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East Africa

Index East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography. [1]

324 relations: Abyei, Adal Sultanate, Addis Ababa, Aden, Adulis, Africa, African buffalo, African elephant, African Great Lakes, Afro-Arab, Afroasiatic languages, Agriculture, Ajuran Sultanate, Aksumite currency, Ali Sabieh, Altitude, Amharic, Ancient Egypt, Anse Etoile, Antananarivo, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Archaeology, Archipelago, Asmara, Assab, Austronesian languages, Awash River, Azania, Bantu expansion, Bantu languages, Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Beef, Beja language, Big five game, Black rhinoceros, Blantyre, British Empire, British Raj, British Somaliland, Buganda, Bujumbura, Bulawayo, Burundi, Burundian Civil War, Burundian genocides, Camel train, Cash crop, Cattle, ..., Central Africa, Chimoio, City-state, Coffee, Colonialism, Colonization, Colony, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Comoros, Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Continent, Cushitic languages, Dar es Salaam, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Demographics of Ethiopia, Diplomatic recognition, Dire Dawa, Djibouti, Djibouti (city), Dodoma, Donkey, Dutch Empire, Dzaoudzi, East, East Africa Protectorate, East African Campaign (World War I), East African Campaign (World War II), East African Community, East African lion, East African Rift, Economy, El Niño, English language, Entebbe, Eragrostis tef, Eritrea, Eritrean War of Independence, Eritrean–Ethiopian War, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Civil War, Ethiopian Highlands, Ethnic violence in South Sudan, Europe, Exploitation of natural resources, Exploration, Far East, Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, First Congo War, First Italo-Ethiopian War, Fort Jesus, France, Francisco de Almeida, French colonial empire, French Indochina, French language, French Madagascar, French Somaliland, Frost, Garoowe, Geography, Geomorphology, German East Africa, German Empire, Goa, Goat, Gulu, Guns, Germs, and Steel, Gurúè, Harare, Hargeisa, Hatshepsut, Hegemony, Himyarite Kingdom, History, History of slavery, Hominini, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, Horn of Africa, Hunter-gatherer, Idi Amin, India, Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean trade, Indo-European languages, Intertropical Convergence Zone, Iron Age, Islam, Italian East Africa, Italian Somaliland, Ivory trade, Jared Diamond, Juba, Kampala, Kannur, Karagwe District, Kenya, Keren, Eritrea, Kevin Shillington, Khartoum, Khoisan, Kigali, Kikuyu language, Kilwa Kisiwani, Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of Kush, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Kitara language, Kitwe, Kivu conflict, Koobi Fora, Lake Malawi, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Land of Punt, League of Nations mandate, Leopard, Lilongwe, Lisbon, List of cities proper by population, List of islands in the Indian Ocean, List of urban areas by population, Loanword, Lord's Resistance Army, Luganda, Luo languages, Lusaka, Maasai language, Madagascar, Malakal, Malawi, Mamoudzou, Manuel I of Portugal, Maputo, Mauritius, Mayotte, Menouthias, Merina Kingdom, Milk, Millet, Mogadishu, Mombasa, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Monsoon, Moors, Moroni, Comoros, Moshi, Tanzania, Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, Mozambique, Muhanga, Multiregional origin of modern humans, Muslim, Mutsamudu, Muyinga, Mwanza, Nairobi, Nampula, Nandi–Markweta languages, Niger–Congo languages, Nile, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilotic languages, Nilotic peoples, North Africa, Northeast Region, Brazil, Nuba Mountains, Nuer language, Nyasaland, Ogaden War, Olduvai Gorge, Oman, Omdurman, Omotic languages, Oriental Orthodoxy, Oromo language, Ottoman Turks, Overseas France, Pastoralism, Pate Island, Pemba Island, Pemba, Mozambique, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Persian Gulf, Persian people, Pharaoh, Plantation, Port Louis, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese India, Portuguese language, Portuguese Mozambique, Protectorate, Puntland, Queen regnant, Rain shadow, Ras Hafun, Réunion, Recent African origin of modern humans, Red Sea, Region, Republic of Venice, Reuters, Rhapta, Rwanda, Rwandan Civil War, Rwandan genocide, Rwenzori Mountains, Sahure, Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, Saint-Denis, Réunion, Saint-Paul, Réunion, Scramble for Africa, Sea lane, Second Congo War, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Second Madagascar expedition, Second Sudanese Civil War, Semitic languages, Seychelles, Sheep, Somali Civil War, Somali language, Somalia, Somaliland, South Sudan, South Sudanese Civil War, Southeast Africa, Southeast Asia, Southern Africa, Sovereignty, Spice, Spice trade, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, Sultanate of Zanzibar, Swahili coast, Swahili culture, Swahili language, Swahili people, Tana River (Kenya), Tanganyika, Tanzania, Tea, The Sudans, Tigrinya language, Toamasina, Tourism, Traditional African religions, Tsetse fly, Uganda, Uganda–Tanzania War, Ugandan Bush War, United Kingdom, United Nations geoscheme, United Nations Statistics Division, Vasco da Gama, Victoria, Seychelles, Vietnam, Wage labour, West Africa, Wet season, Wolaytta language, World War II, Zambia, Zanzibar, Zanzibar Revolution, Zimbabwe, Zoskales, 1982 Kenyan coup d'état attempt, 2007–08 Kenyan crisis. Expand index (274 more) »

Abyei

The Abyei Area (أبيي) is an area of in Sudan accorded "special administrative status" by the 2004 Protocol on the Resolution of the Abyei Conflict (Abyei Protocol) in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War.

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Adal Sultanate

The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.

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Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.

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Aden

Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.

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Adulis

Adulis or Aduli (Αδουλίς in Ancient Greek) is an archeological site in the Northern Red Sea of Eritrea, situated about 30 miles south of Massawa in the Gulf of Zula.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African buffalo

The African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovine.

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African elephant

African elephants are elephants of the genus Loxodonta.

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African Great Lakes

The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.

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Afro-Arab

Afro-Arabs are individuals and groups from Africa who are of partial Arab descent.

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ajuran Sultanate

The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.

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Aksumite currency

Aksumite currency was coinage produced and used within the Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum) centered in present-day Eritrea and the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

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Ali Sabieh

Ali Sabieh (Cali Sabiix, علي صبيح) is the second largest city in Djibouti.

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Altitude

Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).

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Amharic

Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Anse Etoile

Anse Etoile is an administrative district of Seychelles on the island of Mahé.

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Antananarivo

Antananarivo (French: Tananarive), also known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Archipelago

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Asmara

Asmara (ኣስመራ), known locally as Asmera (meaning "They made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest city of Eritrea.

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Assab

Assab or Aseb (ዓሰብ,; عصب) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Awash River

The Awash (sometimes spelled Hawash; Amharic: አዋሽ; Afar We'ayot; Somali: Webiga Dir) is a major river of Ethiopia.

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Azania

Azania (Ἀζανία) is a name that has been applied to various parts of southeastern tropical Africa.

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Bantu expansion

The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Beau Bassin-Rose Hill

Beau-Bassin Rose-Hill (Villes sœurs) is a town in Mauritius, located in the Plaines Wilhems District, it is administered by the Municipal Council of Beau-Bassin Rose-Hill.

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Beef

Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.

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Beja language

Beja (Bidhaawyeet) is an Afroasiatic language of the Cushitic branch spoken on the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people.

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Big five game

In Africa, the big five game animals are the lion, leopard, rhinoceros (both black and white species), elephant, and Cape buffalo.

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Black rhinoceros

The black rhinoceros or hook-lipped rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is a species of rhinoceros, native to eastern and southern Africa including Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

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Blantyre

Blantyre is Malawi's centre of finance and commerce, and its second largest city, with an estimated 1,068,681 inhabitants.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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British Somaliland

British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.

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Buganda

Buganda is a subnational kingdom within Uganda.

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Bujumbura

Bujumbura, (formerly Usumbura), is the capital, largest city, and main port of Burundi.

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Bulawayo

Bulawayo is the second-largest city in Zimbabwe after the capital Harare, with, as of the ever disputed 2012 census, a population of 653,337 while Bulawayo Municipal records indicate a population of 1,200,750.

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Burundi

Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

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Burundian Civil War

The Burundian Civil War was an armed conflict lasting from 1993 to 2005.

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Burundian genocides

Since Burundi's independence in 1962, there have been two events called genocides in the country.

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Camel train

A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.

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Cash crop

A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.

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Cattle

Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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Chimoio

Chimoio is the capital of Manica Province in Mozambique.

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City-state

A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Colonialism

Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Colonization

Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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Colony

In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.

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Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is a free trade area with nineteen member states stretching from Libya to Swaziland.

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Comoros

The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.

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Comprehensive Peace Agreement

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, اتفاقية السلام الشامل, Ittifāqiyyah al-salām al-šāmil), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, was an accord signed on January 9, 2005, by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.

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Continent

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Cushitic languages

The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Dar es Salaam

Dar es Salaam (Dar) (from دار السلام, "the house of peace"; formerly Mzizima) is the former capital as well as the most populous city in Tanzania and a regionally important economic centre.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Demographics of Ethiopia

The demographics of Ethiopia encompass the demographic features of Ethiopia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, languages, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Diplomatic recognition

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).

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Dire Dawa

Dire Dawa (ድሬ ዳዋ, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", Dir Dhabe, meaning "where Dir hit his spear into the ground", ديري داوا) is one of two chartered cities (astedader akabibi) in Ethiopia (the other being the capital, Addis Ababa).

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Djibouti

Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Djibouti (city)

Djibouti City (also called Djibouti; مدينة جيبوتي, Ville de Djibouti, Magaalada Jabuuti, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti.

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Dodoma

Dodoma (literally "It has sunk" in Gogo), officially Dodoma City, is the national capital of The United Republic Of Tanzania and the capital of Dodoma Region, with a population of 410,956.

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Donkey

The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

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Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

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Dzaoudzi

Dzaoudzi is a commune in the French overseas department of Mayotte, in the Indian Ocean.

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East

East is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass.

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East Africa Protectorate

East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya (approximately) from the Indian Ocean inland to Uganda and the Great Rift Valley.

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East African Campaign (World War I)

The East African Campaign in World War I was a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (GEA) and spread to portions of Portuguese Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Belgian Congo.

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East African Campaign (World War II)

The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.

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East African Community

The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organization composed of six countries in the African Great Lakes region in eastern Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda.

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East African lion

The East African lion (Panthera leo melanochaita) occurs in East Africa, but is regionally extinct in Djibouti and Eritrea.

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East African Rift

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.

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Economy

An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Entebbe

Entebbe is a major town in Central Uganda.

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Eragrostis tef

Eragrostis tef, also known as teff, Williams' lovegrass or annual bunch grass, is an annual grass, a species of lovegrass native to Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Eritrea

Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Eritrean War of Independence

The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, both before and during the Ethiopian Civil War.

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Eritrean–Ethiopian War

The Eritrean–Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, one of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethiopian Civil War

The Ethiopian Civil War began on 12 September 1974 when the Marxist-Leninist Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie.

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Ethiopian Highlands

The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.

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Ethnic violence in South Sudan

Ethnic violence in South Sudan has a long history among South Sudan's varied ethnic groups.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Exploitation of natural resources

The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation.

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Exploration

Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.

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Far East

The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.

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Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland

The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as the Central African Federation (CAF), was a semi-independent federation of three southern African territories – the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland – between 1953 and 1963.

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First Congo War

The First Congo War (1996–1997) was a foreign invasion of Zaire led by Rwanda that replaced President Mobutu Sésé Seko with the rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila.

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First Italo-Ethiopian War

The First Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1895 to 1896.

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Fort Jesus

Fort Jesus (Portuguese: Forte Jesus de Mombaça) is a fort located on Mombasa Island.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francisco de Almeida

Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French Indochina

French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Madagascar

The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958.

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French Somaliland

French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis"; Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa.

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Frost

Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.

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Garoowe

Garowe (Garoowe, غاروي); is the capital of Nugaal region and administrative capital of Puntland state in northeastern Somalia.

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Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geomorphology

Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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German East Africa

German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Goa

Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.

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Goat

The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Gulu

Gulu is a city in the Northern Region of Uganda.

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Guns, Germs, and Steel

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years) is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Gurúè

Gurúè (also spelt Gurué; known before independence as Vila Junqueiro) is a town located in the northern part of Mozambique, near the center of the province of Zambezia.

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Harare

Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.

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Hargeisa

Hargeisa (Hargeysa, هرجيسا) is a city situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed region of the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland in the Horn of Africa.

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Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Hegemony

Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

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Himyarite Kingdom

The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.

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History

History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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History of slavery

The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.

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Hominini

The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Idi Amin

Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indian Ocean trade

Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Intertropical Convergence Zone

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling Earth near the Equator, where the northeast and southeast trade winds converge.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Italian East Africa

Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.

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Italian Somaliland

Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.

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Ivory trade

The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, African and Asian elephants.

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Jared Diamond

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).

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Juba

Juba (جوبا) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of South Sudan.

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Kampala

Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda.

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Kannur

Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.

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Karagwe District

Karagwe is one of the six districts of the Kagera Region of Tanzania.

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Kenya

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Keren, Eritrea

Keren (Ge'ez: ከረን كرن or كيرين), formerly known as Cheren and Sanhit,Shinn, David & al.

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Kevin Shillington

Kevin Shillington is a teacher and a freelance historian based in London, England, United Kingdom.

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Khartoum

Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.

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Khoisan

Khoisan, or according to the contemporary Khoekhoegowab orthography Khoesān (pronounced), is an artificial catch-all name for the so-called "non-Bantu" indigenous peoples of Southern Africa, combining the Khoekhoen (formerly "Khoikhoi") and the Sān or Sākhoen (also, in Afrikaans: Boesmans, or in English: Bushmen, after Dutch Boschjesmens; and Saake in the Nǁng language).

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Kigali

Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda.

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Kikuyu language

Kikuyu or Gikuyu (Gĩkũyũ) is a language of the Bantu family spoken primarily by the Kikuyu people (Agĩkũyũ) of Kenya.

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Kilwa Kisiwani

Kilwa Kisiwani is a community on an Indian Ocean island off the southern coast of present-day Tanzania in eastern Africa.

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Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.

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Kinyarwanda

Kinyarwanda; known as Igifumbira in Uganda) is an official language of Rwanda and a dialect of the Rwanda-Rundi language spoken by 12 million people in Rwanda, Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjacent parts of southern Uganda. (The Kirundi dialect is the official language of neighbouring Burundi.) Kinyarwanda is one of the four official languages of Rwanda (along with English, French and Kiswahili) and is spoken by almost all of the native population. That contrasts with most modern African states, whose borders were drawn by colonial powers and do not correspond to ethnic boundaries or precolonial kingdoms.

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Kirundi

Kirundi, also known as Rundi, is a Bantu language spoken by 9 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in Uganda.

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Kitara language

The Kitara language, commonly known as Runyakitara, is an artificial standard language based on four closely related languages of western Uganda.

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Kitwe

Kitwe is the second largest city in terms of size and population in Zambia.

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Kivu conflict

The Kivu conflict began in 2004 in the eastern Congo as an armed conflict between the military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and the Hutu Power group Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Koobi Fora

Koobi Fora refers primarily to a region around Koobi Fora Ridge, located on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana in the territory of the nomadic Gabbra people.

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Lake Malawi

Lake Malawi, also known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is an African Great Lake and the southernmost lake in the East African Rift system, located between Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania.

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Lake Tanganyika

Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake.

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Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes.

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Land of Punt

The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.

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League of Nations mandate

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.

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Leopard

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.

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Lilongwe

Lilongwe is the capital city of Malawi with an estimated population of 1,077,116 for 2015.

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Lisbon

Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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List of cities proper by population

This article lists the most populous cities in the world defined according to a concept of city proper.

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List of islands in the Indian Ocean

This is a list of islands in the Indian Ocean.

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List of urban areas by population

This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Lord's Resistance Army

The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), also known as the Lord's Resistance Movement, is a rebel group and heterodox Christian group which operates in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Luganda

Luganda, or Ganda (Oluganda), is one of the major languages in Uganda and is spoken by more than five million Baganda and other people principally in central Uganda, including the capital Kampala of Uganda.

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Luo languages

The dozen Luo, Lwo or Lwoian languages are spoken by the Luo peoples in an area ranging from southern Sudan to southern Kenya, with Dholuo extending into northern Tanzania and Alur into the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Lusaka

Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.

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Maasai language

Maasai (Masai) or Maa (autonym: ɔl Maa) is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania by the Maasai people, numbering about 800,000.

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Madagascar

Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Malakal

Malakal is a city and Latin Catholic bishopric in South Sudan and second largest city after the national capital Juba.

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Malawi

Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.

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Mamoudzou

Mamoudzou (Shimaore Comorian: Momoju) is the capital of the French overseas region and department of Mayotte, in the Indian Ocean.

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Manuel I of Portugal

Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.

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Maputo

Maputo (formerly named Lourenço Marques until 1976) is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.

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Mauritius

Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Mayotte

Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).

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Menouthias

Menouthias (Μενουθιάς in Ancient Greek) is ancient trading town most commonly identified with either Pemba Island, Mafia Island or Zanzibar in Tanzania or east Africa, that existed from at least 50 B.C. Along with Rhapta and Azania, the settlement is mentioned in early Greek writings, such as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which describes Rhapta as "the last marketplace of Azania", two days' travel south of the Menouthias islands.

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Merina Kingdom

The Merina Kingdom, or Kingdom of Madagascar, officially the Kingdom of Imerina (1540–1897) was a pre-colonial state off the coast of Southeast Africa that, by the 19th century, dominated most of what is now Madagascar.

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Milk

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Mogadishu

Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.

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Mombasa

Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.

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Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.

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Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Moors

The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Moroni, Comoros

Moroni (Arabic: موروني Mūrūnī) is the largest city, federal capital and seat of the government of the Union of the Comoros, a sovereign archipelago nation in the Indian Ocean.

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Moshi, Tanzania

Moshi is a Tanzanian municipality with a postcode number 251 with and a population of 184,292 according to the 2012 census.

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Mount Kenya

Mount Kenya is the highest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Kilimanjaro.

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Mount Kilimanjaro

Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.

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Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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Muhanga

Muhanga (former Gitarama, renamed in 2006) is a city in Rwanda, in the Muhanga District, in Southern Province.

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Multiregional origin of modern humans

The multiregional hypothesis, multiregional evolution (MRE), or polycentric hypothesis is a scientific model that provides an alternative explanation to the more widely accepted "Out of Africa" model of monogenesis for the pattern of human evolution.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Mutsamudu

Mutsamudu is the second largest city in the Comoros, founded in 1482.

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Muyinga

Muyinga is a city located in northern Burundi.

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Mwanza

Mwanza is a mid-sized port city on the southern eastern shores of Lake Victoria in north western Tanzania.

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Nairobi

Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.

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Nampula

Nampula is the capital city of Nampula Province in northeastern Mozambique.

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Nandi–Markweta languages

The Nandi languages, or Kalenjin proper, are a dialect cluster of the Kalenjin branch of the Nilotic language family.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Nile

The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.

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Nilotic languages

The Nilotic languages are a group of Eastern Sudanic languages spoken across a wide area between South Sudan and Tanzania by the Nilotic peoples, who traditionally practice cattle-herding.

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Nilotic peoples

The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Northeast Region, Brazil

The Northeast Region of Brazil (Região Nordeste do Brasil) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.

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Nuba Mountains

The Nuba Mountains, also referred to as the Nuba Hills (جبال النوبة), is an area located in South Kordofan, Sudan.

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Nuer language

The Nuer language (Thok Naath) is a Nilo-Saharan language of the Western Nilotic group.

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Nyasaland

Nyasaland, or the Nyasaland Protectorate, was a British Protectorate located in Africa, which was established in 1907 when the former British Central Africa Protectorate changed its name.

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Ogaden War

The Ogaden War was a Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden starting with the Somali Democratic Republic's invasion of Ethiopia.

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Olduvai Gorge

The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge in Tanzania is one of the most important paleoanthropological sites in the world; it has proven invaluable in furthering our understanding of early human evolution.

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Oman

Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Omdurman

Omdurman (standard أم درمان Umm Durmān) is the second largest city in Sudan and Khartoum State, lying on the western banks of the River Nile, opposite the capital, Khartoum.

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Omotic languages

The Omotic languages are group of languages spoken in southwestern Ethiopia.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Oromo language

Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Overseas France

Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.

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Pastoralism

Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.

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Pate Island

Pate (Paté) Island is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs.

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Pemba Island

Pemba Island (الجزيرة الخضراء al-Jazīra al-khadrā, literally "The Green Island"), is an island forming part of the Zanzibar Archipelago, lying within the Swahili Coast in the Indian Ocean.

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Pemba, Mozambique

Pemba is a port city in Mozambique.

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Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Pharaoh

Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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Plantation

A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.

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Port Louis

Port Louis (Port-Louis, Mauritian Creole: Porlwi poːrlwi) is the capital city of Mauritius.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Portuguese India

The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese Mozambique

Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.

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Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Puntland

Puntland (Puntlaand, أرض البنط), officially the Puntland State of Somalia (Dowladda Puntland ee Soomaaliya, بونتلاند دولة الصومال), is a region in northeastern Somalia.

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Queen regnant

A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.

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Rain shadow

A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).

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Ras Hafun

Ras Hafun (Ras Xaafuun, رأس حـافـون), also known as Cape Hafun, is a promontory in the northeastern Bari region of Somalia.

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Réunion

Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.

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Recent African origin of modern humans

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Region

In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).

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Republic of Venice

The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Rhapta

Rhapta (Ράπτα) was a marketplace said to be on the coast of Southeast Africa, first described in the 1st century CE.

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Rwanda

Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.

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Rwandan Civil War

The Rwandan Civil War was a conflict in the African republic of Rwanda, between the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).

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Rwandan genocide

The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.

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Rwenzori Mountains

The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the "Ruwenzori Range" (spelling changed around 1980 to conform more closely with the local name Rwenjura), is a mountain range of eastern equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

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Sahure

Sahure (meaning "He who is close to Re", also known in Greek as Sephrês, Σϵϕρής) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, who reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC.

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Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman

Said bin Sultan Al-Said (سعيد بن سلطان,, Said bin Sultani) (5 June 1791 – 19 October 1856) was Sultan of Muscat and Oman from 1806 to 4 June 1856.

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Saint-Denis, Réunion

Saint-Denis (or unofficially Saint-Denis de la Réunion for disambiguation) is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, in the Indian Ocean.

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Saint-Paul, Réunion

Saint-Paul is the second-largest commune in the French overseas department of Réunion.

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Scramble for Africa

The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.

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Sea lane

A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.

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Second Congo War

The Second Congo War (also known as the Great War of Africa or the Great African War, and sometimes referred to as the African World War) began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, little more than a year after the First Congo War, and involved some of the same issues.

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Second Italo-Ethiopian War

The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.

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Second Madagascar expedition

The Second Madagascar expedition was a French military intervention which took place in 1894-1895, sealing the conquest of the Merina Kingdom on the island of Madagascar by France.

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Second Sudanese Civil War

The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Seychelles

Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.

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Sheep

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Somali Civil War

The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Somaliland

Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند, rtl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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South Sudanese Civil War

The South Sudanese Civil War is an ongoing conflict in South Sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces.

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Southeast Africa

Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Spice

A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.

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Spice trade

The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile

The Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, also referred to by some media as the Third Sudanese Civil War, is an ongoing armed conflict in the Sudanese southern states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile between the Army of Sudan (SAF) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), a northern affiliate of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) in South Sudan.

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Sultanate of Zanzibar

The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Usultani wa Zanzibar, translit), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar is the sovereign.

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Swahili coast

The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.

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Swahili culture

Swahili culture is the culture of the Swahili people inhabiting the Swahili Coast.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Swahili people

The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.

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Tana River (Kenya)

The long Tana River is the longest river in Kenya, and gives its name to the Tana River County.

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Tanganyika

Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tea

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.

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The Sudans

The Sudans (sometimes also known as the two Sudans) is a region in Africa comprising the countries of Sudan and South Sudan.

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Tigrinya language

Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.

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Toamasina

Toamasina, meaning "like salt" or "salty", unofficially and in French also Tamatave, is the capital of the Atsinanana region on the east coast of Madagascar on the Indian Ocean.

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Tourism

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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Traditional African religions

The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.

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Tsetse fly

Tsetse, sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of tropical Africa.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Uganda–Tanzania War

The Uganda–Tanzania war (commonly known in Uganda as the Liberation War) was fought between Uganda and Tanzania in 1978–1979, and led to the overthrow of Idi Amin's regime.

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Ugandan Bush War

The Ugandan Bush War, also known as the Luwero War, the Ugandan civil war or the Resistance War, was a civil war fought in Uganda between the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA) and the National Resistance Army (NRA) from 1981 to 1986.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations geoscheme

The United Nations geoscheme is a system which divides the countries of the world into regional and subregional groups.

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United Nations Statistics Division

The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.

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Vasco da Gama

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

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Victoria, Seychelles

Victoria is the capital city of Seychelles and is situated on the north-eastern side of Mahé island, the archipelago's main island.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Wage labour

Wage labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour under a formal or informal employment contract.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Wet season

The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.

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Wolaytta language

Wolaytta is a North Omotic language of the Ometo group spoken in the Wolayita Zone and some other parts of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region of Ethiopia.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zambia

Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zanzibar

Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.

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Zanzibar Revolution

The Zanzibar Revolution occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries.

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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Zoskales

Zoskales (c. 100 CE) was an ancient King in the Horn of Africa.

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1982 Kenyan coup d'état attempt

The 1982 Kenyan coup d'état attempt was a failed attempt to overthrow President Daniel arap Moi's government.

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2007–08 Kenyan crisis

The 2007–08 Kenyan crisis was a political, economic, and humanitarian crisis that erupted in Kenya after former President Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner of the presidential election held on December 27, 2007.

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Africa, East, Africa, Eastern, Ancient East Africa, Ancient history of East Africa, Central East Africa, Central east Africa, East African vernacular languages, Eastern Africa, Eastern African, History of East Africa, Prehistory of East Africa.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Africa

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