8 years (variable start age).

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Epsilon-sarcoglycan is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SGCE gene.

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Sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC20A2 gene.

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Spasmodic dysphonia

Spasmodic dysphonia, also known as laryngeal dystonia, is a disorder in which the muscles that generate a person's voice go into periods of spasm.

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Spasmodic torticollis

Spasmodic torticollis is an extremely painful chronic neurological movement disorder causing the neck to involuntarily turn to the left, right, upwards, and/or downwards.

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Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone.

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Sydenham's chorea

Sydenham's chorea (SC) or chorea minor (historically and traditionally referred to as St Vitus' dance) is a disorder characterized by rapid, uncoordinated jerking movements primarily affecting the face, hands and feet.

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Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 1, also known as transcription initiation factor TFIID 250 kDa subunit (TAFII-250) or TBP-associated factor 250 kDa (p250), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF1 gene.

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Tardive dyskinesia

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.

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Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD, TMJD) is an umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints (the joints which connect the mandible to the skull).

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THAP domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THAP1 gene.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thoracic diaphragm

For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

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The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.

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Torsin A

Torsin-1A (TorA) also known as dystonia 1 protein (DYT1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TOR1A gene (also known as DQ2 or DYT1).

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Torsion dystonia

Torsion dystonia, also known as dystonia musculorum deformans, is a disease characterized by painful muscle contractions resulting in uncontrollable distortions.

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Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.

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A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

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Tubulin beta-4A chain

Tubulin beta-4A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TUBB4A gene.

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Tyrosine hydroxylase

Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).

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Ulegyria is a diagnosis used to describe a specific type of cortical scarring in the deep regions of the sulcus that leads to distortion of the gyri.

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Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.

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Writer's cramp

Writer's cramp, also called mogigraphia and scrivener's palsy, is a disorder caused by cramps or spasms of certain muscles of the hand and/or forearm, and presents itself while performing fine motor tasks, such as writing or playing an instrument.

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Redirects here:

Acute dystonia, DYT23, Distonia, Dystonia musculorum deformans, Dystonias, Dystonic, Dystonic disorders, Dystonic features, Generalized Dystonia, Generalized dystonia, Geste antagoniste, Idiopathic torsion dystonia, Lip smacking, Paroxysmal dystonia, Primary dystonia, Psychogenic dystonia, Sensory trick, Smacking your lips, Tardive dystonia.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dystonia

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