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Early history of video games

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The history of video games spans a period of time between the invention of the first electronic games and today, covering a long period of invention and changes. [1]

139 relations: Additron tube, Alan Kotok, Alan Turing, Allan Alcorn, American Mathematical Monthly, Analog computer, Arcade game, Arthur Samuel, Artificial intelligence, Association for Computing Machinery, Atari, Inc., BASIC, BASIC Computer Games, Bertie the Brain, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Byte (magazine), Cambridge University Press, Canadian National Exhibition, Carnegie Mellon University, Cathode ray tube, Cathode-ray tube amusement device, Chicago Tribune, Christopher Strachey, Comcast, Computer Conservation Society, Computer History Museum, Computer Space, Computerspielemuseum Berlin, Creative Computing (magazine), D. G. Champernowne, Data General Nova, David H. Ahl, DECUS, Digital Equipment Corporation, Dotdash, Doubleday (publisher), Draughts, DuMont Laboratories, Early mainframe games, Edward Condon, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, Electronic game, Ferranti, Ferranti Mark 1, Festival of Britain, First generation of video game consoles, FOCAL (programming language), Galaxy Game, Gamepad, Greenwood Publishing Group, ..., Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, Hamurabi (video game), High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games, History of video games, Human–computer interaction, IAC (company), IBM, IBM 701, Interactivity, John G. Kemeny, Josef Kates, Ken Thompson, Lensman series, Light pen, Magnavox, Magnavox Odyssey, Mainframe computer, Manchester Mark 1, Marienbad (video game), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McGraw-Hill Education, MSNBC, Multics, National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom), Nim, Nimrod (computing), Nolan Bushnell, Odra (computer), Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Operating system, Oscilloscope, Ottawa Citizen, OXO, PC game, PDP-1, PDP-11, Peter Samson, Pilot ACE, Pinball, Pong, Popular culture, Prentice Hall, Ralph H. Baer, RAND Corporation, Random-access memory, Replay: The History of Video Games, Rogers Vacuum Tube Company, Rotary dial, Routledge, Sandy Douglas, Science fiction, Smoke testing (software), Space Travel (video game), Spacewar!, Spacing (magazine), Springer Publishing, Stanford University, Steve Russell (computer scientist), Stored-program computer, Strategy video game, Table tennis, Tech Model Railroad Club, Ted Dabney, Teleprinter, Tennis, Tennis for Two, The Computer Museum, Boston, The New York Times, Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr., Three Rivers Press, Tic-tac-toe, TX-0, University of Manchester, University of Michigan, University of Warwick, Unix, Vacuum tube, Vector graphics, Video game, Video game console, Video game graphics, Video game industry, Wayne State University Press, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, William Higinbotham, Ziff Davis, 1939 New York World's Fair, 1967 World Series, 1UP.com. Expand index (89 more) »

Additron tube

The Additron was an electron tube designed by Dr.

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Alan Kotok

Alan Kotok (November 9, 1941 – May 26, 2006) was an American computer scientist known for his work at Digital Equipment Corporation (Digital, or DEC) and at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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Allan Alcorn

Allan Alcorn (born January 1, 1948 in San Francisco) is an American pioneering engineer and computer scientist best known for creating Pong, one of the first video games.

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American Mathematical Monthly

The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894.

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Analog computer

An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

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Arcade game

An arcade game or coin-op is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.

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Arthur Samuel

Arthur Lee Samuel (December 5, 1901 – July 29, 1990) was an American pioneer in the field of computer gaming and artificial intelligence.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

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Atari, Inc.

Atari, Inc. was an American video game developer and home computer company founded in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney.

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BASIC

BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.

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BASIC Computer Games

BASIC Computer Games is a compilation of type-in computer games in the BASIC programming language collected by David H. Ahl.

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Bertie the Brain

Bertie the Brain was an early computer game, and one of the first games developed in the early history of video games.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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Byte (magazine)

Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canadian National Exhibition

The Canadian National Exhibition (CNE), also known as The Ex, is an annual event that takes place at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, during the 18 days leading up to and including Canadian Labour Day, the first Monday in September.

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Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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Cathode-ray tube amusement device

The cathode-ray tube amusement device is the earliest known interactive electronic game.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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Christopher Strachey

Christopher S. Strachey (16 November 1916 – 18 May 1975) was a British computer scientist.

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Comcast

Comcast Corporation (formerly registered as Comcast Holdings)Before the AT&T merger in 2001, the parent company was Comcast Holdings Corporation.

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Computer Conservation Society

The Computer Conservation Society (CCS) is a British organisation, founded in 1989.

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Computer History Museum

The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.

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Computer Space

Computer Space is a space combat arcade game developed in 1971 as one of the last games created in the early history of video games.

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Computerspielemuseum Berlin

The Computerspielemuseum Berlin (Computer Games Museum Berlin) was founded in 1997.

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Creative Computing (magazine)

Creative Computing was one of the earliest magazines covering the microcomputer revolution.

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D. G. Champernowne

Professor David Gawen Champernowne FBA (9 July 1912 – 19 August 2000).

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Data General Nova

The Data General Nova is a series of 16-bit minicomputers released by the American company Data General.

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David H. Ahl

David H. Ahl (born 1939) is the founder of Creative Computing magazine.

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DECUS

The Digital Equipment Computer Users' Society (DECUS) was an independent computer user group related to Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).

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Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

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Dotdash

Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.

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Doubleday (publisher)

Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.

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Draughts

Draughts (British English) or checkers (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces.

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DuMont Laboratories

DuMont Laboratories was an American television equipment manufacturer.

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Early mainframe games

Mainframe computers are computers used primarily by businesses and academic institutions for large-scale processes.

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Edward Condon

Edward Uhler Condon (March 2, 1902 – March 26, 1974) was a distinguished American nuclear physicist, a pioneer in quantum mechanics, and a participant in the development of radar and nuclear weapons during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project.

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Electronic delay storage automatic calculator

The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.

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Electronic game

An electronic game is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play.

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Ferranti

Ferranti or Ferranti International plc was a UK electrical engineering and equipment firm that operated for over a century from 1885 until it went bankrupt in 1993.

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Ferranti Mark 1

The Ferranti Mark 1, also known as the Manchester Electronic Computer in its sales literature, and thus sometimes called the Manchester Ferranti, was the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.

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Festival of Britain

The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951.

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First generation of video game consoles

The first generation of video game consoles began in 1972 with the Magnavox Odyssey (which began development in 1968 by Ralph Baer under the code name "The Brown Box"), until 1977, when "pong"-style console manufacturers left the market en masse due to the video game crash of 1977 and when microprocessor-based consoles were introduced.

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FOCAL (programming language)

FOCAL is an interpreted programming language resembling JOSS.

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Galaxy Game

Galaxy Game is a space combat arcade game developed in 1971 during the early era of video games.

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Gamepad

A gamepad, joypad, or simply controller is a type of game controller held in two hands, where the fingers (especially thumbs) are used to provide input.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution is a book by Steven Levy about hacker culture.

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Hamurabi (video game)

Hamurabi is a text-based strategy video game of land and resource management first developed by Doug Dyment in 1968.

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High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games

High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games is a book published in April 2002 by McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.

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History of video games

The history of video games goes as far back as the early 1950s, when academic computer scientists began designing simple games and simulations as part of their research.

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Human–computer interaction

Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.

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IAC (company)

IAC (InterActiveCorp) is an American holding company, that owns over 150 brands across 100 countries, mostly in media and Internet headquartered in New York City.

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IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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IBM 701

The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.

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Interactivity

Across the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of the term "interactivity", although all are related to interaction with computers and other machines with a user interface.

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John G. Kemeny

John George Kemeny; May 31, 1926 – December 26, 1992) was a Jewish-American mathematician, computer scientist, and educator best known for co-developing the BASIC programming language in 1964 with Thomas E. Kurtz. Kemeny served as the 13th President of Dartmouth College from 1970 to 1981 and pioneered the use of computers in college education. Kemeny chaired the presidential commission that investigated the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. According to György Marx he was one of The Martians.

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Josef Kates

Dr.

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Ken Thompson

Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.

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Lensman series

The Lensman series is a series of science fiction novels by American author Edward Elmer "Doc" Smith.

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Light pen

A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT display.

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Magnavox

Magnavox (Latin for "great voice") (stylized as MAGNAVOX) is an American electronics company founded in the United States.

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Magnavox Odyssey

The Magnavox Odyssey is the first commercial home video game console.

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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Manchester Mark 1

The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948).

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Marienbad (video game)

Marienbad was a 1962 Polish puzzle mainframe game created by at an Elwro factory for the Odra 1003, an adaption of one of the most popular logic games Nim.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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MSNBC

MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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Multics

Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.

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National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.

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Nim

Nim is a mathematical game of strategy in which two players take turns removing objects from distinct heaps.

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Nimrod (computing)

The Nimrod, built in the United Kingdom by Ferranti for the 1951 Festival of Britain, was an early computer custom-built to play a computer game, one of the first games developed in the early history of video games.

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Nolan Bushnell

Nolan Kay Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical engineer and businessman.

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Odra (computer)

Odra was a line of computers manufactured in Wrocław, Poland.

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Office of Scientific and Technical Information

The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is a component of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Oscilloscope

An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.

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Ottawa Citizen

The Ottawa Citizen is an English-language daily newspaper owned by Postmedia Network in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

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OXO

OXO or Noughts and Crosses is a video game developed by A S Douglas in 1952 which simulates a game of noughts and crosses.

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PC game

PC games, also known as computer games or personal computer games, are video games played on a personal computer rather than a dedicated video game console or arcade machine.

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PDP-1

The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959.

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PDP-11

The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.

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Peter Samson

Peter R. Samson (born 1941 in Fitchburg, Massachusetts) is an American computer scientist, best known for creating pioneering computer software.

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Pilot ACE

The Pilot ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) was one of the first computers built in the United Kingdom at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the early 1950s.

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Pinball

Pinball is a type of arcade game, in which points are scored by a player manipulating one or more steel balls on a play field inside a glass-covered cabinet called a pinball table (or "pinball machine").

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Pong

Pong is one of the earliest arcade video games.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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Ralph H. Baer

Ralph Henry Baer (born Rudolf Heinrich Baer; March 8, 1922 – December 6, 2014) was a German-born American inventor, game developer, and engineer.

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RAND Corporation

RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Replay: The History of Video Games

Replay: The History of Video Games is a book on the history of video games by Tristan Donovan.

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Rogers Vacuum Tube Company

Rogers Vacuum Tube Company (formally named Radio Manufacturing Corporation Limited) was founded as "Standard Radio Manufacturing" in 1925 by Edward S. Rogers, Sr. to sell Rogers "Batteryless" radio using vacuum tube technology.

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Rotary dial

A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Sandy Douglas

Alexander Shafto "Sandy" Douglas CBE (21 May 1921 – 29 April 2010) was a British professor of computer science, credited with creating the first graphical computer game OXO (also known as Noughts and Crosses) a tic-tac-toe computer game in 1952 on the EDSAC computer at University of Cambridge.

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Science fiction

Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.

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Smoke testing (software)

In computer programming and software testing, smoke testing (also confidence testing, sanity testing, ISTQB® Glossary for the International Software Testing Qualification Board® software testing qualification scheme, International Software Testing Qualification Board. build verification test (BVT) and build acceptance test) is preliminary testing to reveal simple failures severe enough to, for example, reject a prospective software release.

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Space Travel (video game)

Space Travel is an early video game developed by Ken Thompson in 1969 that simulates travel in the solar system.

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Spacewar!

Spacewar! is a space combat video game developed in 1962 by Steve Russell, in collaboration with Martin Graetz and Wayne Wiitanen, and programmed by Russell with assistance from others including Bob Saunders and Steve Piner.

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Spacing (magazine)

Spacing is a magazine published in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Springer Publishing

Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Steve Russell (computer scientist)

Stephen "Steve" Russell (born 1937) is an American computer scientist most famous for creating Spacewar!, one of the earliest video games.

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Stored-program computer

A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.

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Strategy video game

Strategy video game is a video game that focuses on skillful thinking and planning to achieve victory.

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Table tennis

Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small bats.

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Tech Model Railroad Club

The Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC) is a student organization at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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Ted Dabney

Samuel Frederick "Ted" Dabney Jr. (May 2, 1937 – May 26, 2018) was an American electrical engineer, and the co-founder, alongside Nolan Bushnell, of Atari, Inc. He is recognized as developing the basics of video circuitry principles that were used for Computer Space and later Pong, one of the first and most successful arcade games.

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Teleprinter

A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Tennis for Two

Tennis for Two is a sports video game developed in 1958, which simulates a game of tennis, and was one of the first games developed in the early history of video games.

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The Computer Museum, Boston

The Computer Museum was a Boston, Massachusetts, museum that opened in 1979 and operated in three different locations until 1999.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr.

Thomas Toliver Goldsmith Jr. (January 9, 1910 – March 5, 2009) was an American television pioneer, the co-inventor of the first arcade game to use a cathode ray tube, and a professor of physics at Furman University.

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Three Rivers Press

Three Rivers Press is the trade paperback imprint of the Crown Publishing Group, a division of Random House.

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Tic-tac-toe

Tic-tac-toe (also known as noughts and crosses or Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid.

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TX-0

The TX-0, for Transistorized Experimental computer zero, but affectionately referred to as tixo (pronounced "tix oh"), was an early fully transistorized computer and contained a then-huge 64K of 18-bit words of magnetic core memory.

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University of Manchester

The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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University of Warwick

The University of Warwick is a plate glass research university in Coventry, England.

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Unix

Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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Vector graphics

Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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Video game console

A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

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Video game graphics

A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game content throughout the history of video games.

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Video game industry

The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games.

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Wayne State University Press

Wayne State University Press (or WSU Press) is a university press that is part of Wayne State University.

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Westinghouse Electric Corporation

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company.

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William Higinbotham

William Higinbotham (October 22, 1910 – November 10, 1994) was an American physicist.

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Ziff Davis

Ziff Davis, LLC is an American publisher and Internet company.

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1939 New York World's Fair

The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, which covered the of Flushing Meadows-Corona Park (also the location of the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair), was the second most expensive American world's fair of all time, exceeded only by St.

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1967 World Series

The 1967 World Series matched the St. Louis Cardinals against the Boston Red Sox in a rematch of the 1946 World Series, with the Cardinals winning in seven games for their second championship in four years and their eighth overall.

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1UP.com

1UP.com was an American entertainment website that focused on video games.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_history_of_video_games

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