366 relations: Acquisition of sovereignty, Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union 1800, Addiscombe, Addiscombe Military Seminary, Advocate-General of Bengal, Alderman, Alexander Sharpeigh, All-Red Route, Ambergris, American Revolution, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Anglo-Maratha Wars, Anglo-Mysore Wars, Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604), Apcar and Company, Arabian Sea, Arabic, Aristocracy, Artillery, Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections, British Library, Bab-el-Mandeb, Balasore, Banten (town), Battle of Buxar, Battle of Flores (1592), Battle of Manila (1762), Battle of Plassey, Battle of Pulo Aura, Battle of Swally, Bay of Bengal, BBC Radio 4, Bengal, Bengal Army, Bengal famine of 1943, Bengal Presidency, Bihar, Bishopsgate, Black pepper, Blackwall Yard, Bombay Army, Bombay Castle, Boston Tea Party, British Army, British colonization of the Americas, British Empire, British Hong Kong, British Library, British Malaya, British Raj, ..., Burgess (title), Candle auction, Canton (flag), Cape of Good Hope, Carnatic region, Carnatic Wars, Carrack, Caste, Catherine of Braganza, Cavalry, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chandannagar, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Charles Fawcett (historian), Charles II of England, Charles Lamb, Charter Act of 1793, Charter Act of 1813, Chennai, Child's War, China, Chittagong, Cinnamon, Clove, Clove (ship), Coat of arms, Cochineal, Commercial Revolution, Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, Company rule in India, Coromandel Coast, Cotton, Courteen association, Crest (heraldry), Crosby Hall, London, Croydon, Cuttack district, Dartmouth, Devon, Daud Khan Panni, David Middleton (mariner), Dent & Co., Deptford, Dictionary of National Biography, Diwani, Dowry, Dutch East India Company, Earl Grey tea, East India Club, East India Company College, East India Docks, East India House, East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873, East Indiaman, East Indies, Ebony, Economy of India under Company rule, Edmund Burke, Elizabeth I of England, Encyclopædia 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A number of methods of acquisition of sovereignty are or have been recognised by international law as lawful methods by which a state may acquire sovereignty over territory.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Addiscombe is an area of South London, England, within the London Borough of Croydon.
The East India Company Military Seminary was a British military academy at Addiscombe, Surrey, in what is now the London Borough of Croydon.
The Advocate-General of Bengal was charged with advising the Government of the British administered Bengal Presidency on legal matters.
An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law.
Alexander Sharpeigh (fl. 1607–1613), was a merchant and sea-captain.
An All-Red Route was, originally, a steamship route used by Royal Mail Ships during the heyday of the British Empire.
Ambergris (or, ambra grisea, ambre gris), ambergrease, or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Anglo–Maratha Wars were three wars fought in the Indian sub-continent betwen rajput.
The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.
The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared.
Apcar and Company was a firm founded in 1819 in India that engaged in shipping, import and export.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections previously called the Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC) form a significant part of the holdings of the British Library in London, England.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
Balasore or Baleswar is a city in the state of Odisha, about north of the state capital Bhubaneswar, in eastern India.
Banten, also written as Bantam, is a small port town located near the western end of Java.
The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1763; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
The Battle of Flores (1592), also known as Cruising Voyage to the Azores of 1592, or the Capture of the Madre de Deus describes a series of naval engagements that took place from 20 May to 19 August 1592, during the Anglo-Spanish War.
The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila Batalla de Manila) was fought during the Seven Years' War, from 24 September 1762 to 6 October 1762, between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Spain in and around Manila, the capital of the Philippines, a Spanish colony at that time.
The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
The Battle of Pulo Aura was a minor naval engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, fought on 14 February 1804, in which a large convoy of Honourable East India Company (HEIC) East Indiamen, well-armed merchant ships, intimidated, drove off and chased a powerful French naval squadron.
The naval Battle of Swally, also known as Battle of Suvali, took place on 29–30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali (anglicised to Swally) a village near the Surat city (now in Gujarat, India) and was a victory for four English East India Company galleons over four Portuguese galleons and 26 barks (rowing vessels with no armament).
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal Army was the army of the Bengal Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Bengal famine of 1943 (Bengali: pañcāśēra manvantara) was a major famine in the Bengal province in British India during World War II.
The Bengal Presidency was once the largest subdivision (presidency) of British India, with its seat in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bishopsgate is one of the 25 wards of the City of London and also the name of a major road (part of the A10) between Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate in the northeast corner of London's main financial district.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
Blackwall Yard was a shipyard on the Thames at Blackwall, London, engaged in ship building and later ship repairs for over 350 years.
The Bombay Army was the army of the Bombay Presidency, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
Bombay Castle (also Casa da Orta) is one of the oldest defensive structures built in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay).
The Boston Tea Party was a political and mercantile protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1773.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough (England, Wales, Ireland) or burgh (Scotland).
A candle auction, or auction by the candle, is a variation on the typical English auction that became popular in the 17th and 18th centuries.
A canton in a flag is a rectangular area at the top hoist corner of a flag, occupying up to a quarter of the flag's area.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and southern Andhra Pradesh.
The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India.
A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
Catherine of Braganza (Catarina; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Chandannagar, formerly spelled as Chandernagore, is a city and a municipal corporation with former French colony located about north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Sir Charles Fawcett (1869-1952) was a British historian.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 – 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, poet, and antiquarian, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the children's book Tales from Shakespeare, co-authored with his sister, Mary Lamb (1764–1847).
The East India Company Act 1793, also known as the Charter Act 1793, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain which renewed the charter issued to the British East India Company (EIC), and continued the Company's rule in India.
The East India Company Act 1813, also known as the Charter Act of 1813, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which renewed the charter issued to the British East India Company, and continued the Company's rule in India.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Child's War was a war between the English East India Company and the Mughal Empire of India which lasted from 1686 to 1690.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chittagong, officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
The Clove was the first British trade ship to make port in Japan.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the natural dye carmine is derived.
The Commercial Revolution consisted in the creation of a European economy based on trade, which began in the 11th century and lasted until it was succeeded by the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century.
The Company of Merchant Adventurers of London brought together London's leading overseas merchants in a regulated company in the early 15th century, in the nature of a guild.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The Courteen association, later called the Assada company was an English trading company founded in 1635 in an attempt to break the monopoly of the East India Company in trade with India.
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm.
Crosby Hall is a historic building in London.
Croydon is a large town in south London, England, south of Charing Cross.
Cuttack district is one of the 30 districts of Odisha state in East India.
Dartmouth is a town and civil parish in the English county of Devon.
Daud Khan Panni (? – 6 September 1715) aka Daud Khan was a Mughal commander, Nawab of the Carnatic and later Viceroy of Deccan.
David Middleton (died 1615) was a merchant and sea-captain in the service of the English East India Company who made several voyages by sea to the Far East.
Dent & Co. or Dent's, was one of the wealthiest British merchant firms, or ''Hongs'', active in China during the 19th century.
Deptford is a district of south-east London, England, within the London Borough of Lewisham.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
Diwani is a calligraphic variety of Arabic script, a cursive style developed during the reign of the early Ottoman Turks (16th century - early 17th century).
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
Earl Grey tea is a tea blend which has been flavoured with the addition of oil of bergamot.
The East India Club, is a gentlemen's club founded in 1849 and situated at 16 St. James's Square in London.
The East India Company College, or East India College, was an educational establishment situated at Hailey, Hertfordshire, nineteen miles north of London founded in 1806 to train "writers" (administrators) for the Honourable East India Company (HEIC).
The East India Docks were a group of docks in Blackwall, east London, north-east of the Isle of Dogs.
East India House was the London headquarters of the East India Company, from which much of British India was governed until the British government took control of the Company's possessions in India in 1858.
The East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 was of an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1873, that formally dissolved the British East India Company.
East Indiaman was a general name for any sailing ship operating under charter or licence to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
Ebony is a dense black hardwood, most commonly yielded by several different species in the genus Diospyros, which also contains the persimmons.
The Economy of India under Company rule describes the economy of those regions (contemporaneously British India) that fell under Company rule in India during the years 1757 to 1858.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Bonaventure (also known as Elizabeth Bonaventure) was a 47-gun galleon purchased by the Royal Navy in 1567.
A factor is a type of trader who receives and sells goods on commission (called factorage).
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
The Families British India Society (FIBIS) is a genealogical organisation which assists people in researching their family history and the background against which their ancestors led their lives in British India.
Fancy was Henry Every's ship, and was commanded by him between May 1694 to late 1695, when he retired from piracy and the fate of Fancy becomes unknown.
The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
The Flag of Scotland (bratach na h-Alba; Banner o Scotland) is also known as St Andrew's Cross or the Saltire.
The flag of the East India Company represented the British East India Company between 1600 and 1874.
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
Fort St George (or historically, White Town) is the first English (later British) fortress in India, founded in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai.
Fort William is a fort in Calcutta (Kolkata), built during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India.
Francis Edward Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, KG, PC (9 December 1754 – 28 November 1826), styled The Honourable Francis Rawdon from birth until 1762, as The Lord Rawdon between 1762 and 1783, and known as The Earl of Moira between 1793 and 1816, was an Anglo-Irish British politician and military officer who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
The French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar. The first Director General for the Company was François de la Faye, who was adjoined by two Directors belonging to the two most successful trading organizations at that time: François Caron, who had spent 30 years working for the Dutch East India Company, including more than 20 years in Japan, and Marcara Avanchintz, a trader from Isfahan, Persia.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
The Ganj-i-Sawai (Persian/Hindustani: گنج سواہی, Ganj-i-Sawai, in English "Exceeding Treasure", often anglicized as Gunsway) was an armed Ghanjah dhow (trading ship) belonging to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb which, along with her escort Fateh Muhammed, was captured on 7 September 1695 by the English pirate Henry Every en route from present day Mocha, Yemen to Surat, India.
A gentlemen's club, or formerly traditional gentlemen's club, is a members-only private club originally set up by and for British upper-class men in the 18th century, and popularised by English upper middle-class men and women in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
Sir George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, 13th Baron de Clifford, 13th Lord of Skipton, KG (8 August 155830 October 1605), was an English peer, naval commander, and courtier of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), known as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911 and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman.
The Honourable Sir George Henry Monson (17 October 1755 – 17 June 1823) was a noted English amateur cricketer whose known first-class career included 13 matches from the 1785 to the 1792 season.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
George White (1648 – after 1707) was an English merchant and co-founder of the reformed East India Company.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
The "Grand Union Flag" (also known as the "Continental Colors", the "Congress Flag", the "Cambridge Flag", and the "First Navy Ensign") is considered to be the first national flag of the United States of America.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
The Great Bengal Famine of 1770 (৭৬-এর মন্বন্তর, Chhiattōrer monnōntór; lit The Famine of '76) was a famine between 1769 and 1773 (1176 to 1180 in the Bengali calendar) that affected the lower Gangetic plain of India from Bihar to the Bengal region.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Indian Peninsula Railway was a predecessor of the Central Railway, whose headquarters was at the Boree Bunder in Mumbai (later, the Victoria Terminus and presently the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus).
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Hackney is a parish in the historic county of Middlesex.
Haileybury is an independent school near Hertford in England.
Hanwell is a town in the London Borough of Ealing, west London, England.
Grappler was a 14-gun brig (though pierced for 16 guns), that belonged to the East India Company's navy - the Bombay Marine.
Henry Every, also Avery or Evory, (23 August 1659 – time of death uncertain, possibly 1699) sometimes erroneously given as Jack Avery or John Avery, was an English pirate who operated in the Atlantic and Indian oceans in the mid-1690s.
Sir Henry Middleton (died 1613) was a sea captain and adventurer.
Henry Thomas Colebrooke FRS FRSE (15 June 1765 – 10 March 1837) was an English orientalist and mathematician.
Hertford Castle was a Norman castle situated by the River Lea in Hertford, the county town of Hertfordshire, England.
Hertford Heath is a small village and civil parish near the county town of Hertford in Hertfordshire, England.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
, historically known as Firando is a city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.
The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry.
Dominant powers in present-day India have possessed navies for many centuries.
Hostis humani generis (Latin for "enemy of mankind") is a legal term of art that originates in admiralty law.
Hyder Ali Khan, Haidarālī (c. 1720 – 7 December 1782) was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India.
The impeachment of Warren Hastings was a failed attempt between 1788 and 1795 to impeach the first Governor-General of Bengal in the Parliament of Great Britain.
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Right Honourable Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India (commonly known as the India Board or the Board of Control) was an arm of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for managing the Government's interest in British India and the East India Company between 1784 and 1858.
The India Office was a British government department established in London in 1858 to oversee the administration, through a Viceroy and other officials, of the Provinces of British India.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The invasion of Java in 1811 was a successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Sir James Lancaster VI (c. 1554 died 6 June 1618) was a prominent Elizabethan trader and privateer.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited, also known as Jardines, is a British conglomerate incorporated in Bermuda, with its primary listing on the Singapore Exchange.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), personal name Yongyan, was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
Lieutenant General Sir John Clavering KB (bapt. 1722 – 30 August 1777) was an army officer and diplomat.
John Evelyn, FRS (31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.
Sir John Gayer (died 1711) was the East India Company's General from May 1694 to November 1704.
John Ramsey McCulloch (1 March 1789 – 11 November 1864) was a Scottish economist, author and editor, widely regarded as the leader of the Ricardian school of economists after the death of David Ricardo in 1823.
John Saris (c. 1580 – 1643) was the captain of the first English voyage to Japan, in 1613, on board the Clove.
Sir John Watts (died 1616) was an English merchant and shipowner, active in the East India Company and Virginia Company and Lord Mayor of London in 1606.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Joseph Marquis Dupleix (23 January 1697 – 10 November 1763) was Governor-General of French India and rival of Robert Clive.
Kanyakumari is a City in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Karaikal (kāraikkāl) is a major port city of east coast of India and a municipality in Karaikal district in the Union Territory of Puducherry, India.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kew is a suburban district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, north-east of Richmond and west by south-west of Charing Cross; its population at the 2011 Census was 11,436.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
A lascar was a sailor or militiaman from the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Arab world, and other territories located to the east of the Cape of Good Hope, who were employed on European ships from the 16th century until the middle of the 20th century.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Law Officers of the Commonwealth are the chief legal advisers to the Crown, and advise and represent the central and devolved governments in the United Kingdom and national and sub-national governments in other Commonwealth realms.
Leadenhall Street is a road in London that is about 0.3 miles (500 m) long and links Cornhill and Bishopsgate in the west to St.
A letter of marque and reprisal (lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture enemy vessels.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Lin Zexu (30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850), courtesy name Yuanfu, was a Chinese scholar-official of the Qing dynasty best known for his role in the First Opium War of 1839–42.
The East India Company controlled most of the subcontinent of India.
This is a list of trading companies.
The Lloyd's building (sometimes known as the Inside-Out Building) is the home of the insurance institution Lloyd's of London.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Macaulayism refers to the policy of ostensibly eliminating indigenous culture through the planned substitution of the alien culture of a colonizing power via the education system.
Machilipatnam, also known as Masulipatnam and Bandar, is a city in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The machinery of government (sometimes MoG) means the interconnected structures and processes of government, such as the functions and accountability of departments in the executive branch of government.
The Madras Army was the army of the Presidency of Madras, one of the three presidencies of British India within the British Empire.
The Madras High Court is the high court of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Madre de Deus (Mother of God; also called Mãe de Deus and Madre de Dios) was a Portuguese ship, renowned for her fabulous cargo, which stoked the English appetite for trade with the Far East, then a Portuguese monopoly.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
The Maratha (IAST:Marāṭhā; archaically transliterated as Marhatta or Mahratta) is a group of castes in India found predominantly in the state of Maharashtra.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
A merchant's mark is an emblem or device adopted by a merchant, and placed on goods or produce sold by him in order to keep track of them, or as a sign of authentication.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Midnapore city (Pron: med̪iːniːpur) is the district headquarters of Paschim Medinipur district of the Indian state of West Bengal.
A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Mughals (مغول; مغل; مغول, also spelled Moghul or Mogul) are a number of culturally related clans of the Indian subcontinent.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Sir Nathaniel Dance (20 June 1748 – 25 March 1827) was an officer of the Honourable East India Company who had a long and varied career on merchant vessels, making numerous voyages to India and back with the fleets of East Indiamen.
The French Republic currently uses two emblems.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Nei or Inner Lingding Island, formerly romanized as Lintin or is an island in the Pearl River estuary in the southeastern Chinese province of Guangdong.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
Niter, or nitre (chiefly British), is the mineral form of potassium nitrate, KNO3, also known as saltpeter or saltpetre.
Noil is the short fiber left over from combing wool or spinning silk and used as a decorative additive for many spinning projects, like rovings and yarns.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Ocean was an East Indiaman launched in 1788 that made four trips for the British Honourable East India Company between February 1789 and February 1797, when she was wrecked on the island of Kalatea in the East Indies.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
The Old Protestant Cemetery (Cemitério Protestante) is a cemetery in Santo António, Macau, China.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Oudh State (also Kingdom of Oudh, or Awadh State) was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until 1858.
P&O (formerly the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company) was a British shipping and logistics company dating from the early 19th century.
Packet boats were medium-sized boats designed for domestic mail, passenger, and freight transportation in European countries and their colonies, including North American rivers and canals.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Pazhou is a subdistrict of Haizhu in southeastern Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, in China.
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Sir Philip Francis (22 October 1740 – 23 December 1818) was an Irish-born British politician and pamphleteer, the supposed author of the Letters of Junius, and the chief antagonist of Warren Hastings.
Philpot Lane is a short street in London, running from Fenchurch Street to Eastcheap.
Pierre César Charles de Sercey (near Autin, 1753 - Paris, 1836) was a French admiral, most notable for commanding French naval forces in the Indian Ocean from 1796 to 1800.
Piper cubeba, cubeb or tailed pepper is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil.
The East India Company Act 1784, also known as Pitt's India Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to address the shortcomings of the Regulating Act of 1773 by bringing the East India Company's rule in India under the control of the British Government.
Political warfare in British colonial India aided a British minority in maintaining control over large parts of present-day India, Pakistan, and Burma.
The Port of London Authority (PLA) is a self-funding public trust established by the Port of London Act 1908 to govern the Port of London.
The State of India (Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India (Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India (Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
The Pratt-York opinion also known as the Camden-Yorke opinion was a 1757 official legal opinion issued jointly by Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, the Attorney General for England and Wales, and Charles Yorke, the Solicitor General for England and Wales (and former counsel to the East India Company), regarding the legality of land purchases by the British East India Company from the rulers of the Princely states in British India.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The presidency armies were the armies of the three presidencies of the East India Company's rule in India, later the forces of the British Crown in India, composed primarily of Indian sepoys.
The President of the Board of Control was a British government official in the late 18th and early 19th century responsible for overseeing the British East India Company and generally serving as the chief official in London responsible for Indian affairs.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776.
Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.
A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters primarily for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, and whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC).
Puducherry district, formerly Pondicherry district is one of the four districts of the union territory of Puducherry in southern India.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Rājputāna (Rajasthani/राजपूताना), (راجپُوتانہ), meaning “Land of the Rajputs”, was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan rajput are 10 percent in rajasthan mostly mp and mla of rajasthan are of rajput community after gurjar and meena it is the 3rd largest populated community in rajasthan arat and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan.
Ralph Fitch (c. 1550 – 1611) was a gentleman merchant of London and one of the earliest English travellers and traders to visit Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, India and Southeast Asia.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy (c. 1774 -- 27 September 1833) was a founder of the Brahma Sabha the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a socio-religious reform movement in India.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Scourge of Malice or Malice Scourge or Mare Scourge was a 38-gun ship ordered by George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland.
The Regulating Act 1773 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to overhaul the management of the East India Company's rule in India.
Richard Barwell (8 October 1741 – 2 September 1804) was an early trader with the East India Company and amassed one of the largest fortunes in early British India.
Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Irish and British politician and colonial administrator.
The right of conquest is the right of a conqueror to territory taken by force of arms.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, (29 September 1725 – 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
A rutter is a mariner's handbook of written sailing directions.
In heraldry, the Saint George's Cross, also called Cross of Saint George, is a red cross on a white background, which from the Late Middle Ages became associated with Saint George, the military saint, often depicted as a crusader.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
The Saint Helena Act 1833 or The Government of India Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will 4 c 85) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Saint Patrick's Saltire or Saint Patrick's Cross is a red saltire (X-shaped cross) on a white field, used to represent the island of Ireland or Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A saltire, also called Saint Andrew's Cross, is a heraldic symbol in the form of a diagonal cross, like the shape of the letter X in Roman type.
Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.
Sanjiv Mehta (born October 1961) is an India-born British businessman.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Scinde Dawk was a very old postal system of runners that served the Indus Valley of Sindh, an area of present-day Pakistan.
The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
In the United Kingdom, a secretary of state (SofS) is a Cabinet minister in charge of a government department (though not all departments are headed by a secretary of state, e.g. HM Treasury is headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer).
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Siddi Yaqut Khan, was a Mughal Admiral and coastal chieftain from Murud Janjira, he fought the British East India Company during the Child's War.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Sir John Banks, 1st Baronet FRS (1627 – 18 October 1699) was an English merchant and MP, who rose from relatively humble beginnings to be one of the wealthiest merchants in London and owner of several properties.
William Hawkins (fl. c. 1600) was a representative of the English East India Company notable for being the commander of Hector, the first company ship to anchor at Surat in India on 24 August 1608.
Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah (مرزا محمد سراج الدولہ, মির্জা মুহম্মদ সিরাজউদ্দৌলা; 1733 – 2 July 1757) more commonly known as Siraj ud-Daulah, was the last independent Nawab of Bengal.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate is a Church of England church in the City of London, and also, by virtue of lying outside the City's (now demolished) eastern walls, part of London's East End.
St James's Square is the only square in the exclusive St James's district of the City of Westminster.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
Striking the colors, meaning to lower the flag (the "colors") which signifies a ship's or garrison's allegiance, is a universally recognized indication of surrender, particularly for ships at sea.
Styrax benzoin is a species of tree native to Sumatra in Indonesia.
A subaltern is a primarily British military term for a junior officer.
In heraldry, supporters, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects usually placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up.
Supreme Council of Bengal was the highest executive authority under Company rule in India from 1774 till 1833 when Charter Act of 1833 established Council of India.
The Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William, Calcutta was founded by an Act of Parliament in 1774.
Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.
Suvali Beach (સુવાલી બીચ) was previously known as Swally (anglicised version of Suvali) or Swally Beach.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Tea Act 1773 (13 Geo 3 c 44) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Tharangambadi, formerly Tranquebar (Trankebar), is a town in the Nagapattinam district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu on the Coromandel Coast.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Sir Thomas Roe (c. 1581 – 6 November 1644) was an English diplomat of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
was the second shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1605 until his abdication in 1623.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
Torbay is a borough in Devon, England, administered by the unitary authority of Torbay Council.
The Townshend Acts were a series of British acts passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British American colonies in North America.
Contact between Western Europe and the Mughal empire was put into practice in the very beginning of the 17th century.
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on 12 August 1765, between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor Alamgir II, and Robert, Lord Clive, of the East India Company, as a result of the Battle of Buxar of 22 October 1764.
The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Sugauli (also spelled Sugowlee, Sagauli and Segqulee), the treaty that established the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 2December 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16.
The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The Commissioners for the Victualling of the Navy, often called the Victualling Commissioners or Victualling Board, was the body responsible under the Navy Board for victualling ships of the British Royal Navy.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.
Warley, launched in 1796, was one of the British East India Company's (EIC), larger and more famous East Indiamen.
Warren Hastings (6 December 1732 – 22 August 1818), an English statesman, was the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), the head of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and thereby the first de facto Governor-General of India from 1773 to 1785.
The West India Docks are a series of three docks on the Isle of Dogs in London, England the first of which opened in 1802.
William Adams (24 September 1564 – 16 May 1620), known in Japanese as Miura Anjin (三浦按針: "the pilot of Miura Rigianan Koru") was an English navigator who, in 1600, was the first of his nation to reach Japan during a five-ship expedition for the Dutch East India Company.
Sir William Courten or Curteen (1572–1636) was a wealthy 17th century merchant, operating from London.
William Dalrymple FRSL, FRGS, FRAS, FRSE (born William Hamilton-Dalrymple on 20 March 1965) is a Scottish historian and writer, art historian and curator, as well as a prominent broadcaster and critic.
William Henry Pyne (1769 in London – 29 May 1843 in London) was an English writer, illustrator and painter, who also wrote under the name of Ephraim Hardcastle.
Captain William Keeling (1577 – 19 September 1619), of the East India Company, was a British sea captain.
Yanaon or Yanam was a French colony between 1731 and 1954.
The first cholera pandemic (1817–24), also known as the first Asiatic cholera pandemic or Asiatic cholera, began near Calcutta and spread throughout Southeast Asia to the Middle East, eastern Africa and the Mediterranean coast.
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